DIRECTORY OF THE GENERAL CHURCH OF THE NEW JERUSALEM              1934


NEW CHURCH LIFE
VOL. LIV     JANUARY, 1934     NO. 1
     OFFICIALS AND COUNCILS.

     Bishop.
Right Rev. N. D. Pendleton

     Assistant Bishop.
Right Rev. George de Charms

     Secretary.
Rev. Hugo Lj. Odhner

     Treasurer.
Mr. Hubert Hyatt

     Consistory.

     Bishop N. D. Pendleton
Rev. Alfred Acton                    Rev. E. E. Iungerich
Rev. C. E. Doering, Secretary      Right Rev. George de Charms
Rev. Homer Synnestvedt           Rev. Hugo Lj. Odhner
Right Rev. R. J. Tilson                Rev. Theodore Pitcairn
Rev. F. E. Waelchli                    Rev. F. E. Gyllenhaal
Rev. Gilbert H. Smith

     Executive Committee.
Bishop N. D. Pendleton, President
Right Rev. George de Charms, Vice President.
Mr. Randolph W. Childs, Secretary.
Mr. Hubert Hyatt, Treasurer.

Mr. Edward C. Bostock.                 Mr. Seymour G. Nelson
Mr. C. Raynor Brown.                    Mr. Harold F. Pitcairn
Mr. Geoffrey S. Childs.               Mr. Raymond Pitcairn
Mr. Alexander P. Lindsay           Mr. Colley Pryke
Mr. Samuel S. Lindsay                Mr. J. Henry Ridgway
Mr. Nils E. Loven                    Mr. Rudolph Roschman
Mr. Charles G. Merrell                    Mr Paul Synnestvedt
Mr. Victor Tilson

     Honorary Member
Mr. Jacob Schoenberger
CLERGY. 1934

CLERGY.              1934

     Bishops.

     PENDLETON, NATHANIEL DANDRIDGE. Ordained, June 16, 1889; 2d Degree, March 2, 1891; 3d Degree, October 27, 1912. Bishop of the General Church. Pastor of the Bryn Athyn Church. President of the Academy of the New Church, Bryn Athyn, Pa.

     DE CHARMS, GEORGE. Ordained, June 28, 1914; 2d Degree, June 19, 1916; 3d Degree, March 11, 1928. Assistant Bishop of the General Church. Assistant Pastor of the Bryn Athyn Church. Vice President, Academy of the New Church, Bryn Athyn, Pa.

     TILSON, ROBERT JAMES. Ordained, August 23d, 1882; 2d Degree, June 19, 1892; 3d Degree, August 5, 1928. Pastor of Michael Church, Burton Road, Brixton, London, England. Address: 7 Templar Street, Camberwell, S. E. 5, London, England.

     Pastors.

     ACTON, ALFRED. Ordained, June 4, 1893; 2d Degree, January 10, 1897. Pastor of the Society in Washington, D. C. Dean of the Theological School, Academy of the New Church, Bryn Athyn, Pa.

     ACTON, A. WYNNE. Ordained, June 19, 1932; 2d Degree, March 25, 1934. Assistant to the Pastor of Michael Church, London. Address: 113 Knatchbull Road, Camberwell, S. E. 5, London, England.

     ACTON, ELMO CARMAN. Ordained, June 14, 1925; 2d Degree, August 5, 1928. Pastor of the Durban Society. Address: 125 Musgrave Road, Durban, Natal, South Africa.

     ALDEN, KARL RICHARDSON. Ordained, June 19, 1917; 2d Degree, October 12, 1919. Principal of the Boys' Academy and Housemaster of Stuart Hall, Academy of the New Church, Bryn Athyn, Pa.

     BAECKSTROM, GUSTAF. Ordained, June 6, 1915; 2d Degree, June 27, 1920. Pastor of the Society in Stockholm, Sweden. Address: Svedjevlgen 20, Appelviken, Stockholm.

     BJORCK, ALBERT. Ordained, 1st and 2d Degrees, August 17, 1890. Address: Calle, 14 Abril, 8, El Terreno, Palma de Mallorca, Spain.

     BOEF, HENDRIK WILLEM. Ordained, June 17, 1928; 2d Degree, September 8, 1929. Pastor of Gabriel Church, Los Angeles, California. Address: 807 North Edinburgh Avenue, Los Angeles, California.

     BROWN, REGINALD WILLIAM. Ordained, October 21, 1900; 2d Degree, October 12, 1919. Professor and Librarian, Academy of,the New Church, Bryn Athyn, Pa.

     CALDWELL, WILLIAM BEEBE. Ordained, October 19, 1902; 2d Degree, October 23, 1904. Editor of New Church Life. Professor of Theology, Academy of the New Church. Address: Bryn Athyn, Pa.

     CRONLUND, EMIL ROBERT. Ordained, December 31, 1899; 2d Degree, May 18, 1902. Address: Bryn Athyn, Pa.

     DAVID, LLEWELLYN WARREN TOWNE. Ordained, June 28, 1914; 2d Degree, June 19, 1916. Address: Bryn Athyn, Pa.

     DOERING, CHARLES EMIL. Ordained, June 7, 1896; 2d Degree, January 29, 1899. Dean of Faculties, Academy of the New Church, Bryn Athyn, Pa.

     ELPHICK, FREDERICK WILLIAM. Ordained, February 7, 1926; 2d Degree, June 19, 1926. Superintendent of the South African Mission. Pastor of the Alpha Circle. Address: P. O. Box 78, Ladybrand, Orange Free State, South Africa.

     GILL, ALAN. Ordained, June 14, 1925; 2d Degree, June 19, 1926. Pastor of Carmel Church, Kitchener, Ontario. Address: 20 Willow Street, Kitchener, Ontario, Canada.

     GLADISH, VICTOR JEREMIAH. Ordained, June 17, 1928; 2d Degree, August 5, 1928. Pastor of the Colchester Society. Address: 67 Lexden Road, Colchester, England.

     GLADISH, WILLIS LENDSAY. Ordained, 1st and 2d Degrees, June 3, 1894. Pastor of Sharon Church, Chicago, Illinois. Address: 5220 Wayne Ave., Chicago, Illinois.

     GYLLENHAAL, FREDERICK EDMUND. Ordained, June 23, 1907; 2d Degree, June 19, 1910. Pastor of Olivet Church, Toronto, Ontario. Address: 2 Elm Grove Ave., Toronto 3, Ontario, Canada.

     HARRIS, THOMAS STARK. Ordained, 1st and 2d Degrees, April 8, 1897. Visiting Pastor of the Abington, Mass., and Meriden, Conn., Circles. Address: 205 Clifton St., Westfield, New Jersey.

     HEINRICHS, HENRY. Ordained, June 24, 1923; 2d Degree, February 8, 1925, Pastor of the Society in Denver, Colorado. Address: 543 Delaware St., Denver, Colorado.

     IUNGERICH, ELDRED EDWARD. Ordained, June 13, 1909; 2d Degree, May 26, 1912. Address: 203 Fayette Street, Johnstown, Pa.

     LEONARDOS, HENRY. Ordained, 1st and 2d Degrees, August 5, 1928. Pastor of the Rio de Janeiro Society. Address: Rua da Quitanda 126-2 degrees Andar, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

     LIMA, JOAO DE MENDONCA. Ordained, 1st and 2d Degrees, August 5, 1928. Pastor of the Rio de Janeiro Society. Address: Rua da Quitanda 126-2 degrees Andar, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

     MORSE, RICHARD. Ordained, 1st and 2d Degrees, October 12, 1919. Pastor of the Sydney Society. Address: Dudley Street, Hurstville, Sydney, N. S. W., Australia.

     ODHNER, HUGO LJUNGBERG. Ordained, June 23, 1914; 2d Degree, June 24, 1917. Secretary of the General Church. Assistant Pastor of the Bryn Athyn Church. Professor, Academy of the New Church, Bryn Athyn, Pa.

     ODHNER, PHILIP NATHANIEL. Ordained, June 19, 1932; 2d Degree, June 17, 1934. Visiting Pastor, Advent Church, West Philadelphia, Pa., and Circles in Camden and Newark, N. J. Instructor, Academy of the New Church. Address: Bryn Athyn, Pa.

     PENDLETON, WILLARD DANDRIDGE. Ordained, June 18, 1933; 2d Degree, September 12, 1934. Pastor of the Pittsburgh Society. Address: 299 Le Roi Road, Pittsburgh, Pa.

     PFEIFFER, ERNST. Ordained, June 20, 1920; Zd Degree, May 1, 1921. Pastor of the Society at The Hague, Holland. Address: Nassauplein 29, The Hague, Holland.

     PITCAIRN, THEODORE. Ordained, June 19, 1917; 2d Degree, October 12, 1919. Assistant Pastor of the Bryn Athyn Church. Instructor, Academy of the New Church. Address: Bryn Athyn, Pa.

     REUTER, NORMAN HAROLD. Ordained, June 17, 1928; 2d Degree, June 15, 1930. Pastor of the Wyoming Circle. Address: 67 Reilly Road, Wyoming, Ohio.

     ROSENQVIST, JOSEPH ELIAS. Ordained, June 19, 1891; 2d Degree, June 23, 1895. Address: Skanstorget 7, Gothenburg, Sweden.

     SMITH, GILBERT HAVEN. Ordained, June 25, 1911; 2d Degree, June 19, 1913. Pastor of the Immanuel Church, Glenview, Illinois.

     STARKEY, GEORGE GODDARD. Ordained, June 3, 1894; 2d Degree, October 19, 1902. Address: Glenview, Illinois.

     SYNNESTVEDT, HOMER. Ordained, June 19, 1891; 2d Degree, January 13, 1895. Visiting Pastor, Advent Church, North Philadelphia, Pa. Professor, Academy of the New Church. Address: Bryn Athyn, Pa.

     WAELCHLI, FRED EDWIN. Ordained, June 10, 1888; 2d Degree, June 19, 1891 Visiting Pastor, General Church. Address: Bryn Athyn, Pa.

     WHITEHEAD, WILLIAM. Ordained, June 19, 1922; 2d Degree, June 19, 1926. Professor, Academy of the New Church. Secretary, Council of the Clergy. Address: Bryn Athyn, Pa.

     Ministers.

     CRANCH, RAYMOND GREENLEAF. Ordained, June 19, 1922. Address: Bryn Athyn, Pa.

     HENDERSON, WILLIAM CAIRNS. Ordained, June 10, 1934. Address: 6 Templar Street, Camberwell, S. E. 5, London, England.

     ODHNER, VINCENT CARMOND. Ordained, June 17, 1928. Address: Bryn Athyn, Pa.

     SANDSTROM, ERIK. Ordained, June 10, 1934. Address: Eliegatan 48, Sundbyberg, Sweden.

     SOUTH AFRICAN MISSION.

     Basuto.

     MAQELEPO, BERRY. Ordained, September 29, 1929; 2d Degree, September 30, 1929. Pastor at Greylingstad, Transvaal. Address: P. O. Box 13, Greylingstad, Transvaal.

     MOTSI, JONAS. Ordained, September 29, 1929; 2d Degree, September 30, 1929. Pastor of the Alpha Mission. Address: P. O. Box 78, Ladybrand, O. F. S., South Africa.

     MOFOKENG, TWENTYMAN. Ordained, September 29, 1929; 2d Degree, October 6, 1929. Assistant Pastor of the Alpha Mission; Pastor at Luka's Village. Address: P. O. Box 78, Ladybrand, O. F. S., South Africa.

     MPHATSE, JONAS. Ordained, September 29, 1929. Leader at Luka's Village, Basutoland. Address: P. O. Upper Qeme, Maseru, Basutoland.

     MPHATSE, NATHANIEL. Ordained, September 29, 1929. Minister at Mafika-Lisiu, Basutoland. Address: P. O. Thaba Bosigo, Maseru, Basutoland.

     MOSOANG, SOFONIA. Ordained, October 6, 1929. Minister at Khopane, Basutoland. Address: P. O. Majara, via Maseru, Basutoland.

     Zulu.

     JIYANA, JOHN MOSES. Ordained, September 29, 1929; 2d Degree, September 30, 1929. Pastor at Lusitania and Esididini. Address: Lusitania School P. O., Cundycleugh, via Besters Rail, Natal, South Africa.

     JIYANA, JULIUS S. M. Ordained, September 29, 1929. Minister to the Tongaat Society. Address: Tongaat P. O., Natal, South Africa.

     MCANYANA, MOFBAT. Ordained, August 12, 1928; 2d Degree, September 30, 1929. Address: 19 Turner's Avenue, Durban, Natal, South Africa.

     NGIBA, BENJAMIN THOMAS. Ordained, October 6, 1929. Address: 33 Oakleigh Drive, off Ridge Road, Durban, Natal, South Africa.

     STOLE, PHILIP JOHANNES. Ordained, September 29, 1929. Minister to the Turner's Avenue Society. Address: 19 Turner's Avenue, off Berea Road, Durban, Natal, South Africa.
FRIENDSHIP 1934

FRIENDSHIP       Rev. GILBERT H. SMITH       1934

     In the Word, the term "friend" signifies a spiritual man. The Lord said to His disciples, " Henceforth I call you not servants; for the servant knoweth not what his lord doeth; but I have called you friends; for all things that I have heard of my Father I have made known unto you." (John 15:15.) The natural man is a "servant," because he is ignorant of the interior truth of the Word: but the disciples were called "friends,"-loved ones, or free ones,-because they represented the spiritual men of the church, to whom the interior truths of faith have been made known, and whereby they have become spiritual men, being set free from the servitude of the natural man. "Ye shall know the truth, and the truth shall make you free." The friendship that exists among spiritual men, therefore, is spiritual friendship. It is derived from a common love of the Lord's truth. This the Lord loves in the church, and for this reason He called His disciples "loved ones" or "friends."

     Friendship, in the natural sense of the term, is a love between persons, and is concerned only with the person of another.

     Friendship is not charity, although it may flow from charity; and no one has genuine friendship for another unless he has charity. Neither is friendship the same thing as mutual love; for it is said in our Doctrine that mutual love is that which regards the spiritual quality in others, and does good to them because of their spiritual quality. There is indeed a friendship of mutual love; but friendship may exist without mutual love, without any regard for the truth of the church, or any concern for the good of society, of the country, of the social group. Mutual love looks to the common good. Friendship does not always do so.

     We are told in our Doctrine that friendship and social intercourse which is not based upon use is a form of self-indulgence. When it is for the sake of our own entertainment, or because of the agreeableness of others to us, it is something that springs from self and looks to self. The pleasure of association with others is not to be sought as a purpose which is sufficient in itself, or for the mere pleasure of friendly relations with others.

     Injury is done the spiritual man if only the agreeableness of personality is regarded, and not the good that is in those with whom we associate, or the use that may be performed by our association with them. (A. C. 4804.) A spiritual man knows that he is transgressing if he does good to another merely because he is a friend, and does not care or concern himself about the character of the person to whom he does good or extends favors. This is said to be natural, and not spiritual. (A. C. 4992.)

     There is what is called the "mercy of friendship," such as that which exists between evil-doers. It is a form of natural sympathy for the ills of others who are regarded as our friends. But if, in helping to relieve the difficulties of others, the motive is one of mere friendship, and the imagination is such that we feel pity for them from a fellow-feeling only, then there is not real mercy, but there is even unmercifulness in it. This is compared to the honor and friendship that exists among robbers. (A. C. 5132.) Interiorly within such friendship there is hatred.

     When a man enters the spiritual world it is more than ever true that he is "known by the company he keeps." He is known by those who are like him; and especially do good spirits and angels know him by those with whom he then associates as friends.

     It is not friendship to love another merely because he does good to you, and is favorable to you, unless you love him on account of the good that is in him. For so one conjoins himself to the person of another, and thereby conjoins himself to the evils in the other. And we are told that after death two persons so united, merely upon personal grounds, if they are not interiorly alike, can with great difficulty be separated from each other.

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Such is the danger of making a strong attachment for the personality of another who is interiorly in evil, but who has been made a friend.

     In the work on Conjugial Love we read much about friendships of various kinds and degrees. It is said that inmost friendship is that which flows from conjugial love, which is called the "friendship of friendships." (C. L. 162.) This is so because it is derived from the real conjunction of the minds with the two. We are also told that this kind differs from every other form of friendship. If it is conjoined with real conjugial love, it lasts; otherwise it dies away. If it is conjoined with conjugial love, it also preserves and protects that love. This is also called the "friendship of conjugial love."

     Between two others who are not partners there is also a kind which is called the "friendship of love." And it is with regard to this that we are warned to exercise discrimination. The friendship of love is detrimental after death if there is no regard for the spiritual quality of the one who is taken into such intimacy.

     In contrast with this, however, there is a kind of friendship which is purely external, which is good, and which does harm to no one. It is the friendliness of association with people of any character for the sake of certain uses together. Such is business association in general, and taking part in many civic undertakings. We may enter into friendships with anyone, so long as we do not allow it to become interior friendship. (T. C. R. 449.) Interior friendship goes more deeply than that which is sufficient to enable us to work with others for various social and business uses.

     In the other world, the separation of two who have entered into this deeper friendship, but who are not both interiorly good, is difficult. It is like separating two branches of the same tree that have more or less grown together. Good cannot then be inspired from a good man into the evil one; but evil can be inspired by the evil man into the good one. And only with difficulty can this be broken up. Therefore we read that we should beware of entering into interior friendship or the friendship of love with anyone without concern about his interior or spiritual quality. (T. C. R. 448, 449.)

     This does not mean that we are to perform an inquisition into the character of another, seeing that one cannot know certainly what is the interior nature of another.

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All that is necessary is that one should not form interior friendships indiscriminately, but should at least regard what he thinks to be the nature of another, as to whether there is a spiritual quality in him or not. In this we can be guided only by certain indications. In most cases we can form a fair judgment as to whether one whom we wish to make our friend is interested in spiritual things or not; and while this judgment may not be correct, yet we should exercise it. Sometimes we can tell pretty accurately that a person is a good person, possessing certain good qualities, although he may not be deeply concerned about spiritual matters, except of the most simple sort.

     A man should live in the world among many kinds of people, and live in friendship with them all externally; but he should not permit himself to enter interior friendship without a real concern for the spiritual qualities in another. For, as we said in the beginning, the only true friend is the spiritual man. Friendship is altogether according to the nature of the love of a man,-the things he loves. Only with those who have something of spiritual love can there be true friendship.
LOOKING TO THE LORD 1934

LOOKING TO THE LORD              1934

     They who acknowledge the Father only, and pass by the Lord, are determined to the loves of the body and of the world.

     In the other life, all whatsoever are determined to their loves, thus either to the loves of heaven or to the loves of hell. Those who acknowledge the Father only, and not the Lord, inasmuch as they cannot think about the Father under any form, cannot be determined by the Lord to Himself. Hence there is with them a looking around on every side, which is contrary to order. Wherefore, they cannot be otherwise than turned to the loves of the body and the world. In the life of the body they had also been so turned, and therefore they have not any religion in their spirit. . . . They who have lived well are turned little by little to the Lord as a sun or as a moon, but they who have lived evilly are rejected. All determinations to loves are determinations to the face. (Spiritual Diary 5941 1/2.)

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BLESSING OF ESAU 1934

BLESSING OF ESAU       Rev. GUSTAF BAECKSTROM       1934

     "When Esau heard the words of his father, he cried with a great and exceeding bitter cry, and said unto his father, Bless me, me also, O my father! . . . And Esau said unto his father, Hast thou but one blessing, my father? Bless me, me also, O my father! And Esau lifted up his voice, and wept." (Genesis 27:34, 38.)

     In the morning of the ages, God made man "of the dust of the ground, and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life; and man became a living soul." Taken out of the ground, the whole of man's earthly nature looked to the ground. But, born for heaven, his spirit looked up towards the light, even to God. Then began the first conflict in man's mind,-the conflict between spirit and matter, the struggle between the world and heaven in him, which became a wrestling between man and God, a combat that has continued throughout the ages of the past, is still going on, and will continue forever; a conflict that is waged in every individual, until he passes into the eternal world.

     For we know that when God created beings of the dust of the ground, with earthly minds and earthly sensations, He made men like angels, with heavenly minds, open towards heaven. Could this be done without any conflict between the earthly and the heavenly things in man? Could man turn himself away from the world to heaven without a struggle? Is it likely that all did so, or that all did so in the same degree? It would seem that there must have been some resistance in the mind, at least with some, and if resistance, conflict, and if conflict, suffering. Can we say that even in those happy days, when mankind still was young, there was no struggle,-a struggle between spirit and matter,-a struggle at first perhaps like the struggle of a child in its early years, a suffering like that of a child's distress? The way to victory is through combat.

     Now the children of men are born in pain.

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In pain man's soul is born for heaven,-the immortal soul, whose thoughts are lifted up on high, free from the dust of the ground; the soul, which in eternal happiness finds God, and thus reaches the high destiny for which it has come into existence.

     The little child that goes to the other world without having eaten here of the fruit of the tree of knowledge, and is then taken up to heaven, is not thereby delivered from every struggle against its own earthly nature, is not delivered from every suffering, though its sufferings may seem small to us, and doubtless are. And the soul which has been purified here by trials and temptations must needs be still more purified in the other life, yea, even in heaven. No wonder, then, because of our earthly origin and the attraction to the ground, we all feel, more or less, that we must suffer in the conflict between spirit and matter,-the struggle between heaven and earth in us.

     When the voice of the serpent whispered that God did not mean that man really needed to obey Him, and man was allured by the promise that he would become as God, this struggle became acute. The understanding, led astray by the appearances of the senses, dragged the will itself down in the dust, because will and understanding then acted as one. What man saw, he saw with pleasure.

     Still God flowed in with His love into man's soul, and through the voice of conscience man heard the voice of God calling unto him, and saying, "Where art thou?" God makes an effort to stop him, tries to hold him back, to draw man to Himself.

     And so there are now two different natures in man's mind: one that is good, and one that is evil. There is now a heaven and a hell; the opposition is intensified; the combat becomes bitter, the suffering greater, the pain deeper. Two voices now speak in the same mind,-two voices that speak a very different language. Two flames burn in the same breast, two flames of offering. One of them rises above the earth, and unto it the Lord has respect; but the other falls to the ground. It is a remnant of charity which, with Abel's offering, seeks its way towards heaven. It is the flame of the allured understanding which, in Cain's offering, burns with the fire of self-conceit; and the sphere of that offering cannot rise from the ground. There is a bitter conflict in man's mind between heaven and hell. He fights. He suffers. It is now as the Lord said it would be: "I will greatly multiply thy sorrow and thy conception."

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     But the countenance of Cain fell. Man took no heed of the Lord's words, "Why is thy countenance fallen? "And it came to pass that, when they were in the field, Cain rose up against Abel his brother, and slew him. In other words, there was no longer any charity. Abel, the keeper of sheep, was dead. Cain only was left. Faith alone, faith without charity, remained in the minds of men. There was no peace any more on the earth. And the sufferings of men increased. And Cain went out from the presence of the Lord, a fugitive and a vagabond in the earth. For when faith has no sure footing, there is no peace. When the self-centered mind turns itself away from God, there is no happiness any more. Brother fights against brother. That is the scourge which man, in his blind madness, brought upon himself. It is the curse upon the world since those days, when faith and love were separated in man's mind, and faith wanted to rule alone there as the light of a severe winter's day.

     And where are we now? To most men in our day the natural life seems to be everything. The value of this life seems to them to be in this life itself. Therefore they want to enjoy this life, and take from it all that can be taken.

     A recent writer on theology has said: "The hard wind of necessity breathes upon us. To those now living is it not a reality more refractory, more puzzling, more frightening, than it has been perhaps to any previous generation? The pulse of the time beats more restlessly than ever. The nervous system of mankind seems to be strained even to the breaking-point. Why this incessant internal uncertainty and restlessness? There are secret currents beneath the vital courage of modern man. His interior world is confused, chaotic, and non-creative. 'Let there be light' enlightens it. What is the puzzling, tragic lot that is brooding over our interior world? Clearly and simply the state of our soul can be expressed in one single word: agony. Agony for whom? for what? Answer: for the emptiness inmostly in the soul."

     It is the old story of the two brothers in the human mind, the story of Jacob and Esau, the story of faith and love. Love should be the first one. Love should lead, and faith should serve. But before man is regenerated, faith does not want to serve, but to rule; and then man wants to be among the first in the kingdom of heaven. And therefore the Lord says: "Ye know that the princes of the Gentiles exercise dominion over them, and they that are great exercise authority upon them.

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But it shall not be so among you: but whosoever will be great among you, let him be your minister; and whosoever will be chief among you, let him be your servant." (Matthew 20:25-27.)

     The inmost cause of all our troubles, all our sufferings, is that Jacob has deceived Esau; the younger brother has cheated the elder one. The faith which is not joined with love deceives us. It persuades us to foolishness. It makes us desire to be blessed before others, as the two disciples asked of the Lord that they might be favored above others in His kingdom, as Jacob did towards his brother Esau. From this it is that the whole of mankind is now suffering; and no world-conferences of any kind can make any permanent change for the better. Not until Jacob in the minds of men has learned his bitter lesson, and humbly bows himself to the ground seven times before his brother, who runs to meet him, and embraces him, and falls on his neck and kisses him, and they weep.

     They weep. In pain these two are united which human foolishness has separated. And how much intervenes between this separation and the final reunion! How much suffering that could have been spared us, how much bitter grief! It is our own foolishness that we see pictured here-our own foolishness and suffering. Yet, however foolish, however deceitful, this our faith is, when still separated from love, the Lord yet has mercy upon us, and gives it His blessing, even as He set a mark upon Cain, lest any finding him should kill him; as Jacob, also, was not deprived of the blessing which he had obtained.

     Faith, even such as it is now, will yet become the means of salvation, in the Lord's hands. It shows the way to God. It sees heaven, even as Jacob saw "a ladder set up on the earth, and the top of it reached to heaven; and, behold, the angels of God ascending and descending upon it; and, behold, the Lord above it." So we also behold heaven, behold its beautiful promise of blessedness, peace and eternal happiness, but behold it only as in a dream.

     At the same time we also feel a bitter reality. We behold heaven, but we are not there. Our will is not yet what the will of an angel of heaven is. We know that faith alone is not enough; we understand that it has deceived us, and that we cannot now hope for the full blessing of our Heavenly Father, which we had waited to receive, -the glorious lot in eternity that we had expected, believing that we were the children of God.

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     We find that it was only our thought that was lifted up, only faith that had been blessed, but that our heart was not with it, that our love, which is our life, seems not to have any part in the blessing of our Father. Then despair comes upon us,-despair of being saved. Just because our understanding has been lifted up to the light of heaven; just because we have beheld heaven as a vision, and it has seemed to us to be so wonderfully beautiful, so worth striving for; therefore we feel such a bitter pain when we find that our will is left behind, because what is of the earth within us is dragging it down in the dust. Then the blessing which our enlightened understanding has seen, and which we believed to be ours, is changed, in this hour of bitter disappointment, into a threatening curse. For the Lord said: "If ye were blind, ye should have no sin; but now ye say, We see; therefore your sin remaineth." (John 9:41.) We are afraid of being lost. And this thought is bitter indeed.

     There is, within us all, a strange interior disharmony, a painful realization of the difference between our ideals and the reality, the difference between what we are and what we feel we ought to be. We are all conscious of omissions, of wasted possibilities; and this we feel as the pangs of conscience. And the more earnestly we strive to carry out our ideals, the more deeply we feel our debt. Perhaps it is in the best moments of our life that we most deeply feel this agony, because of the void between the ideal which we recognize and our life such as we actually live it.

     A clear light now falls upon human character,-a light given us from heaven. When the morning light enters our room, we see the dust and the spots. So is our own world now revealed to us,- revealed without mercy, we may be inclined to say; and yet it is from mercy. Light upon all corners of the world of our own mind means that all omissions, all faults and sins, are revealed,-things not seen before, nor even dreamed of. Now we see all this in the light of heaven, and therefore as it really is. And then there is in our minds something of the despair that is described when it is said of Esau that "he cried with a great and exceeding bitter cry, and said unto his father: Bless me, me also, O my father!"

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And Esau said unto his father: "Hast thou but one blessing, my father?" That is: Canst thou not lift up my will also to heaven? "Bless me, me also, O my father!" That is: Give me, not only a knowledge of the truth, not only an enlightened understanding, not only faith-but give me also love!" And Esau lifted up his voice and wept."

     How hard it is to see, but not to will; to know, but not to be able to do! We cannot by reading come to heaven. We must learn to live the life of heaven. Then the Revelation from God comes to help us, to comfort us. If our heart condemns us, the Word of God teaches us that God is greater than our hearts. As great as our sins may be, as great as our faults and omissions are, yet love is still greater.

     We have realized that we are not in heaven just because we have seen heaven. We realize that the happiness of heaven is not a reality to us merely by our receiving the promise that it will be given to him who overcomes. We must also overcome-not from our own power, but from the power of the Lord. We have a long way to go, therefore, as Jacob had a long journey before him when he had received his father's blessing. We have much work to do. Like Jacob, we must work for many years in a foreign land, before we can return to our heavenly fatherland, to remain there forever. We have a long fight before us,-a wrestling, as it were, with God.

     When, therefore, in an early stage of development, our heart is opened to receive the Lord's blessings, and to bring our offerings to Him, there are yet many hindrances in the way, and much that must be overcome. It is said that "Esau made a savory meat, and brought it unto his father, and said unto his father: Let my father arise and eat, that thy soul may bless me!" So we also pray for the Lord's blessing, pray for heaven.

     But we cannot instantly receive heaven. The gates of heaven are not opened wide at the first kiss of love. The heart that is first warmed by love is still in many things a selfish heart. It desires the happiness of heaven, but at the same time it does not want to give up much that stands in the way. Who can sail into the blessed harbor of peace with a load of life's torments on board? The conflict in the mind must cease.

     The heart, warmed by the lovely sweetness of the first love, filled with its young enthusiasm, trembles at the picture of reality which the man beholds when he sees himself as he really is, when he sees that he does not really will what is good for the sake of goodness, but that the truth must first be the one that commands, that duty must first bid, that faith must first lead, the younger brother be the master of the elder one, and this for some time.

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He trembles as Isaac trembled when he found that he had blessed his younger son instead of the elder one. And he prays to the Lord that He will help him, not only to know what is right, but also to do it, to cleanse the heart's desires, to lift the heart to the heaven which the eyes of the understanding have seen-as Esau cried with a great and exceeding bitter cry, and said unto his father: "Bless me, me also, O my father!"

     And Isaac also blessed his son Esau, his firstborn, and gave him the promise that it should come to Pass that he should have the dominion, and should break the yoke of the younger one from off his neck. And we can easily imagine how this blessing was accompanied by the meal of charity customary at that time, for which Esau had prepared the meat.

     What is involved in this meal of charity is also involved in that communion which is called the Holy Supper. In this, faith and love are conjoined in an especial way, and man is conjoined to the Lord and to heaven. Love to the Lord, or the love of good for its own sake, and love to our neighbor,-that is, what we need most of all, this we receive in the Holy Supper. We can receive that love whenever we go to the Lord. But it is given, and can be received more fully and with greater power, in the Holy Supper, when the Lord gives us His blessings, as Esau and Jacob were blessed.

     Therefore we may pray to the Lord that He will open our minds for Him, and help us to come to Him without any deceit in our hearts, without any hidden thought of our own merit and gain, but rather with thoughts of our unworthiness, our sins and debts, and our great need of forgiveness and mercy.

     And may we come with the earnest intention to try, with the Lord's help, and from His power, to change something in our life which is not good, and pray to Him that He may purify the motives of our hearts, in order that the external good which we do in the performance of our duties among men may not be something that is only assumed or compelled, but rather something that comes forth from interior realities that live within us; that it may not be said of us as Isaac once said: "The voice is Jacob's voice, but the hands are the hands of Esau."

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Amen.

LESSONS: Genesis 27:1-29. Genesis 27:30-40. N. J. H. D. 108-114.
MUSIC: Liturgy, pages 501, 521, 529, 603.
PRAYERS: Liturgy, nos. 87, 88.
ADMISSION TO HEAVEN 1934

ADMISSION TO HEAVEN       Rev. F. E. GYLLENHAAL       1934

     "Blessed be ye poor, for yours is the Kingdom of God." (Luke 6:20.)

     In the Christian Church of the eighteenth century, there were various opinions concerning reception into heaven. The Writings record some of them as examples of the peculiar ideas then current, and of the fallacious and often false doctrines formulated from the literal statements of the Old and New Testaments. In that age, the Church was able to impose its false doctrines upon the people, the vast majority of whom were illiterate. The Church created common opinion relating to religious and supernatural matters, concerning which the clergy was supposed to have sole and unlimited knowledge. Prominent among the opinions then current were those about heaven and entrance into it; and the acceptance of the doctrines then taught by the clergy on this subject gave them great power over the people, and increased the wealth of the Church.

     It was commonly believed that only the poor, orphans, widows, the miserable, the victims of religious persecution, the elect, the members of the church, those for whom the Lord interceded, and those who received the immediate mercy of the Lord, irrespective of the quality of their life, would be received into heaven. It was thought, also, that heaven would finally be filled, and would then be closed; that the time was predetermined, and that the fortunate entrants were elected and predestined.

     A summary statement like the foregoing exposes the absurdity of such opinions, and it seems incredible that they were ever seriously entertained.

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Yet a reflection upon the several notions, and their seeming confirmation by Sacred Scripture, will show the strength of their appeal to the irrational, religiously sentimental mind. Some of those opinions are still held; others have been generally discarded, but have been replaced by equally fallacious ones. For there is still much speculation about heaven and the qualifications for entering it.

     But the Church now has powerful competitors in forming common opinion, even in regard to spiritual matters. The spread of education, and the flood of books and periodicals, do more to make public and private opinion than any other agencies, except with the few who are independent thinkers. And the Church has also been discredited by the assaults of the higher criticism upon the Bible, and of science upon doctrines formulated from the Bible. As a result, people are seeking by personal experience, which may take the form of attempted communications with the dead, to learn the nature of heaven, or of the life after death, and the qualifications that will assure them of the kind of life which they desire to enjoy eternally.

     Science also is seeking a knowledge of life and of the soul, but is pursuing the maze of paths which return continually to known points, because these are confined to the same general plane of the natural universe. Science, therefore, will never discover what it seeks, although what it does discover will be of great value to all who, from Divine Revelation or the Word of God, receive the gift of knowledge about that which is spiritual and Divine. The findings of science confirm the philosophy of science, but when rightly ordered they also confirm the doctrines concerning the spiritual world and its relation to the natural universe,-doctrines derivable only from the internal sense of the Word of God. The only authority which many people will recognize today is that of their own experience. A vast and increasing number bow down to modern science and its ultra-dogmatic preachers. A small and rapidly diminishing number acknowledge Divine Revelation and its supreme authority in all Divine and spiritual matters, and the need of its light in all things of the world.

     We of the New Church are numbered among the few who bow down only to the authority of the Divine Word. In our eyes, the integrity of this Word is maintained inviolate by its internal sense in the light of which its literal meaning is always to be viewed and interpreted.

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All the assaults of the higher criticism, and of all other forms of criticism, fail to shake our faith in its doctrine, because we believe this doctrine to be drawn only from the internal sense, as now revealed by the Lord. Accordingly, the common opinions which the Word creates for us, and among us, are recognized as subject to periodical restatement, for the purpose of making them correspond more exactly with the internal sense, which shines with greater brilliance and definiteness as men and women advance by regeneration to the higher levels of thought and perception. Former opinions interest us chiefly because they are a means of comparison, helping us to make rational judgments, and showing the pitfalls which surrounded our predecessors, and which also lie in our own paths. And while we go forward confidently under the standard of Divine Authority, we neither reject nor despise experience and science.

     The Word is a Divine record of experience. It reveals the experiences of men who were the peculiar servants of God, chosen to undergo certain states and to receive certain knowledges, in order that by such means the Divine wisdom might be made available for all men. And the experiences of those special servants of God all relate to the other world and its life, and show us the way to eternal life in the kingdom of heaven.

     The Word is also a book of science; for it reveals the principles of creation and life which alone have power to arrange in order the knowledges of the natural universe,-knowledges which men acquire by their own efforts. But a knowledge of the spiritual world, of its nature, and of the life of its inhabitants, is derivable only from the Word, and never by the science of the world, because that spiritual world is separated from this world by a discrete degree, which can be bridged only from that higher world by a Divine Revelation.

     The Lord Himself came into the world to teach men about heaven and reception into heaven, though He spoke mainly in parable. He taught, for example, that heaven is for the "poor," that it is for those who are "born again," for those who "become as little children," and for all who do one or another of many acts that will prepare them for eternal life in heaven. By His teaching so many ways of preparing for heaven He meant that men are prepared by a life according to His Word, the infinite truths of which are accommodated to every form of mind and disposition of heart, and make straight a way into the kingdom of God in everyone who lives according to that which peculiarly appeals to him and most exactly meets his state.

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     But the variety of His teaching gave to those who lacked understanding of its spiritual meaning the idea that only those who literally complied with His words would be received into heaven. Thus arose the common opinions which many accepted as the truth and tried to practice. Many deliberately made themselves poor, thinking thereby to enter heaven. Foolish as such action was, even they were judged after death by their intentions and sincerity, and not according to the mistaken course which they had pursued. But such experiences are to us evidences of an irrational mind, and point to the necessity of a right understanding of the Lord's words, before they can be applied to life for the benefit of the whole human race.

     The Lord addressed the twelve disciples, when He said, "Blessed be ye poor, for yours is the kingdom of God." The disciples represented all classes of men who would constitute the church. The Ten Blessings signify ten successive states of the church, thus ten successive states open to every regenerating man. The first of these states is that of spiritual poverty. This is more evident from the Ten Blessings given in Matthew, the first of which reads, "Blessed are the poor in spirit, for theirs is the kingdom of heaven." The internal meaning of the first blessing is, that humility is the fundamental requirement for entrance into heaven. Heaven is a state of the soul and mind. The state of poverty which is fundamental to the life of heaven is the poverty of man's understanding and will. When a man has the humility which recognizes that he has no understanding of spiritual things from himself, he is "poor in spirit," poor in the spirit of the old proprium.

     The nature of the proprium is to consider itself superior to other men, and even to God, when there is any kind of lip acknowledgment of God. Experience universally confirms this fact. There are few men who are genuinely poor in spirit. However poverty stricken and illiterate a man may be, he is usually rich in a spirit of conceit of his intelligence and of desire for his own way or will. Conceit is not limited to the learned, nor is willfulness limited to the powerful.

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The unlearned are as intolerant as the learned, and often more so; and the powerless are as domineering as the powerful, and often more so. The disciples were unlearned, and had no power, but they were also "poor in spirit." Otherwise they would not have followed the Lord and accepted His teaching. And that quality which they possessed is fundamental; the spiritual man can only be built upon it. It is a universal requirement, and will ever be the first state of regeneration in the church, and the primary requisite of entrance to heaven.

     But how can a man acquire this humility, if he does not possess it! He can consciously strive for it. When he knows something about it; when he knows that his proprium is evil; when he knows that he must repent of his evils, and shun them as sins against God; then he will know some of the ways by which he may dispose himself to receive the spirit of humility. Swedenborg strove for it after he had passed his fiftieth year. He describes the temptations he underwent by means of which he was reduced to a state of confession that of himself he knew nothing and was nothing. The Lord helps every man to reach such a state. He permits temptations, misfortunes, diseases, and innumerable evil states, because they are the means of subjugating that sense of richness of spirit which is a curse to a man,-the conceit of his own intelligence, the pride from which he exalts himself above others. Yet all the Lord's means of helping men to become "poor in spirit" have relation to their attitude towards other men, thus showing plainly that no man can be "poor in spirit" to the Lord, and not at the same time to other men. This is the point we would emphasize. A man cannot be truly humble toward the Lord unless he is also humble toward other men. There is no submission to the Lord apart from charity to men, and consequently, no admission to heaven, where mutual love reigns. "Blessed be ye poor, for yours is the kingdom of heaven." Amen.

LESSONS: Joshua 7. Luke 6: 20-38. D. P. 250, or H. H. 357-358.
MUSIC: Liturgy, pages 533, 639, 753.
PRAYERS: Liturgy, nos. 32, 178.
NEW CHURCH SERMONS 1934

NEW CHURCH SERMONS              1934

     NEW CHURCH SERMONS published monthly, October to June inclusive, by the General Church of the New Jerusalem. Contents reprinted from NEW CHURCH LIFE. Sent free of charge on application to Mr. H. Hyatt, Treasurer, Bryn Athyn, Pa.

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UNCONVINCING DEFENCE 1934

UNCONVINCING DEFENCE       Rev. HUGO LJ. ODHNER       1934

THE HAGUE POSITION. A Defence by Albert Bjorck. Published by the Author, 1933. Paper, 20 pages.

     The pamphlet under review was published by the Rev. Albert Bjorck to explain his conversion to the doctrinal position taught in DE HEMELSCHE LEER, and contains also his reflections upon the strictures made on that magazine at the Council of the Clergy last February. (See May, 1933, issue of NEW CHURCH LIFE.)

     The Angels and the Divine Human.

     Although a frank and modest tone characterizes the pamphlet, it is marked by the same lack of doctrinal responsibility for which the position has already been criticized. The drift of the artificial reasoning employed is shown by the closing paragraphs, which seek to prove that the minds of the regenerate " are formed and organized . . .to become integral parts of the Gorand Man, which is the Divine Human body of the Lord. . . ."* Of such men he states: "each mind, which is the man after the death of the body, is a separate finite human form of the infinite Man from which they are human. . . ." All these spirits who constitute the heavens and the church "make the body of the Lord who is the one and undividable soul in all." And, as if to make this surprising doctrine still more definite, he closes with this sentence: "Indefinitely increasing numbers of finite minds reveal the infinite qualities of love and wisdom in the Divine Man, and are all together the Divine Human of the Lord." (Pp. 19, 20.)
     * Italics are mine throughout.-H. L. O.

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     This strange conclusion the author draws (page 18) from the revealed teaching that "the Divine things that make the angels, to be angels, are, when taken together, God." (A. E. 1096.) Of course. But, being God, they are infinite! And no matter how many angelic minds you put together, they will never be infinite, never God! The minds of the angels are not the Divine things here referred to. Those minds are merely finite recipients, organized of spiritual, yet finite, substances. (T. C. R. 470.) Hence the teaching: "The whole angelic heaven with the church is as one man before God. . . . But it is not the angels who so appear, but the Divine in them. . . . Angels are only recipients, and the Divine in them makes (facit) what is angelic, and thence heaven." (A. E. 1222.)

     This Divine, present in the angel, or "adjoined" to him (W. 59, 60; T. 718; R. 55, 222:3; P. 58), is the influx of Divine Truth, proceeding from the Lord and endowing man and angel with the faculties of reception, reciprocation, freedom, and rationality. It is only when viewed as to such faculties (or as to the influx which is never limited by the Lord, but looks to what is infinite and eternal, and to a potential perfection which finite minds can never actually reach) that heaven is seen as a truly human form, or as a Divine Man. If we are to consider heaven as a collection of angelic minds, it may also indeed be compared to a Gorand Man, but it is then differently described, as in the following: "The whole Gorand Man is a patient force or a passive force, which is in itself dead; but the Lord alone an active force, acting, living." (S. D. 3419.)

     As it stands, Mr. Bjorck's conclusion-that the finite minds of the angels "are" and "make" the Divine Human body of the Lord-is so incredible that the Church must expect some modification of it. Certainly no support can be given from the Writings for a second, finite Divine Human, distinct from the infinite Divine Person who "rejected the finite from the mother, and put on the infinite from the Father " at His glorification. (J. Post. 129; Cont. L. J. 75.)

     Nor is it possible to modify the words of Mr. Bjorck in the light of his statement (on page 18) that the personality of an angel "is the Divine, as it were finited in human form." For "as it were finited" means actually what is not finited, but only appears so.

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The angelic mind, if actually not finite, would certainly be God, although it erroneously appeared not to be God! But such non-sensical reasoning leads to blasphemy.

     Far from being new, the idea that the regenerate soul is "divine" is quite in accord with those heretical traditions to which the ancient representative churches gave birth in the days of their decadence, when they confused the representation with the Divine which was represented. Thus originated all idolatry and all pantheistic thought. The classical philosophers, the Christian gnostics, and the medieval mystics, all called the soul of man "divine"; and in Christian literature and common speech the same expression prevailed, so that "Christian Science" and "Theosophy" found little opposition when they revived this ancient heresy in Christendom. But the Writings do away with this age-long confusion, and New Church theology cannot tolerate any attribution of what is Divine to man; nor any doctrine that tends to remove from man his human responsibility in reception, by confounding the Lord's part, in providing man with the freedom and ability to receive, with man's part, which is to open his mind to recognize the Lord's gifts, and to make them his own by reception or reciprocal, conscious and free consent.

     Reception and Human Freedom.

     In developing such assertions as that the angelic mind is Divine, and that the "reception and understanding of genuine truth with man are . . . Divine" (page 2), the Hague position, by its very words, deprives the Church of any explanation of human freedom, and will thus inevitably leave the minds of its adherents to wander into the quagmires of predestination, if not to stumble into the abyss of Pantheism.

     None would deny that it is the Lord alone who enables men and angels to receive good and truth. But reception has within it two elements: first, the free choice to receive either good or evil, which is inmostly implied in all human consciousness; and secondly, the sustentation of man in the choice of good, by continual provisions of new blessings to be received. The first is man's part, man's cooperation in disposing himself to accept good rather than evil. In the fact that the Lord abstains from forcing a good choice, or from preventing an evil choice, lies the essential fact of human responsibility.

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And only if you take that away can reception be said to be a Divine act in man; but then it is no longer reception by man, but reception by an inanimate, unresisting machine. And then, how could the existence of evil be explained, except as God's deliberate failure to allow some men to be blessed by the presence of a "divine" reception within them?-unless both God and man be the preys of chance circumstances in a mechanical universe, or unless heaven and hell be merely fantastic dreams within the mind of God!

     Let us be done with a premise which would necessarily invite such profane ideas of God! The doctrine which makes man's reciprocation meaningless, by claiming that reception also is Divine, is strangely paralleled in the Formula Concordiae which Swedenborg holds up to ridicule in the True Christian Religion (nos. 463-465); where he also is granted to show that such teaching has no part in the New Church, since it involves both salvation by faith alone, or by mere grace, and Predestination.

     "Reception" is the only esse that man has. Man is indeed nothing in terms of infinite reality, or in terms of life itself. Yet "every created thing, and especially man, and the love and wisdom in him, are something, and not merely an idea of being." (D. P. 46.) Without reception, man would be nothing but an inanimate machine, upon whom the Lord could not bestow His gifts of love. If that reception,-the cooperative element of reciprocation to the Lord's love,-were purely Divine with man, "then He would not be loved by another, but would love Himself" when He loved man! His love "would be love of self itself, of which there can never be anything in God; for this is altogether opposed to the Divine Essence." (W. 49.) It is the essential of love to love others outside of itself. (T. 43; W. 47-49.) The Lord's love could find no satisfaction in a heaven of puppets. Why, then, drown our rational thought in a formula which, to the New Churchman, must be empty of meaning, by saying that "reception is Divine"?

     * * *

     Even as only one side of the truth is stressed by the champions of the Hague doctrine on "reception," so, also, only one side of the teaching is brought forward by them on the question of the personality of the angel.

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     Although the Writings show that the Lord endows the angels with two superior degrees of organic life, which are solely under the Lord's control and thus in Divine order, yet these angels are pictured as human beings; and their human, personal individualities are explained by the statements that their conscious lives are like rainbows, in which the shadows and refracted colors are from the evils, falsities and imperfections of their past, from which they can never be wholly dissociated; that no angel or man is wholly chaste; that none possess good without impurity, or truth without rational appearances; but that all angels are withdrawn from the evils which they have regarded (from freedom) as their own (or "proprium") into the sphere of order which the Lord provides for them (and which is essentially the Lord's "own"); and that they are in a heavenly state in exact proportion to this withdrawal. The Writings also suggest that, as man regenerates, evils and falsities are gradually removed to the sides or exteriors, yet are never expunged from their spiritual organism, which is visible in heaven.

     Knowing this, as Mr. Bjorck surely must, he yet struggles to confirm Mr. Pfeiffer's contention that the mind and even the body of an angel are Divine and thus pure, and that the evils and falsities of the old man are "extraneous" to this new and regenerate man. But he admits (page 9) that "even to the angels" the new man and the old man appear to be one mind and one being. Since an angel normally speaks and acts from the own consciousness of his mind, Mr. Bjorck ought also to admit that the angel, as to his mind, is not Divine, and thus cannot "speak of the Lord's understanding in him,"-as is elsewhere claimed. (Page 19.)

     The Mode of Developing Doctrine.

     What is the reason why the Hague position tends to such one-sided and startling announcements? We do not ascribe it to a lack of sincerity, but to their unwitting adoption of a false mode of drawing doctrine. Instead of drawing their teachings from the naked truths of revelation, according to the customary procedure of the Church, they have boldly formulated doctrines from their own imagination or reasoning, and then proceeded to confirm the same by passages, misunderstood because seen out of their connection. As an instance of this, the first "thesis" or "main point" of the position will serve. (Page 2.)

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     The Academy Principles were never put forward as binding formulas or a fixed creed, and did not claim to be of Divine origin in themselves. They were meant to emphasize certain neglected teachings clearly given in the Writings, and were therefore utterly self-effacing. Whatever erroneous impression about them may have been created with some of our less-informed young people, it was never meant that anyone should read the Writings in the light of the phrase, "The Writings are the Word," but in the light of those passages of clear doctrine of genuine truth which were conveniently referred to and symbolized by that formula. Otherwise we should have been guilty of cultivating persuasive faith, and of founding a creedal orthodoxy,-the very thing to which the Academy felt most averse.

     The Academy principle states that in the Writings "is contained the very essential Word, which is the Lord, . . . and the Church acknowledges no other Authority, and no other Law."* This principle is drawn from actual statements concerning Swedenborg's inspiration and mission, and means that the Writings are the Word because they come "from the Lord's own mouth," and that they contain and reveal the internals of the Word. But it leaves us free to take account of all the obvious differences between their literal formulation and the correspondential coverings of the letter of the two "Testaments," and of the contrasts which Swedenborg is granted to draw between his Writings and the literal Word.
     * W. F. Pendleton, "The Principles of the Academy," Bryn Athyn, 1909.

     The Hague position, however, is: "that what is said in the Latin Testament concerning the Word with men, its general nature and qualities, must unreservedly be applied to this last revelation" (page 2); "that the term 'the Word ' never occurs in the text of the Third Testament that it is not applied to all Testaments" (May NEW CHURCH LIFE, Page 155), and this "without any difference or reserve" (DE HEM. LEER, I., Page 27).

     Common sense is averse to the laying down of such negative laws, In the realm of external applications, there are always differences and reservations. The Writings also freely comment on the difference between the Biblical books and themselves,-differences which touch, not only the structure, but also the purpose of their external forms. To subject the Writings to all the modes which we use in the exposition of the literal Word would turn the Writings into a cryptic "letter" which does not reveal the internal sense.

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     But the General Church has another good reason for not accepting the Hague premise, in that there is-admittedly-not a single statement in the Writings which, with any degree of clarity, shows that the Writings intend themselves in the instruction which they give us about what they term "the Letter of the Word." The Hague mode of establishing their first premise thus goes directly counter to the laws which it advocates! For the Writings tell us to draw our guiding doctrine from naked truths. Indeed, this is the only way that true progress is made in any study-religious, literary, or scientific.

     Revelation tells us that the man who is in the affection of truth, and thus in illustration from the Lord, can see in the letter of Scripture many heavenly truths which are there nakedly expressed. From these naked truths,-these plain, indisputable statements,-he is thus furnished with a "doctrine of genuine truth,"-a guiding doctrine which will serve him as a lamp in his further research in those parts of the Divine text which seem to him more obscure. This doctrine of genuine truth is not something mystical, but something clear; for "appearances of truth can be understood only from passages where the naked truths stand out; out of these doctrine can be formed by one who is enlightened by the Lord, and according to that doctrine all other things can be explained." (A. E. 816:2; compare S. S. 55, 91; De Verbo 10: 7; A. E. 778.) For in the letter of every revelation such genuine truths appear, and from them the internal sense "lies in some measure open to everyone, though he knows not what the internal sense is"; provided his internal man is open. (A. C. 10400:3, 9380:2, 9382:2, 9409, 9034:2, etc.) The formation of the genuine doctrine "from a number of passages of the sense of the letter rightly collated" (A. C. 7233:3) is equivalent to forming it from the internal sense (A. C. 9430). There is never any contradiction as to the formation of this doctrine.

     In the Writings, the doctrine of genuine truth is not merely presented in glimpses, but is "restored," that is, is fully and clearly "revealed" by the Lord; for the avowed purpose of those volumes was to disclose (detegere) the internal sense of the Word. (S. S. 25; T. C. R. 207; A. R. 1; A. E. 641:2; Inv. 44.)

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If a student of those Writings finds parts therein which to him are obscure, he must not make a leading dogma out of his obscurities; the doubtful passages will invariably yield their harmonious meaning in the light of the unmistakable genuine truths that are nakedly presented in such abundance.

     Obviously, the man in illustration, who loves truth above all else, is fair-minded enough to allow the sacred text to speak for itself, and to employ no labored, intricate arguments or forced analogies. He is anxious that his rational shall not taint the doctrine, which he therefore composes from open statements. And he lets these naked truths interpret doubtful passages, rather than to use the sacred text to confirm clever theories of his own.

     What then shall we say, when a doctrine not openly taught is calmly taken as a leading principle, as a "key" to unlock a number of other novel interpretations which we find subversive of plain teachings? Shall we take the use of such methods as a sign of special illustration? Shall we allow ourselves to use our sacred Writings to confirm doctrines not drawn from the naked truths there openly revealed?

     The birth of heresy is described quite plainly in the Writings, as occurring when "appearances of truth, or truths in their clothing, [are] taken from the Word as naked truths " (S. S. 91, 92); which is not a grievous thing, "provided principles are not formed from these appearances, and so confirmed as to destroy Divine Truth in its genuine sense." (A. E. 778:7.) But "it is the nature of appearances of truth to be capable of being adapted to confirm anything that anyone may adopt as a principle of religion and thence of doctrine, thus even when it is false." (A. E. 816:2.)

     It is the solemn responsibility of the priesthood of the Church to watch lest such "principles," not drawn from the genuine truths that lie open in the text of the revealed Doctrine, should enter "to destroy Divine Truths." And while we are convinced of Mr. Bjorck's sincere desire to serve these Divine Truths, we do not believe that any Divine blessings will flow from disorderly modes. The spirit of the Word and of the Writings is not seen in the light of alien theories. "In Thy light shall we see light."

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Church News 1934

Church News       Various       1934

     CHICAGO, ILL.

     Following the very good meetings of the Chicago District Assembly, held in Glenview, October 13th to 15th, 1933, Sharon Church had the great pleasure of entertaining Bishop and Mrs. de Charms on Monday evening, October 16th. The Bishop spoke to us on the subject of "Freedom," showing the Lord's providence in strictly guarding the spiritual freedom of all, in regard to both thought and affection. Freedom and rationality, he said, are the likeness and image of God in man, and so the Lord even permits man to "make his bed in hell" rather than violate his freedom of choice. Very often in the world's history those who have fought most fiercely for freedom have been the greatest oppressors of others. After an interesting discussion of the subject of the address, the meeting adjourned for refreshments and conversation.

     Some of our friends from Glenview had joined us, and contributed a humorous song in commiseration of the "footsore" who had attended the Century of Progress Exposition. On all sides we heard praise of the delightful friendliness of Bishop and Mrs. de Charms, and their ability to engage everyone in interesting conversation, and this after they had spent the whole day sight-seeing at The Fair!

     Another of our dear friends has gone to the other world,-Mrs. Charles Sturnfield, who died suddenly on August 30th. We sadly miss her affectionate, cheerful, and efficient helpfulness.

     The Ladies Society was bountifully entertained at the hospitable homes of Mrs. Headsten in October and Mrs. Anderson in November. Our pastor read from The New Church in the New Would about the various "isms"-Fourierism, Spiritism, Mesmerism, etc.-which infested the New Church about a century ago.

     In the Friday doctrinal classes the instruction has been based upon the work on Heaven and Hell, recent subjects being "The Power of the Angels," "Speech in Heaven," "The Speech of Angels with Men," and "Writing in Heaven." A young people's class, with an attendance of about sixteen, meets every Wednesday evening to read the Divine Love and Wisdom with the pastor, after which they practice as a choir under the able leadership of Miss Adele Nash, to the great improvement of our singing in services and other meetings.

     On a recent Sunday the pastor preached on the text, "Render unto Caesar the things which are Caesar's, and unto God the things that are God's,"-a sermon that awakened unusual response from the congregation. The theme was, that man must lead a life of active, intelligent usefulness in the world, in order that he may be prepared for life in heaven. As it is given in the Doctrine, "Piety without charity, and a holy external without a holy internal, and the renunciation of the world without life in the world, do not make a spiritual life; but piety from charity, and a holy external from a holy internal, and renunciation of the world with life in the world, make a spiritual life." (N. J. H. D. 123.) "To renounce the world is to love God and the neighbor."

     On Hallowe'en, Miss Gene Headsten gave a very clever party, with funny stunts that kept us laughing until after midnight.

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The costumes were original, from that of the lady who came as a beautiful black cat to the girl who acted the part of a wooden doll.
     E. V. W.

     PITTSBURGH, PA.

     Regular Friday Suppers and Doctrinal Classes for the year were resumed on October 20th, and will be held twice a month. Dr. Iungerich is continuing the subject of the Laws of Divine Providence, which course will be completed on December 15th. The class on the Four Leading Doctrines was resumed on October 11th, to meet fortnightly as before.

     Mrs. David P. Lindsay has charge of the church music and singing practice this year. Miss Emma Steiner has consented to conduct a congregational practice, after which those in the choir will have a special drill. This should greatly improve our singing.

     Mr. Frederick Boggess Lechner and Miss Eleanor Loomis were married at a quiet ceremony in the church on the afternoon of October 11th. Mrs. A. O. Lechner gave a reception in the bride's honor on the 14th, and the members of the society gave a shower and housewarming for the newly married couple on November 25th, on which occasion Dr. Iungerich gave a brief talk on Conjugial Love as the jewel of life and the repository of the Christian religion.

     Rev. F. E. Waelchli spent October 16th in Pittsburgh, visiting the school at its sessions, and addressing members of the society at a class in the evening, when he spoke on the Sixth Commandment, his talk leading into a discussion of the state of the Christian world and its ministry.

     Mrs. S. S. Lindsay, Sr., sponsored a society card party in the auditorium on November 1st, and it was very successful. She reports a, receipt of approximately $30.00, which will go toward the insurance fund.

     Miss Wyneth R. Cranch, of Erie, Pa., became the bride of Francis E. Woodworth, also of Erie, at the close of the church service on November 4th. The ceremony was one of quiet dignity and simplicity, the bride and groom being unattended. Mr. Edro Cranch and Edward Cranch, the bride's father and brother, of Erie, attended the service.

     The Day School celebrated Armistice Day on November 10th. Mr. Silas E. Walker addressed the children, telling them of his part in the World War.

     Mr. Julian H. Kendig passed into the spiritual world on November 24th. He was a member of the Pittsburgh Society for many years, and we will all miss him. The Rev. Homer Synnestvedt conducted the funeral service. Relatives had come from Renovo, Johnstown and Bryn Athyn, Pa., and Birmingham, Alabama. Mr. Kendig is survived by his wife and two sons, Julian, Jr., and Robert.

     The Thanksgiving service was adapted to both children and adults, opening with a procession of the children bearing gifts of fruit. The pastor gave a sermon appropriate to the occasion.

     The engagement of Miss Angella Bergstrom to Mr. John Schoenberger announced at a party in the couple's honor at the home of Mr. and Mrs. W. L. Horigan on November 28th.

     The Le Roi Road Players presented a three-act play, "Miss Lulu Bett," in the auditorium on December 8th. Nine members of the congregation took the parts in portrayal of the tragedy, comedy and pathos in uneventful American family life. We hope to see dramatics continue under the able direction of Mrs. Gilbert M. Smith and Mr. David P. Lindsay, stage manager.
     E. R. D.

     GLENVIEW, ILL.

     On the evening of November 29th, the day before Thanksgiving Day, Mr. Seymour G. Nelson gave a lecture on "The Land of Canaan," profusely illustrated by many beautiful lantern slides. Special interest was given the talk by his vivid description of the places visited by him on his journey in the Holy Land several years ago.

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     Thanksgiving was celebrated by a service of praise in the church at 11 a.m., with a short address appropriate to the day by the pastor. The choir sang that popular anthem by Maunder,-"The Little Hills Rejoice." During the day there was much visiting among the families with feasting and jollification. It was pleasant to have with us Mr. G. A. McQueen and the Sydney F. Lee family, who have returned from Florida to live in Glenview.

     Mrs. A. W. Reuter recently invited our folks to a "Swap Party" at her home, the feature of which was the trading or passing along of articles of little or no further value to the swapper. Many came away from the party with articles of value and use to themselves, having received them for something no longer wanted.

     The local chapter of the Theta Alpha continues its regular meetings, its help to the society, and the performance of its many unostentatious uses     
     J. B. S.

     REPORT OF THE VISITING PASTOR.

     Shortly before starting out on trip through the near Middle West, word was received that meetings could not be held at MIDDLEPORT, OHIO, because of illness in several families. However, two days, Monday and Tuesday, November 20th and 21st, were spent there, during which time some of the sick were visited.

     There followed several days at WYOMING, OHIO, where, on Thursday, the 23rd, at the home of Mr. and Mrs. Allen Smith, there was a delightful social dinner and evening, at which fifteen members of the Circle were present. The recent increase in numbers, all young people devoted to the church, has brought with it the enjoyment of frequent social events.

     On Sunday, the 26th, a service was held at DETROIT, With an attendance of eleven. In the evening there was a doctrinal class, with ten present, the subject being the Seventh Commandment, as presented in DOCTRINE OF LIFE (80 to 86), under the title, "So far as anyone shuns thefts of every kind as sins, so far he loves sincerity." Stress was laid upon the teaching that there can be genuine sincerity, which is from the Lord, only when the thefts "of every kind," which the doctrine enumerates, are shunned as sins against Him.-On Monday afternoon, at RIVERSIDE, ONT., instruction was given to three children of Mr. and Mrs. Harold Bellinger; and in the evening a doctrinal class was held, attendance five, at which teaching was given concerning Innocence, as it is with children, with the regenerate, and with the angels, all from the Lord, who is Innocence Itself.-On Tuesday evening, at HAZEL PARK, near Detroit, members of the Circle gathered at the house of Mr. and Mrs. William Cook, first, for the baptism of the infant of this home, and second, for a class. The baptismal service opened and closed with appropriate singing, in which the sixteen persons present, including the younger children of the family, heartily joined. At the class which followed, attendance eleven, the subject was the teaching that there is no such thing as chance. (D. P. 212.)

     Thanksgiving Day was delightfully spent at ERIE with Mr. Edro Cranch and family. On Friday evening, December 1st, I again treated of the Seventh Commandment at a doctrinal class; attendance nine. On Saturday afternoon instruction was given to four children. And in the evening there was another class, attendance six, at which we considered the doctrine that the Lord alone must be man's teacher, and this directly from the Word. At the service on Sunday there was an attendance of twelve, seven of whom partook of the Holy Supper.

     The trip concluded with two days at KENOVO, PA. Here, in the family circle of Mr. and Mrs. Joseph Kendig, a class was held on Monday evening, December 4th, the entire time, until after eleven o'clock, being given to answering questions.

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The next afternoon, instruction was given to the younger children of the family. And in the evening, at another class, the subject of "Conjunction with the Lord as the End of His Providence" called forth questions that continued until the same late hour as that of the previous evening. It is a great pleasure to find such love for and interest in the Heavenly Doctrines
     F. E. WAELCHLI.

     LONDON, ENGLAND.

     Michael Church.

     The charming home of Mr. and Mrs. A. Victor Cooper at Wembley, Middlesex, was dedicated by Bishop Tilson on September 16th in the presence of a small assemblage of near relatives and friends. Lessons from the Word and the Writings were followed by the singing of the 28th Psalm, after which the married partners read together the words of I Kings 8:57, 58, and then placed a copy of the Word "in the midst of this house," as the Bishop said in his brief but impressive address. The ceremony was followed by a pleasant social time, with liberal refreshments; and appropriate remarks by Bishop Tilson, Rev. A. Wynne Acton, and our host, completed this most enjoyable occasion.

     The Harvest Thanksgiving was held on October 1st, the pulpit and lectern being very tastefully decorated by Mr. Cooper (Senior) with corn and some fine specimens of the vegetable kingdom, which, together with the numerous offerings of fruit, were subsequently taken to the Homeopathic Hospital. The service was a full one, the Rev. A. Wynne Acton basing his instructive and appropriate sermon on Matthew 9:37, 38, "The harvest truly is plenteous," after which Bishop Tilson administered the Holy Supper to thirty-six communicants.

     On October 4th, Mr. and Mrs. V. K. Tilson gave a social in the church hall in celebration of the coming of age of their elder son, Robert John. Upwards of fifty relatives and friends were present and a very enjoyable evening was spent. Congratulatory speeches were made by the grandfather and father of the "new man, and he expressed his thanks to all those who had assisted him thus far on his way, and for the numerous gifts he had received, which were "on view." A program of song, dance and recitation was enjoyed, and the generous refreshments included Birthday Cake upon which were twenty-one candles. A very genial sphere prevailed, and the proceedings closed with the singing of "Auld Lang Syne" and the National Anthem.

     The first Social Tea of the autumn session was held on October 8th. About forty were present, and this number was slightly augmented for the Annual Meeting of the Society which followed. The occasion was felt to be one of serious import, as it was known that a crisis in the financial affairs of Michael Church was imminent. After a short introductory service, Bishop Tilson took the chair and presented his Report, which once again impressed us all with the extent of the ground he had covered-in more senses than one! Incidentally, during his ministerial career he has officiated at 483 baptisms. The period under review included the Bishop's serious illness in the early months of the year, and he paid a well-deserved tribute to his Assistant, the Rev. A. Wynne Acton, for the way in which he had performed the extra work which had devolved upon him.

     Among the reports of the officers of the church, that of the Treasurer. Mr. T. A. Harrison, pointed out that there would be a serious deficit at the end of the present financial year, and that matters would be still worse next year. This had largely come about through the prolonged illness of some of the best supporters of the Society. "Something must be done if we are to carry on," he said; "some economies, however unpleasant, will be necessary, but even these will not of themselves be sufficient to meet the difficulties."

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A special appeal for increased support was shortly to be made by the Board of Finance, and he anxiously awaited the result. Comments upon the situation were made by several members, after which the Rev. A. Wynne Acton expressed his appreciation of the Bishop's remarks in connection with himself. He also said he was enjoying the work, that he now felt quite at home among us, and met with a cordial welcome wherever he went. Bishop Tilson, among other things, said: "The work shall go on while I have strength," and indicated his willingness to make a considerable sacrifice, which has since been regretfully accepted, and this though the offertory is much reduced. Surely all will do their best to follow such a lead!

     A Whist Drive was given on October 17th by Bishop and Mrs. Tilson at their house, in aid of the church funds, and was very enjoyable. The weekly Theological Class is also being held there, instead of at the church, for reasons of economy.

     The annual dinner of the New Church Club, when the company included ladies, was held on November 10th, and though less numerously attended than in other years, was most enjoyable in every way. Bishop Tilson, as President, was in the chair, the Rev. Victor J. Gladish, Secretary, was present with a contingent of Colchester members, and a most interesting paper on "Dreams" was given by the Rev. A. Wynne Acton. The meal was very good and well served, toasts were cordially honored, speeches were short and to the point. A very happy event.

     On Sunday, November 12th, the Armistice Service included the reading of the Roll of Honor and the singing of the Recessional. Bishop Tilson based his discourse on Isaiah 2:4, and the service closed with the National Anthem. Mr. Cooper, himself an ex-service man, had made and given a beautiful laurel-wreath mounted with poppies, which was placed below the memorial tablet, "lest we forget." At the Monthly Social Tea in the afternoon, a paper on "Art," written by Mr. Waters, as read by the Rev. A. Wynne Acton, and led to a useful discussion, the remarks made by Mr. Jesseman being specially illuminating.

     A Whist Drive under the auspices of the Social Club was held on November 14th, and was well attended, though the President was absent on a pastoral visit to the circle at Kilburn, York, where, in addition to other ministrations, he held a service of thanksgiving for the recovery of our old friend and fellow-member, Mr. W. Copley Jubb, after a serious operation.

     In the near future, we are to have a Sale of Work, having aid to the church funds as its objective. We shall keep going if humanly possible. These are trying times-and we mean to "try "-and surely we shall win through!
     K. M. D.

     COLCHESTER, ENGLAND.

     Greetings from Colchester! It is some time since we last reported our doings-but we are still going steadily on.

     Being a compact little society, our congregations at worship are regular and uniform. Our pastor has started a series of sermons in preparation for Christmas, which, to judge from the first one, bids fair to be most useful and interesting. The doctrinal classes, preceded by a singing practice, have a very steady, if somewhat small, attendance. We are studying the Divine Love and Wisdom, and one could wish that all members and friends might benefit by these classes.

     Two social affairs stand out for special mention.

     On November 2, Mr. and Mrs. F. R. Cooper invited all the members and friends of the society to a social in celebration of their Golden Wedding Anniversary. The actual date of the wedding was October 31st, and the family began commemorating the event on Sunday the 29th. The society entered into the celebration with heartfelt jubilation. We were all very glad that Bishop and Mrs. Tilson could be with us. The pastor called e attention to the fact that there were three couples present who had observed their Golden Weddings,-Bishop and Mrs. Tilson, Mr. and Mrs. Appleton, Sr., and Mr. and Mrs. Cooper.

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Surely a goodly record! It was also noticed that only one of the many Cooper grandchildren (Garth) could be with them, but the sphere of loving presence was felt from all the sons and daughters and grandchildren who, though so far away in body, yet were very present by love and thought.

     The program was arranged by Mr. and Mrs. John Cooper and Miss Olive. First we had games and competitions, followed by delectable refreshments. After this the more serious part opened with the toast to the Church, all singing "Our Glorious Church" and Bishop Tilson responding. Then came several more toasts and songs, and many telegrams and messages of congratulations were read. The special event of the evening was the presentation of a gift to our dear friends, to show in concrete form our love and appreciation of the place they fill in our society, and the work they have done and are still doing to help the uses of the Church, in general and particular. It was a golden dish, suitably engraved, to which all members and many friends had subscribed. Our senior member, Mr. Appleton, presented the gift with a few heartfelt words, and then Mrs. Appleton handed Mrs. Cooper a large bouquet of fifty golden rosebuds, one for each year! In responding, Mr. Cooper said that they were greatly touched by this loving tribute, and that he felt unworthy of it, having really done but little in service to the Church. Other members voiced their testimony of appreciation, and a very happy program was finished, at Mr. Cooper's request, with the good old dance, "Sir Roger de Coverly," and all members, young and old, joined in The memorable evening was concluded with the singing of "Vivat Nova Ecclesia."

     The second event of note was our Sale of Work on November 23d, arranged by the ladies' sewing meeting and the social committee. Mrs. Potter and her many helpers work all y through the year, making many useful and pretty articles; others contribute sweets, cakes, jams, etc.; and we always hope to raise a substantial sum to help out our church expenses.

     This year Mr. Gladish opened the sale by telling us about the origin of the idea, and commenting upon the fact that here at least was good value for our money. There were several games and competitions, and one enterprising young lady invited all to guess the weight of a large Christmas cake. As she had not made it herself, she was not offended when several estimated the weight at more than twice what it really was. Most of the good things were quickly sold, and Mr. Owen Pryke auctioned off the few remaining. Nearly L18 was raised and everyone felt it had been a most enjoyable and successful evening.

     One more item of importance must be noted. Mr. and Mrs. Gladish have another little daughter, and in a few weeks Bishop Tilson will be coming to Colchester to baptize her.

     Christmas with its services and festivals will soon be here, and we take this opportunity to wish our fellow societies a Very Happy Christmas and a Bright and Prosperous New Year!
     M. W.

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ANNUAL COUNCIL MEETINGS 1934

ANNUAL COUNCIL MEETINGS       WILLIAM WHITEHEAD       1934




     Announcements.



     The Annual Meetings of the Councils of the General Church of the New Jerusalem will be held at Bryn Athyn, Pa., from January 29th to February 3d, 1934.

     All who expect to attend the meetings are requested to notify Miss Freda Pendleton, Bryn Athyn, Pa., in order that arrangements may be made for their entertainment.
     WILLIAM WHITEHEAD,
          Secretary, Council of the Clergy.
CALENDAR READINGS 1934

CALENDAR READINGS              1934

     For the 1934 Daily Readings from the Arcana Celestia (n. 4056 to 4876), the Academy Book Room can supply volumes V and VI of the Standard Edition at 91.00 each, or volumes VII, VIII and IX of the Rotch Edition at $1.25 each.

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ANNUAL COUNCIL MEETINGS 1934

ANNUAL COUNCIL MEETINGS              1934

     BRYN ATHYN, PA., JANUARY 29TH TO FEBRUARY 3RD, 1934.

Monday, January 29.
     3:30 p.m. Consistory.

Tuesday, January 30.
     10:00 a.m. Council of the Clergy.
     3:30 p.m. Council of the Clergy and General Faculty.
               Address: Mr. Eldric S. Klein.
               Subject: "Some Aspects of Education for Use."

Wednesday, January 31.
     10:00 a.m. Council of the Clergy.
     3:30 p.m. Council of the Clergy and General Faculty.
               Address: Miss Angella Bergstrom.

Thursday, February 1.
     10:00 a.m. Council of the Clergy.
     3:30 p.m. Council of the Clergy and General Faculty.
               Address: Rev. F. E. Waelchli.
               Subject: "The Affection of Truth."
     8:00 p.m. Public Session of the Council of the Clergy.
               Address: Rev. F. E. Gyllenhaal.

Friday, February 2.
     10:00 a.m. Council of the Clergy.
     3:30 p.m. Executive Committee.

Saturday, February 3.
     10:00 a.m. Joint Council.
     3:30 p.m. Joint Council.
To SUBSCRIBERS 1934

To SUBSCRIBERS              1934

     To SUBSCRIBERS: The Index of NEW CHURCH LIFE for 1933 accompanies the present issue as Section II.

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CHURCH SPECIFIC AND THE CHURCH UNIVERSAL 1934

CHURCH SPECIFIC AND THE CHURCH UNIVERSAL       Rev. GEORGE DE CHARMS       1934


NEW CHURCH LIFE
VOL. LIV      FEBRUARY, 1934          No. 2
     (Delivered at the Chicago District Assembly, Oct. 13, 1933.)

     The Academy was founded on the belief that " the New Church is to be distinct from the Old, in faith and practice, in form and organization, in religious and social life."

     The first principle of the Academy, which may be called the soul of the New Church, being the source and origin of its spiritual life, is the acknowledgment of the Divinity and the sole authority of the Writings. Second only to this in importance, and following it as a logical and inevitable consequence, is the principle of distinctiveness, through which the mind or spirit of the Church seeks to make the authority of the Writings effective and governing in all the practical concerns of Church life.

     The Divine Truth revealed in the Heavenly Doctrine is new. It is utterly distinct from the religious theories and beliefs of the Christian world. In the measure that this truth is recognized as the Word of the Lord in His Second Coming, given for the instruction and guidance of the Church; in the measure that it is regarded as the actual source of authority; it cannot but create and establish with us a distinct kind and quality of religious life. The depth of our faith in the Writings is reliably reflected in the strength of our determination to mould our own life, and the life of the Church as an organization, into a form receptive of, and responsive to, the Divine Law revealed.

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Faithfulness to the Heavenly Doctrine demands the building of a distinct and separate Church.

     Yet, in attempting to do this, we find ourselves in opposition to the whole stream of religious thought about us. In the Christian world a conflict is raging between two mutually destructive concepts as to the place and function of the Church. The older view is that the Church is the Divinely appointed custodian of a truth revealed from God, a truth which is the law of life and the way to heaven. Where this truth is not known, where this way is not seen, men must surely go astray, and wander into the paths of error and sin. The knowledge of this truth is therefore essential to salvation. It is a most precious possession, to be defended at all cost. The Church to which it has been entrusted is endowed thereby with an exalted mission, and is called td a great responsibility. It becomes the chosen medium of God for the enlightenment of men, for their liberation from the bonds of ignorance,-a spiritual teacher and guide. On its faithful discharge of this responsibility rests the hope for the establishment of the kingdom of God and the salvation of the race.

     This view has been understood to imply that those who are not of the Church, because they do not know the way to heaven, cannot be saved. Every Church believes that it is the sole guardian of this saving truth, and is Divinely called and empowered to protect it, to promulgate it, to spread the light of it to the farthest corners of the world. By virtue of this belief, it comes into bitter conflict with every other Church, being pledged to oppose and stamp out falsity and error. Thus has arisen a sectarian spirit of bigotry and intolerance, by which the Christian Church has been torn asunder. It has produced antagonism, hatred, persecution, and war, to the destruction of that charity and good will toward men which the Gospel proclaims as the central aim and purpose of Christian faith.

     In reaction against these obvious evils, there has developed another view. It is based upon the common perception that every man who leads a good life, according to his own lights, will, in the mercy of God, be saved. If this is true, it is conceived that there must be, not one, but many, paths which lead to heaven. Good men,-men possessing nobility of character, sincerity, honor, justice, integrity, men capable of self-sacrifice and a life-long devotion to their faith,-are found among every race and people.

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Must this not imply that, in spite of their obvious differences and contradictions, there is truth in all religions? Does it not lead inevitably to the conclusion that truth, after all, is relative, that what is true for one is not necessarily true for another? If this is the case, then the claims of any religious persuasion to a sole possession of saving truth are arrogant and unwarranted. It follows that no particular concept of truth is a vital factor in religion. It matters little what a man believes, so long as he leads what he conceives to be a good life. Under this concept the Church is deprived of its mission as the chosen medium of universal salvation. It loses all importance except to such as prefer its doctrines above those of others. It is regarded as possessing no treasure of surpassing value. It has no truth worthy of sacrifice, no truth for the protection of which men may be justified in fighting. It has no power to inspire devotion from a sense of a God-given responsibility. Sectarianism and bigotry are indeed decried. They are replaced by a broad, indiscriminate tolerance. But, at the same time, all depth of faith is relinquished in favor of a sentimental charity and a spirit of indifference to all spiritual truth.

     At the present day, this latter view is rapidly gaining the ascendancy; and it creates a strong sphere of opposition to any claim of Divine authority for the truth of Revelation. It produces a powerful public sentiment against every effort to establish a distinct and separate Church which places vital importance upon the maintenance of its own characteristic customs and modes of thought and of life. If we are successfully to resist the constant pressure of this opposition, we must see clearly the use, the value, the supreme necessity for distinctiveness. We must be profoundly convinced of the need for the establishment and preservation of that which is called in the Writings the "Church Specific," and must clearly understand the relation which exists between this and the "Church Universal."

     As to this we are left in no doubt or uncertainty by the teaching of the Writings. There is a truth which is revealed from God, and which is the only way to heaven. It is the truth of the Word, in which the Lord is revealed as the one and only God of heaven and earth.

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It is the truth by which alone men can see and know the Lord, who alone is "the Way, the Truth, and the Life," and who said of Himself, "No man cometh unto the Father except by me." Salvation is possible only for such as walk in this way,-for such as live according to this truth. The Church, where the Word is, and where by it the Lord is known, is the sole instrument in the hands of God for the salvation of all men. On its preservation, on its faithfulness to the Truth which has been given to it as a sacred trust, depends the spiritual welfare of the race, and the hope for an establishment of the Kingdom of God on earth. Unless, in the mercy of the Lord, it were provided that there should be preserved somewhere in the world, at all times, such a specific and visible Church, no flesh could be saved.

     II.

     Yet it is also true that men are saved from every religion on the face of the earth. The way to heaven is kept open by the Lord to everyone, whether he belongs to the Church specific or not; whether he has the Word or not; whether or not he has any knowledge of the Lord. This is openly taught in many places, even in the letter of the Word, as in the Apocalypse, where heaven is described as the "Holy City New Jerusalem," of which it is said that "the gates of it shall not be shut at all by day, for there is no night there. And they shall bring the glory and the honor of the nations into it." (21:25, 26.) And again, addressing the church in Philadelphia, but referring to all who are willing to be saved, wherever they may be, the Lord says: "Behold, I have set before thee an open door, and no man can shut it." (Revelation 3:8.)

     The means of salvation, therefore, are not confined to the Church specific. There is no ground for the claim that those who belong to this Church are the special objects of Divine favor, the sole recipients and the sole dispensers of Divine Redemption. They have no just reason to cherish a sense of superiority, which leads to bigotry, and to intolerance. They have indeed an exalted mission, but the task assigned to them is not that of forcing the truth upon those who are unwilling to receive it. The responsibility of saving all men is not a human work which can be given into their hands. They are indeed called upon to defend, protect, and obey the Truth.

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But the sectarian spirit, with all its attendant evils, does not arise from this, but rather from the conceit of intelligence and the love of dominion, which have no place in the Church of the Lord.

     The Lord, from His infinite love, wills to save all men; and from His infinite wisdom He provides for the accomplishment of this Divine end. He establishes, and keeps open, a path of approach to heaven, and of entrance therein, for every man that is born into the world. No accident of birth, no falsity of faith, no state of ignorance, is permitted to close that path. The opportunity to walk in it is given to all, and man closes heaven to himself only if, of his own free choice, he refuses this opportunity, electing in preference to follow the devices of his own heart. Yet the Lord does not provide this opportunity by means of the false beliefs, the doctrines and tenets, of any perverted religion, but rather in spite of them. He does so by two means, both of which are necessary to the accomplishment of His purpose.

     The first of these means lies in the fact that, back of all religions, quite above and beyond their specific doctrines, however false or idolatrous or superstitious these may be, there is ever preserved at least an irreducible minimum of truth, which is common to all religions, and which can provide a way to heaven. This minimum consists in the belief that there is a God, or a Supreme Being, whose will is the law of life, and in the acknowledgment that this law is to be obeyed. This is the truth, however the quality and character of God may be conceived, and in whatever way His law may be understood. In this truth lies the seed of innocence, that is, the seed of humility, and a willingness to be taught and led. Where there is innocence, there the Lord is present, even though He is unseen and unknown. Where the Lord is, there heaven can inflow. He who is in such innocence is brought thereby into the stream of the Divine Providence, and under the protection of the Lord's mercy.

     In every human mind from birth there is implanted by the Lord a dictate that there is a God, and that He is one. This is a Divine endowment inherent in the soul, which is incorruptible, and which abides in a region above the plane of human heredity, with its implanted tendency to evil. Every man, whatever religion may be superinduced upon his mind by training and environment, by virtue of this dictate is free, in his inmost heart, to think in favor of God or against Him as he wills.

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If he thinks in favor of God, and strives from sincerity of heart to live according to that which he understands to be the will of God, he can be withheld by the Lord from any interior love of evil, and thus from any interior confirmation of the falsities inherent in his religion.

     This protection is provided by means of remains, stored up in infancy and early childhood, before he has been taught the doctrines of his church. These remains are the tender affections of love and charity, insinuated through the presence of celestial angels with him,-angels who are in love to the Lord and in the wisdom of heaven. By means of these infantile delights, if he does not willfully reject and destroy them, he can be kept in the sphere of innocence, which is, as it were, wrapped round the falsities and evils which enter by instruction and experience, and cutting off the influx of the hells into them. In themselves, these things are deadly poisons, destructive of all spiritual life, but only if they are received with delight in preference to the delights of remains. If they are received in the sphere of innocence, in the sincere belief that they are good and true, they are deprived of all power to do the man eternal injury.

     The state which results where this gentile innocence is preserved is touchingly described in the Arcana Celestia, no. 2601. The spirits of those who had been such were seen by Swedenborg in the spiritual world; and they were represented as building for themselves little cities, in the midst of which they sought to hide some secret thing, which they wished to preserve from violence. The secret thing was the delight of remains, the quality of which was hidden frost them, because of the ignorance and fallacy in which they had been brought up. Yet they guarded it with deep affection, not knowing that within it lay all the wisdom of heaven, and, indeed, that it was the abode of the Lord Himself. When they were being instructed by the angels, it was insinuated that this secret thing was the Lord, who is a Divine Man, and the only God of heaven and earth. When they heard this, they received it with the deepest joy, and sought to be further instructed concerning the nature of the Lord, the character of heaven, and the laws of the heavenly kingdom. As their minds were enlightened, like those of little children, they easily rejected the false ideas which they had received in the world, cast out the evils which had been mistaken for goods, and were gradually purified, and thus prepared for heaven.

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     There are many of this character, scattered through all the religions on the face of the earth. Who they are is known to none but the Lord, for He alone can "search the heart and the reins." They are endowed with a kind of charity, and even on earth undergo a measure of purification. Because of the innocence in which they are interiorly, a certain spiritual quality pervades their life. Yet they cannot be elevated above a natural state. If by regeneration is meant an opening and formation of the interior degrees of the mind, this is impossible to them on earth. For this opening and formation can be effected only by means of the truths of faith derived from the Word. But while the internal mind is not opened here, it is not closed, and it can be opened in the other world. Thus they can be blessed with the happiness of eternal life, and with some even to the celestial degree, that they may be allotted a place and a use in the highest heavens. All such, taken together, are said to constitute the Church universal, and to belong to the Lord's kingdom on earth in its widest sense.

     It is important to note, however, that this means of salvation is not self-sustaining. Unless there were ever present, somewhere in the world, a Church specific, where the Word is, and where by it the Lord is known and worshipped, it would become ineffective. The reason is that in this case the conjunction of heaven and earth would be broken, remains could not be implanted, and innocence could not be preserved. The reason for this is found in the teaching concerning the need for continual or periodic judgments in the world of spirits.

     III.

     Man's state is not changed by death. He carries with him into the other life all the fallacies, the appearances, the habits of life, and modes of thought, which had characterized his life on earth. These can be changed only by a gradual process. Especially those things which have been associated with religion, which have been regarded as holy, which have gathered about them deep affections, must be treated with the greatest tenderness and care. If they should suddenly be removed, the man would be deprived of life, for his life is bound up in them.

     Every man, therefore, when he enters the world of spirits, comes into the same religious persuasion to which he had belonged on earth, and he seeks the company of those who are of his own kind, being attracted to them by similarity of love.

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Love determines all place and association in the other world. And it follows that, from those who die, there arise societies of such as had formed a church or a religious communion on earth.

     These societies are what are called "imaginary heavens." And when the religion from which they are formed is false and corrupt, they become a stronghold for the influx and operation of the hells. Such as are in innocence, because of their ignorance, because they mistake the falsities of their faith for truths, and the evils of their religion for goods, come under the control and influence of the evil. From this bondage they cannot be released except by means of a judgment,-a revelation of truth from heaven, which deprives the evil of their power of dissimulation and deceit, and reveals them in all the ugliness and distortion of their interior evils. Then first can the good be drawn away from them, by a process of disillusionment. When this takes place, angels can draw near to instruct them and prepare them for heaven.

     Without a judgment, these imaginary heavens would increase in size and power with every generation. They would spread over the whole world of spirits. They would become like a vast black cloud, cutting off all influx from heaven, shutting out the light and the heat of the sun of heaven, until it could no longer penetrate to the minds of men on earth. Should this come to pass, the possibility of implanting remains of innocence, even in the minds of little infants, would be taken away. All freedom of spiritual choice would become impossible to man. He would fall prey to the dire persuasions and the lusts of hell, and it would be all over with the human race.

     And this is the point of special interest: Judgment, which alone can prevent this eventuality, which alone can check the growth of imaginary heavens, disperse the clouds, and preserve the influx of heaven and the presence of the Lord with men,-this judgment cannot be performed from the spiritual world alone. The power of judgment rests in ultimates,-the ultimates of the Word as it exists on earth. The Lord alone is the Judge, and He performs judgment by means of the Word. This the Lord Himself declared in John: "If any man hear my words, and believe not, I judge him not. He that rejecteth me, and receiveth not my words, hath one that judgeth him: the word that I have spoken, the same shall judge him in the last day." (John 12:47, 48.)

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     Judgments in the spiritual world are performed by the Lord through the Word received, understood, loved, and lived by men. Thus they are performed through the Church where the Word is, and where by it the Lord is known. This is the reason why, when the Church perishes, because in it the Word is no longer understood, and the Lord is no longer known, the Lord must establish a New Church, and this by coming into the world,-by imparting a new Word, a new revelation of Himself on earth.

     Whenever this is done, it is accompanied by a "last" or universal judgment in the world of spirits, the destruction of imaginary heavens, the dispersion of the clouds which they produced, and the reestablishment of the conjunction between heaven and earth. Such was the judgment of the Flood. A similar judgment, though not universal, was effected through the giving of the Word to Moses and the Prophets; and by this means the conjunction of heaven and earth was preserved until the Lord's Advent. Such a judgment was performed by the Lord Himself when He came into the world as the "Word made flesh." And such a judgment accompanied His Second Advent, when He revealed the fullness of His Glorified Human in the Writings of the New Church.

     The Word, thus renewed and preserved through all the ages, is the sole means of judgment. And by means of the Church specific,-by means of the Word received in living faith by men,-the Lord operates continually to separate the good from the evil, to release the good from bondage, to Purge the world of spirits of the imaginary heavens which gather as impurities and poisons in the Gorand Man, and thus to sustain spiritual life for all men everywhere. This is the reason why the Church specific is said to correspond to the vital organs,-the heart and the lungs,-upon which the preservation of life in the whole body depends. When these organs cease to function, the connection between the body and the spirit is cut off, and the body dies. So also, if the Church, where the Word is, should cease to function, the connection between heaven and earth would be broken, and the entire human race would perish in spiritual death.

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     IV.

     There is, then, an imperative need for the existence, the preservation, and the constant development of a specific, a visible, Church on earth. The existence of such a Church is vital, not only as a means of salvation for those within the Church, but for all who are outside of it as well. This work of universal salvation is not performed on earth, by carrying the Gospel to the gentiles, by the missionary zeal and effort of men. It is performed secretly in the spiritual world, and by the Lord alone. It is performed by a continual purification of the world of spirits, by a continual preservation of the influx and operation of heaven into the minds of men everywhere on earth. It is done by a diffusion of light from the Word as a center,-from the Church where the Word is as the medium,-a diffusion of the light of truth which makes judgment possible in the other world. That this is the mode, we are taught directly in the Writings, as in the Apocalypse Explained, where we read: "The light of heaven . . . is from the Lord by means of the Word; from this, as from a center, light is diffused into the circumferences in every direction, thus to those who are there, who are the gentiles that are outside of our Church. But this diffusion of light is effected in heaven by the Lord, and what is done in heaven flows also into the minds of men, for the minds of men make one with the minds of spirits and angels." (A. E. 351:2.)

     And note further in regard to this diffusion of light, with its consequent judgment, and its provision of the Lord's saving presence with the gentiles, that while it is effected by the Lord alone, and entirely without man's knowledge, it is yet dependent upon those in this world who are actively regenerating. Regenerating men are used as necessary, though unconscious, instruments for its accomplishment. Thus, when Peter asked the Lord, saying: "Behold, we have forsaken all, and followed Thee; what shall we have therefore?" the Lord replied: "Verily I say unto you, that ye which have followed me in the regeneration, when the Son of Man shall sit in the throne of His glory, ye also shall sit upon twelve thrones, judging the twelve tribes of Israel." (Matthew 19:27-28.)

     Regeneration,-the opening of the mind to the reception of truth from the Word; the conflict of temptation, which is an active resistance to everything which is contrary to that truth; the bringing of the mind and the life into the order of heaven, by submitting in all things to the government of that truth,-this is the means which the Lord uses for spiritual judgment, and for universal salvation.

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This is the sacred function of the Church, the exalted use to which it has been called. This is the first and paramount duty of all who, in the mercy of the Lord, are entrusted with the Divine Truth of the Word.

     That which we call the distinctiveness of the New Church is nothing else than a faithful performance of this God-given duty. It involves allegiance in all things to the teaching of the Writings. It involves thinking and acting, in every human relation, from the supreme love of the Writings, from the desire that they shall find fulfilment and ultimate expression in us. It involves taking the deepest delight in finding means by which to symbolize our love for the Writings, in modes of life, in forms of worship, in customs and social usages, which, by correspondence, will reflect the truth and the good of heaven. It matters not what these customs may be. Conditions change, and things appropriate to one generation become outworn in the next. A vital distinctiveness does not lie in perpetuating, from a sense of loyalty, forms which have been established by our forebears. It lies rather, either in adopting those forms freely for ourselves, because they continue to hold a deep spiritual significance to us, or in replacing them by new forms, better adapted to our own day, but drawn from the Heavenly Doctrine with the same spirit of ultimating the teaching of the Word.

     The forces of the world, like the waves of a great ocean are constantly beating upon our shores., They tend to wear away whatever is different, to break down whatever is not understood, to force us back into conformity with the modes of life and thought which are produced by the great currents of world thought. If we remain passive, the pressure of this environment will subtly, slowly, secretly, draw us back into the sphere of the world. As we increase in numbers, the points of contact and the interlacing of human affections multiply, and they enormously increase this pressure. The life of the Church depends upon active resistance to it, and this by the kindling of a new flame of love for the truth of the Writings, and for the application of that truth in every generation. We must be willing to be charged with sectarianism, with bigotry and intolerance and lack of charity, for the sake of establishing this distinctiveness.

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     As a matter of fact, there is and need be no sectarian spirit in it. There is nothing in it which implies a sense of superiority, or of special Divine favor. To live the truth as we see it is no more than the path of life which the Lord has placed before us. To walk in this path is as necessary to our regeneration as is the adherence of the simplest gentile to that which he believes to be right. Those who, in the Divine mercy, are endowed with the inestimable treasure of the Word, and the pearl of great price which is the knowledge of the Lord, are not entrusted with these things because they are better than others, but rather because, without this more immediate and powerful presence of the Lord, they could not be saved. In them, states of simple faith and innocence could not be preserved in the midst of the falsities of a dead religion. If they had not the Divine Shepherd to lead them, and the staff of His Word to guide them, they would succumb to a complete denial of God. This the Lord foresees, and by His Coming provides the only possible means of their salvation.

     In this there is no cause for pride, but only for the deepest gratitude, with praise and thanksgiving to the Lord, because in loving-kindness He has descended even to the plane to which they have fallen, that He may feed them and lift them up forever. If they accept His gift; if they cherish it and protect it; if they resist the evils in themselves and in the world which are opposed to it, they are doing no more as human beings than is the gentile, who guards with tender solicitude the secret treasure which has been miraculously implanted in his heart. Yet, by the fulfilment of this simple human duty, they become the unwitting instruments in the hands of the Lord for the salvation of the whole race of mankind, the means of establishing the Kingdom of God on earth, the means of opening the way to all peoples for the reception of the Word, the means of providing for the conjunction of all men with the Lord and with heaven, that they may receive the Divine blessing of spiritual knowledge, understanding and wisdom, and, together with it, internal peace, happiness, and an ever-widening participation in the uses of the Lord's heavenly kingdom.

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HOLY SUPPER 1934

HOLY SUPPER       Rev. HUGO LJ. ODHNER       1934

     "And the bread that I will give is my flesh, which I will give for the life of the world." (John 6:51.)

     The last paschal supper of the Lord and His disciples-the evening meal before the crucifixion-became a sacred and prophetic symbol of the Lord's whole life, and of redemption. It was a culminating point in the relations of the disciples and their Master. The Lord's public work, His teaching of the multitudes, was ended. Henceforth the disciples would be the means of instructing the world in the Divine teachings. They were to be the nucleus of His Church; through them the Lord would work for the upbuilding of His kingdom on earth. And therefore they were now together, to be inaugurated into the ultimate representation of the Church; yet not into a mere representation, but into the actual uses of the Church as culminating in an act which included, as well as symbolized, these functions.

     And mark what this act was. The Lord gave them bread, saying, "This is my body, which is given for you; this do in remembrance of me"; and He gave them wine, saying, "This cup is the new covenant in my blood, which is shed for you." The disciples received the bread and the wine-and in this they reciprocated the act-they ate and drank, at the Lord's bidding, the food prepared and offered by Him. And they were to repeat this later-in remembrance of Him, remembering His words that the two elements were the flesh and blood of His body.

     By means of the Holy Supper the disciples-of that time and of the present-are introduced into the ultimate act of obeying the Lord, of responding to the Lord's offer to give of His life to them. Man meets the Lord in this act from mutual desire to respond, from free consent, and from acknowledgment that the Lord alone is life, and that from Him all things are created and perpetually sustained. The love of man is aroused, and goes to respond to the outgoing love of the Lord.

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Man's interiors are opened to the Lord, and the Lord comes to dwell in man as far as man opens the way. The Supper is a sacrament of love,-love to the Lord from the Lord, and love toward the neighbor from the Lord. If either of these be lacking, there is no conjunction effected between the Lord and man; for conjunction is impossible if obedience to the call to the Lord's table be a mere habitual rite or an obedience from doctrine only. There must be love to initiate conjunction,-love to the Lord aroused by the knowledge of the Lord's love toward all men. And the sacramental act is effected when it is done from love, charity, and faith, appropriated in the life. (A. C. 4700.)

     The Holy Supper is said, therefore, to be the holiest thing of the Church, and the primary thing of external worship. The bread and the wine are not in their substance holy-not holy in themselves; yet they are the ground-plane for the action of the Lord with man. Apart from the living presence of the Lord's Divine Human with the worshiper, the elements are not holy. But the thing which sets apart the eating and drinking of the sacramental bread and wine from all other acts of life and worship is the peculiar presence of the Lord's Divine Human which they are the means of ultimating. For the Lord offered the bread and the wine, not as bread and wine, but as His own Flesh and His own Blood.

     Certain angels were asked by newcomers in the spiritual world, how it is that the man who looks to the Lord and performs repentance is, by the Holy Supper, brought into a state of conjunction with the Lord, and thus as to his interiors introduced into heaven. It was suggested by someone that this is a mystery. The angels answered that it is indeed a mystery, but one which could be clarified and understood. And then they explained concerning the law of correspondences: that material bread and wine correspond (or answer on a lower plane) to the heavenly bread and wine which nourish man's spirit. This heavenly food is the holy of love and faith which inflow with the man who has performed repentance. And after some further teachings, the inquirers declared that they did indeed understand. As they said this, a flaming light enveloped them, and they were all consociated in the common perception. And a remarkable thing is added: that not only were their eyes open to the sight of the truth, but their hearts were also opened, and they were filled with love, one towards another. (A. R. 224:13; T. C. R. 621.)

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     The particular teachings which so opened their eyes are not all recounted, but the light-giving doctrine concerned "correspondence and its effect." About this we are told much in the Writings. We are taught that correspondence or harmonization opens the way for influx. Only when the natural is reduced into correspondence, so that the external or natural thoughts and feelings answer correctly to the internal affections, and express them adequately in acts and speech,-only then can spiritual things-spiritual forces and impulses, and the presence of the sphere of heaven-yea, the sphere of the Lord Himself-inflow into the natural mind with power to infill it with spiritual life. Influx is according to such attunement into correspondence, and the influx becomes powerful and effective the farther it reaches down the ladder of degrees without being repulsed by what is non-correspondential or disorderly or opposite. Repentance before the sacrament loosens and removes the disorders of the interior man,-the evils of the interiors of the natural. The intention of good is confirmed by repentance. The inside of the cup and the platter is cleaned. But the outward man resists. The thoughts of the imagination rebel and disturb and raise continual disorders. And the many irritations and cupidities of our senses and our bodies, and the perversions all about us in daily life, combine to stir up these disorders in our imagination. Our mind and our life is as yet unable to receive the influx of heavenly affection, which our effort toward repentance may have invited. When the sphere of heaven reaches the plane of disorder, it is turned away. It is not able to enter into ultimates, where it would become a power in our life. The sphere of heaven is unable to shatter the opposition of a pervert natural. It can move the intentions and convince our reason, but it is turned back powerless before a natural which does not correspond.

     But the Lord says: "This do in remembrance of me,"-in remembrance of Him who overcame the world, of Him who glorified His Human even to "flesh and bones," and made it Divine from His own power! Who has all power in heaven and on earth! Who rules all things immediately from Himself,-the Lord, the only Regenerator!

     In remembrance of Him we are invited to respond to His offer of His bread and wine-to come to His table-to put our externals of body and natural thought into correspondence with His own celestial order, so that the sphere of heaven, which bears within it His Divine presence and operation, may penetrate our natural thought, and be confirmed with us in our natural life.

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All things of the Holy Supper correspond to the things of heaven-to the love and faith which come to the heavens from the Lord. And if our impatient affections and disordered thoughts are but humbled in the sphere of worship, the very act of prayerfully receiving bread and wine from His table, according to His word and His ordinance, renders our minds correspondent with Him, and transparent to the influx of His presence, even into some of the ultimates of life where power resides,-the power for which heaven and hell constantly struggle.

     The Divine Human is given to men in the Holy Supper. (A. C. 2811.) He is present therein "as to the whole of the Divine Human and the whole of His Redemption." (T. C. R. 716f.) It is the Lord God Himself who enters, to sup with man, to conjoin man with Himself, and to create a heavenly security for man in the midst of earthly life. Within all the instrumental means, within all the spheres and elements by which He works, it is He Himself who saves those who look unto Him and open the door of their natural man for Him to enter. And as if to emphasize this, and to lead us toward Himself, He-having first instituted the sacrament at that last communion with His disciples-arose from the table, laid aside His garments, and took a towel, and girded Himself, and began to wash the disciples' feet. And as Peter protested, He said, "What I do thou knowest not now; but thou shalt know hereafter. . . . If I wash thee not, thou hast no part with me." Hearing this, Peter cried out, "Lord, not my feet only, but also my hands and my head." But Jesus said to him, " He that is washed needeth not save to wash his feet, but is clean every whit."

     The Lord became Man for this: to enable His saving power to reach down to us in every human condition; to be able to be present with His regenerating operation even in man's natural; and also to accommodate Himself to man so as to be visible and recognizable even to our natural thought. He lays aside His garments, and bends in the humblest of all the services of love. For though He be infinite Master and Lord, yet not even the least of human work can be done without His power. Blessed are they who recognize Him, and do according to His example.

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     Those who have repented, and yet are conscious of the weakness of the natural proprium, may be made clean every whit by the Lord. The dust of natural appearances, the filth of ingrained cupidities of the senses and the flesh, which no man-however regenerate-can avoid in this life, are cleansed by the Lord when man seeks strength from Him. By the holy externals of worship, and especially by sacramental obedience, man's external thought is turned to Him and bound up with holy affections.

     How imperatively needful this is for man's salvation! For from birth onward the ideas which accumulate to form man's external of thought enter at the bidding of impure affections. Each natural idea is associated from its start with some delight or some playful current of affection which springs, at least in part, out of man's selfish loves. The whole of our natural thought thus becomes permeated and inwoven with the evil motives of self and rooted in a field of pervert lusts. Every bodily appetite of touch or sight or taste-in itself so innocent-is thus enslaved to the service of some impure affection, and within such affections are enmeshed, by the subtle connecting threads of associated ideas, the network of our natural thought. Nothing can break the mutual bonds of such corporeal ideas; nothing can change the state of the natural man; except the powerful introduction of new ideas by means of sensation, new ideas organized in the image of the Lord, and associated, not with self, but with the Lord; new sensory tides of touch and smell and taste and sight and hearing, which in their virgin purity are sanctified to the Lord's use, and are bound up at their first entrance with love to the Lord, with the affections of the internal man, which, through repentance, has been cleansed for the interior influx of the Lord's life.

     This is the reason why the sacrament of the Supper, appealing to the very senses, even to taste and touch, and involving the motive reactions of the body, has power: power to create new paths for influx and enlightenment in the natural of man's mind; power to extend the Lord's presence into the realm of man's conscious thought and rational cooperation; power to break down man's false prides, to break up the foul gyres of his sensual imaginations, and replace them with a truer order; power so to prepare a plane that the Lord's love and wisdom may inflow to confirm whatever of regenerate desire man has made his own, and to consolidate the gains acquired in spiritual life.

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     There is nothing magical or arbitrary in this Divine Provision of a sacramental presence. The spiritual law involved is stable and fixed, and cannot be abused or denied. It is the law of spiritual presence, which here operates in fulness of Divine power wherever two or three are gathered in His name. For power lies in corresponding ultimates.

     Nor is there such a thing as merely sacramental salvation without repentance. But there is sacramental confirmation, sacramental introduction of spirit and mind into heavenly association, by which the ultimates of man are made plastic for the new life which comes from the Lord.

     The Flesh of the Lord is Divine Love, and His Blood is Divine Truth-"the Holy of Truth." By these two we receive love to Him and faith in Him. Men receive these only in the measure of their own states. In so far as we, from love to Him, are in a spiritual idea of the sacraments, so far we would perceive the Lord's love for us and our reciprocal love to Him as the very Bread of Life, and would perceive His Truth, and our reciprocal love of all who have charity from obedience to His Truth, as the veritable Wine of existence,-the life-blood of the church and of heaven,-the common bond and fount of life for all who are our neighbor. And if a man so thinks, and in the measure that this thought is living and real with him, "he would be in like thought and perception with the angels, who would then approach nearer to him, until at last they could consociate their thoughts. . . ." (A. C. 3316:3.)

     We need this closer presence of heaven. It was for this that the new revelation was given and the New Church was established. It was for this that the meaning and power of the sacraments was revealed: that men might be given life more abundant, and that their spirits might walk through life with feet unsullied by the dust and grime of the road. "If I wash thee not," saith the Lord, "thou hast no part with me." "I am the door; by me if any man enter in, he shall be saved, and shall go in and out, and find pasture." Amen.

Lessons: Deuteronomy 8. John 6:26-58. T. C. R. 128.
Music: Liturgy, pages 504, 521, 603.
Prayers: Liturgy, nos. 53, 177.

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GIVING SIGHT TO THE BLIND 1934

GIVING SIGHT TO THE BLIND       Rev. F. E. WAELCHLI       1934

     A TALK TO CHILDREN.

     When the Lord was on earth, He showed in many ways His great love for mankind. One way was by helping those who suffered or were in trouble. We are told that He made the blind to see, the deaf to hear, the lame to walk, the sick to be well, and even the dead to become alive. (Luke 7:11-23.) We shall now speak only of His making the blind to see. There are several stories of His doing this, one of which I will tell you. (Mark 10:46-52.)

     Once the Lord was on His way from a city called Jericho to the great city Jerusalem. The disciples and a great crowd of people went with Him. As they were going along, they came to a place where a blind man sat begging by the roadside. The man was not only blind, but also poor. There was no one to help him, that he might have food and clothing and a home. And so, in order that he might have these things, he had to sit there begging.

     Then he heard the noise of the great crowd coming along, and he asked why this was. He was told that Jesus of Nazareth was passing by. He had heard of Jesus, and of how He had healed others that were blind. And from what he had heard he knew that Jesus must be God the Savior come into the world, called by the people "The Son of David." And so he began to cry out, "Jesus, Thou Son of David, have mercy on me!" To "have mercy" means to be good and kind to a person who is not worth being good and kind to, or to one who believes he does not deserve such kindness. This was what the blind man thought of himself, when he asked the Lord to have mercy on him.

     But the people told the blind man to keep quiet.

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They thought his crying out would annoy the Lord, who would not want to trouble Himself about a blind beggar. But the man then cried out all the louder, "Thou Son of David, have mercy on me!" The Lord heard him, and commanded that the man should be brought to Him. So some of the people hurried to the man, and said, "Be of good comfort; rise; He calleth thee!" How happy the man must have been to hear this! Immediately be threw aside his beggar's garment-a kind of garment beggars had to wear over their other clothes. He knew he would not need that garment any more. And he rose up and was led to the Lord.

     Then the Lord said, "What wilt thou that I should do unto thee?" And the blind man answered, "Lord, that I might have my sight." And the Lord said to him, "Go thy way; thy faith hath made thee whole!" That is, "Because you believed that I, who am the Savior, the Son of David, could give you sight, you now have it."

     So, then, the man had his sight. And what a joy this must have been to him! He joined the crowd that followed the Lord; and we can be sure he always remained one of those who loved the Lord, and was ever thankful to Him for His great mercy on him.

     After the Lord had finished the work for which He came on earth, He returned into heaven. Since then blind people cannot be given sight by Him as when He was here, while they are in this world. But as soon as they come into the other world the Lord gives them sight. Good people believe that this is so. And yet they are not sure of it, unless they are made sure by learning it from the doctrines of the New Church. Swedenborg tells us that he saw persons in the other world who had been blind here, and they could see just as well as anybody else. How happy blind people must be to know this!

     There is a blind New Church woman who tells how great a happiness this is. Her name is Helen Keller. She is a wonderful woman, who is known all over the world. When she was quite a young child, she became not only blind, but also deaf and dumb; that is, she could not hear or speak.

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But she learned to speak, even though she herself could not hear what she was saying. She also wrote books; that is, she told persons what to write for her. And people love to read these books, because of the beautiful things in them. In one of these books, called My Religion, she tells how greatly she loves the doctrines of the New Church, by which her spirit sees heavenly things, and how she looks forward to life in the other world, where she will see, and hear, and speak, like all others who are there.

     When the Lord was in the world He gave sight to the blind because He loved to do deeds of mercy. But there is another reason why He did it. It was a sign that He came into the world to heal another kind of blindness, which is the blindness of the mind. When the Lord came, the minds of most people were blind; that is, they could not see, or understand, the things that the Word teaches. Some of these blind people the Lord could not heal, because they did not admit that they were blind. They thought that they could see the things of the Word for themselves, without the Lord's making it possible for them to do so. And in their blindness they turned the Word into what was not true. But there were some who knew they were blind. To these the Lord could give sight. He could make them understand the Word.

     And so it has been ever since that time. There are those who are blind, because they are not willing that the Lord should make them see. And there are those who see, because they want to see by the sight which the Lord gives them. To these the Lord says, as He did to His disciples, "Blessed are your eyes, for they see." And it is a wonderful thing that this sight of their eyes, or their understanding of the Lord's Word, becomes stronger and clearer throughout life in this world, and afterwards in heaven forever, with ever greater joy and happiness in the seeing.

LESSON: Luke 7:11-23.
Music: Hymnal, pages 90, 96, 150.

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JACOB'S RETURN TO ISAAC 1934

JACOB'S RETURN TO ISAAC       Editor       1934

     1934 CALENDAR READINGS.

     For a good part of the year the Daily Readings from the Arcana Celestia, nos. 4056-4651, expound the internal sense of Genesis XXXI to XXXVI-the story of Jacob's departure from Laban in Syria after a sojourn of twenty years, and his return to his father Isaac in Hebron, bringing his wives, children and acquisition with him.

     The incidents of the journey are of special interest and significance: Jacob's secret departure from Laban, and their subsequent compact in Mount Gilead; Jacob's wrestling with the angel at Peniel, and the change of his name to "Israel"; his reunion with Esau; his dealings with Hamor the Hivite at Shechem; the birth of Benjamin and Rachel's death at Bethlehem; the journey's end at Hebron, where Isaac dies and is buried by Esau and Jacob.

     A preliminary reading of certain passages of the Arcana will furnish a comprehensive view of the series involved in the internal sense of the six chapters, clarifying the detailed explanation of the persons, places, and actions, all of which are representative of the spiritual states of the church and the Divine things of the Lord Himself.

     The theme in the inmost sense is the Glorification of the Lord's Human as to the Divine Natural (Jacob), and its unition with the Divine Rational (Isaac), thus the completion of the progressive acts of glorification involved in Jacob's going forth from Hebron to Syria (Genesis, 28:1, 2, 5), which describes "how the Lord began to make Divine His Natural as to Truth and as to Good." (A. C. 3656.) Such a going forth and return is depicted in the Lord's own words, "I came forth from the Father, and am come into the world; again, I leave the world, and go to the Father." (John 16:28.)

     Jacob's reunion with Isaac at the patriarchal home in Hebron denotes "that the Divine Itself (Abraham), the Divine Rational (Isaac), and the Divine Natural (Jacob), are one in the Lord." (A. C. 4614, 4615.)

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The general representation of Jacob. (A. C. 4538.) His acquisition in Syria-cognitions of good and truth. (A. C. 4112.)

     With respect to man, the series treats of the regeneration of the natural, and its conjunction with the rational. (A. C. 4612.)

     As collateral reading, the treatment of Genesis 31-36 in The Word Explained may now be followed in Volumes II and III of the English Version. Jacob's return to the Land of Canaan is there described as the gathering of the gentiles into the kingdom of God. We read:

     "It is the same with the church as with the natural man made spiritual. From man we learn how the church is gathered together. . . ." (W.E. II: 1087. See nos. 1076-1082; 1095-1100.)

     "And Jehovah said unto Jacob, Return unto the land of thy fathers, and to thy kindred, for I will be with thee. (Gen. 31:3.) In the supreme sense, Jehovah is the Messiah; Jacob is the gathering to which belongs the flock, and thus the church; the land of the fathers is the kingdom of the Messiah; the Kindred is the tree of life in paradise; I will be with thee means the wedding itself, or that the Messiah will go in unto his bride. Thus it is the Messiah alone who is in all these words, and in each one of them; for Jehovah is the Messiah; the church, which is meant by Jacob and his flock, is the Messiah; the kingdom of God is the Messiah; the tree of life, signified by the kindred, is the Messiah; and the saying by the Messiah, I will be with thee, means that He is the All in all of His church, His kingdom, and His paradise." 1100.)
     EDITOR.
NEW CHURCH SERMONS 1934

NEW CHURCH SERMONS              1934

     A pamphlet published monthly, from October to June inclusive, by the General Church of the New Jerusalem. Contents: Sermons and other material suitable for individual reading, family worship, and missionary purposes, reprinted from New Church Life. Sent free of charge on application to Mr. H. Hyatt, Treasurer, Bryn Athyn, Pa.

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Church News 1934

Church News       Various       1934

     DURBAN, NATAL.

     After the July holiday our services and classes were resumed, and are being conducted according to regular schedule. The Wednesday evening classes are devoted to a study of the explanation of the Apocalypse. In the ladies' class on Wednesday morning, Mr. Acton has just finished the reading and discussion of The New Church in the New World, and I is now beginning the study of Conversations on Education. The classes and Sunday morning services are well attended, for our Pastor seems to have no difficulty in keeping the attention and interest of his congregation.

     Owing to financial stress, most of our social events are planned to raise money to carry on the uses of the society and school, but we find them none the less enjoyable. Early in October a Musical Evening was held at the home of Mrs. W. G. Lowe, where we had the pleasure of listening to some of our well-known soloists Mrs. Kenneth Ridgway and Mr. Garth Pemberton-and also the unexpected pleasure of hearing two soloists who were new to our programs-Miss Dolly Rogers and Mr. Maurice de Chazal. Now that they have broken the ice, as it were, we hope we shall be privileged to hear them soon again. Mrs. Robert Mansfield did much of the accompanying that evening, and Miss Vera Ridgway played several selections on the 'cello.

     The next evening a dance was held in the hall, being very well attended and most thoroughly enjoyed. Miss Denise Cockerell is becoming famous for her clever arrangement of dances, which never fail to please all who attend them. About twenty couples were entertained at this dance, and all were enthusiastic.

     On October 30th the usual Hallowe'en Party was given by Theta Alpha to the school children. We generally give two parties-one for the younger pupils, in the afternoon, and one in the evening for the High School pupils; but this year, because the older girls had attended the dance previously mentioned, there was only one party given. This was a supper party for all those children, from Standard Five down to the tiny ones, who do not attend school as yet. The children came in costume, and some of them showed a great deal of clever thought and preparation.

     We aim to give at least one Bridge party a month, and this month it was held in the afternoon at Mrs. Lowe's home. The motor ride out to her house, and seeing her lovely garden, which just now is a mass of brilliant color, was enjoyed quite as much as the game of Bridge.

     The J. H. Ridgways have built a charming new home on the hills just outside of Durban, and last Sunday afternoon the society was invited to come and bring their "warm hearts" to a house-warming there. The entertainment took the form of "shower" for Miss Miriam Bretherton and Mr. Douglas Macfarlane, who hope to be married soon. Mr. Macfarlane drew the plans for Mr. Ridgway's house, and is now planning their garden landscaping. With the practical assistance of "Bob" Mansfield, who is rapidly becoming a farmer or gardener, "Machacha" will soon be one of the show places of the Durban suburbs.

     An evening of games and a sale of work are planned as our next social events, and we hope that these will be as successful as those previously held.

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     Just at present we are happy to welcome the Rev. and Mrs. F. W. Elphick with their family, who are making Durban their holiday resort this year. They plan to stay with us for a month, and needless to say we are only too pleased to add them to our social group. They report that at last the long drought in the Free State has been broken, and now they have more water than they know what to do with on the farm!

     The society also has a new permanent member in the person of little Gwinneth Levine, the infant daughter of Mr. and Mrs. Louis Levine (Enid Cockerell), who was born on November 15th. Even such a tiny new member as this makes us feel that the society is growing, and Fives us a feeling of hope for the future.
     J. M. G.

     CATHEDRAL VISITORS.

     The Pastor of a German Reformed Church in Norristown, Pa., accompanied by one of his deacons, visited the Cathedral recently for the purpose of inviting some one to address their Men's Association on the subject of "The Church of the New Jerusalem." They have been studying various religions, inviting a member of each to give them first-hand information. As their Association is essentially a lay undertaking, they expressed a preference for a lay speaker, though quite willing to have a minister. Finally, they said they would "take a chance" on me, if I would go. The meeting was held on November 16, and I was accompanied by Mr. Wilfred Howard and Mr. Erik Sandstrom. We were cordially received by a group of about thirty men, and spent a very enjoyable evening with them.

     In my remarks I endeavored to show the reason for the establishment of the New Church; the necessity for a true church at all times; how one church after another had fallen away and been consummated, and had been succeeded by a new one; and how finally the Lord had made His Second Coming, as He had promised. A brief account of Swedenborg's life was then given, and I closed with a statement of the fundamental doctrines of the New Church. My half-hour's talk was followed by an hour-and-a-half's discussion, during which many questions were asked and answered. Mr. Howard spoke briefly on "Science and Religion," and Mr. Sandstrom on "The Fall of Man." The meeting adjourned at ten o'clock, when refreshments were served.

     While we do not feel that we made any converts, the occasion brought a knowledge of the Doctrines to those who had formerly known nothing of them. I presented a copy of The Four Doctrines to the Pastor, and some of the members will doubtless visit the Cathedral to Rain further information. Indeed, a few days after our visit, I received a letter from one who had attended the meeting, from which I quote, as follows:

     "I hope you will pardon this intrusion upon your time. My only excuse is the great interest aroused in me by your talk at the Ascension Reformed Church the other night.

     "While I cannot accept unqualifiedly all the statements made by you, yet I am compelled to acknowledge that I was and am profoundly impressed by your exposition of the principles of the Church of the New Jerusalem.

     "I hope also that you did not regard my questions the other night in the light of 'baiting' you, or endeavoring to show weakness in your arguments. I wished only to clarify for myself those points which were obscure.

     "May I impose further upon you to the extent of requesting further information upon the Writings of Swedenborg. I have read none of them, and would like very much to familiarize myself with his principles. . . ."

     I have sent him a copy of The Four Doctrines, and invited him to come to Bryn Athyn for a service in the Cathedral, offering to show him a complete set of the Writings, and to tell him something of what is contained in each.

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I have since received another letter from him, and expect to hear further.
     WM. R. COOPER.

     LOS ANGELES, CALIF.

     The absence of the Pastor during September and October, when he visited the northern part of California, gave us a longer summer vacation than usual. We resumed our activities with the service on Sunday, October 15th, which was followed by a society dinner in celebration of Gabriel Church Day, commemorating the beginning of our society five years ago. A very enjoyable time was experienced by those present, who all felt that it was good to be together again. A big birthday cake, given by Mrs. Peter Klippenstein, helped to make the occasion festive, and we were greatly entertained when the Pastor read excerpts from some of our early news reports to the Life.

     The doctrinal classes this year, again being held in the homes, are devoted to a study of the work on Heaven and Hell, and are proving most interesting and instructive.

     We were most happy to witness the baptism of Dr. Cecilia Reiche, on Sunday, August 27th, and now take great pleasure in welcoming her as a member of our society.

     A rousing Hallowe'en party at the home of Mr. and Mrs. Peter Klippenstein confirmed the fact that October 31st is the night of spooks and ghosts and nonsense. Prizes were given to the man and woman giving the best dance in character with his or her costume, and the contest provided much entertainment.

     A service was held commemorating Thanksgiving Day. The Pastor preached a very timely sermon, admonishing us to be thankful to the Lord, not only for our blessings, but also for our trials and misfortunes, whereby, in the Divine Providence, we are tempted and tried, that in overcoming we may gain salvation. Those of us not having family gatherings met together for dinner at the church room, and did justice to a truly bountiful repast.

     The Men's Philosophy Club has been meeting regularly each month, with very enlightening presentations of subjects and stimulating discussions. At several of the recent meetings the different theories of the Origin of Man have been considered.

     The Women's Club is progressing with Mrs. Boef as President, Miss Evangeline Iler as Secretary, and Miss Margaret Hansen as Treasurer. Much credit is due to Miss Alice Sheppard for arranging the programs of several delightful meetings. We hope that this organization will develop like the proverbial acorn, and eventually embrace many uses and activities.

     In the late summer, the departure of the Fred G. Davis family for Bryn Athyn left our ranks considerably depleted. But we are happy to say that our members have responded with willingness and enthusiasm to the added burden that is always placed upon those remaining when a large family leaves a small society. As our news notes have shown in the past, the Davis family took a large part in the activities of our group, and it is natural that we should miss them. We wish them the best fulfillment of their hopes and expectations.

     An exceptionally successful Christmas celebration was held on December 24th, beginning with a service at 4:30 o'clock. We attribute this success to the co-operation of those who aided in carrying out the program, and to the large attendance, which greatly exceeded our expectations. Our small church room, festively decorated with evergreens and wreaths, was filled to capacity with thirty-eight persons,-the largest attendance we have had since June. 1931. An effort was made to adapt the service to both young and old, there being eleven children present.

     Following the service, three very beautiful tableaux of the Nativity of our Lord were presented.

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Comments by those present expressed encouragingly the opinion that the artistry and impressiveness of the tableaux greatly excelled that of the last few years. This was undoubtedly due to the generous efforts of those who took part, and to Miss Bernice Stroh's ability in costuming. A delightful buffet supper followed, and while the older people enjoyed themselves conversing, the children had a really hilarious time. Christmas stockings, donated by the Women's Club, added much to their delight. This encouraging ending of last year gives us hope and new expectations for 1934.
     V. G. B.

     GLENVIEW, ILL.

     Ushering in the Christmas festivities on December 23rd, the Alvin E. Nelsons invited all singers to their house to practise the carols and for a general musical evening. It was a very merrie occasion. Among the features a male quartet of the boys showed their wares.

     On Christmas Eve the carolers went around bearing their message in song to the brightly lighted and decorated homes, winding up with a jolly time at the Oscar L. Scalbom home.

     The usual Sunday service was held on the 24th, and the Christmas service and festival on Christmas Day. This year the entire service was held in the assembly hall. On the stage was the Representation of the Nativity,-better and fuller than ever before. The large hall was darkened, profusely decorated with greenery, and lighted with candles. The service being principally for children, the school occupied the front seats, and the children under school age were largely present. After the offertory, all the children, from the newest baby up, received appropriate gifts from the church, distributed by the pastor, assisted by three young ladies of the choir in their-robes. The favorite songs were sung, and a happy Christmas sphere was over all.

     On Friday, December 29th, a fine wedding was held in the church when Mr. Donald R. Coffin and Miss Louise Gladish were united in marriage, the Rev. W. L. Gladish, father of the bride, performing the ceremony, assisted by our pastor. After the ceremony a general reception was held in the parish hall, many friends of the wedded pair wishing them well and making merry.

     A family party was given at the church building by Mrs. E. J. E. Schreck on Saturday, December 30th, from 3.30 to 6.30 p.m. It included entertainment for all, from the grandparents to the smallest children,-a large Christmas tree with favors for the little ones, games, dances, and refreshments in abundance. Truly a fitting holiday festival!

     The usual Sunday morning service was held on the last day of the year, and in the evening there was a special service of song, praise and instrumental music at 9.30 o'clock, preceding the festivities of a New Year's celebration. The service included several selections rendered by the choir (augmented for the event), a violin selection, a tenor solo, congregational singing, and organ music. The pastor gave a short, inspiring address. Supper was served at 11 o'clock, and dancing and other entertainment followed, continuing until about 3 a.m.
     J. B. S.

     KITCHENER, ONT.

     The monthly social for November was held on the last Friday of the month, beginning with a supper at which selected topics from the Writings were presented by our pastor and discussed by various speakers The latter part of the evening was given over to cards and dancing.

     The day school closed on Wednesday before Christmas with an entertainment by the school. Three short plays given by various grades, a dance, and songs, comprised the program; the whole being very well done and thoroughly enjoyed by the parents and friends of the children.

     The following Friday evening, the Young People's Class, directed by the pastor, produced a series of eleven tableaux, as follows: 1) Jacob's Blessing upon Judah;

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2) Balaam's Prophecy; 3) The Annunciation to Zacharias; 4) Mary's Visit to Elizabeth; 5) The Annunciation to Mary; 6) The Angel Appearing to the Shepherds; 7) The Adoration of the Shepherds; 8) The Presentation in the Temple; 9) The Wise Men Following the Star; 10) The Adoration of the Wise Men; 11) Joseph Warned to Flee into Egypt. These scenes were well staged, and the added feature of speaking parts made them, I believe, the most impressive we have had in years.

     On Sunday morning at the adult Christmas service the pastor gave a fine address on the text of Genesis 49: 10, " The scepter shall not depart from Judah . . . until Shiloh come." The chancel was beautifully decorated with evergreens, flowers and candles. In the evening the children had their festival, and the church was filled to capacity. Several readings from the Word, a talk by the pastor on the subject of Balaam's Prophecy, a recitation in Hebrew by the children, and the singing of Christmas songs, composed the service. The pastor then presented the children with gifts of fruit and nuts, after first explaining to them that the giving of gifts to the Lord, and receiving of everything from Him, was represented in their presenting offerings and receiving gifts from the society.

     A New Year's service, with the administration of the Holy Supper, was held on the last Sunday of the year. On the evening of New Year's Day we gathered at seven o'clock and partook of supper together, after which our pastor gave an address dealing with the significance of the day for New Church people. Cards and dancing occupied the remainder of the evening.

     On Friday, January 5, four Bryn Athyn friends came by auto for a brief visit.-Rev. C. E. Doering. Rev. Vincent Odhner, Mr. Daric Acton, and Mr. Hobert Smith. The men of the society entertained them at supper, after which the ladies joined them to hear Dr. Doering speak on New Church Education.
     C. R.

     WYOMING, OHIO.

     Early in September our activities were resumed after the summer vacation. Services are held regularly each Sunday at 11 a.m., preceded at 10 o'clock by a children's service; there are regular doctrinal classes on Wednesdays at 7.30 p.m. These meetings are held at the home of Mr. and Mrs. Charles G. Merrell, and visitors are cordially welcomed. The Rev. Norman H. Reuter, our pastor, is also giving instruction on several afternoons a week to the children, to whom he is affectionately known as "Uncle Norman."

     The congregation of the Wyoming Circle numbers thirty-one persons, fifteen adult members and sixteen children. In addition there are three adults who are apparently interested, though not yet members. Our group has been enlarged during the past year by six persons,-Mr. and Mrs. Price Coffin, Mr. and Mrs. Philip DeMaine, Mrs. Poland Burkey, and the charming bride of Mr. Richard Waelchli, who was joyfully welcomed by us on the last day of the year. We have been particularly gratified to have Mr. and Mrs. Roland Burltey take such an active part in our uses.

     There have been four socials this season. The first was a dinner party at the home of Mr. and Mrs. Chas. G. Merrell to celebrate the visit of our Pastor Emeritus, the Rev. F. E. Waelchli, who stops off in Wyoming for old times' sake between his pastoral visits to Middleport and Detroit. We always enjoy seeing our dear friend again, and usually arrange some kind of party for his entertainment. In October, Bishop and Mrs. de Charms spent a day in Wyoming on their way to Glenview. This unofficial episcopal visit was greatly appreciated by us all, and afforded us an opportunity to hear from the author of the Growth of the Mind the purpose in the preparation and publication of this most useful book.

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Our third social was held at the home of Mr. and Mrs. W. A. Smith. After a lovely supper, a series of highly intellectual games were played, in the course of which Mr. Waelchli drafted a really prophetic telegram congratulating his son upon an engagement-all a part of the game. The actual engagement of Dick Waelchli to Miss Rotert had not at that time occurred! On New Year's Eve, there was an informal affair at the home of Mr. and Mrs. Donald Merrell. We all had a very enjoyable evening, and in spite of repeal we saw the New Year in with a clear head and a clear conscience.

     We have also entertained several other visitors, including Mr. and Mrs. Archibald Price and family, of Glenview, who spent Thanksgiving Day in Wyoming with the Smiths. At the same time Miss Joanne Schoenberger, of Pittsburgh, made a brief visit.

     With the fine group of young people we now have, our social activities are becoming a more important part of our church life, and are serving a useful purpose in providing the distinctive social activities which are essential to the development of every New Church group.
     D. M.

     PITTSBURGH, PA.

     Our Christmas observance began with the morning service on Sunday, December 24th, when the Holy Supper was administered. In the afternoon at five o'clock the Children's Festival was held in the auditorium, which was decorated with evergreen and holly. The tableaux comprised three scenes: The Annunciation, The Shepherds, and The Wise Men. These were directed by Mr. Stevan Iungerich, assisted by Miss Elinor Ebert and Miss Emma Steiner. A Christmas Representation was prepared by Miss Sylvia Synnestvedt, who has been visiting her sisters here. Following the tableaux the children received gifts. On Christmas Day an appropriate morning service was held in the church.

     The X Club sponsored an elaborate holiday dance in the auditorium on December 29th. Many guests were welcomed during the holidays, and students were home for the vacation. The Rev. Homer Synnestvedt spent the fortnight here, and preached at the service on December 31st.
     E. R. D.

     BRYN ATHYN, PA.

     The Christmas observance in the society began on December 22d with a singularly beautiful and impressive tableau, accompanied by appropriate instrumental and choral music. The Nativity scenes were depicted in a continuous action on the stage of the auditorium, the children singing the sacred words of the story.

     A service for the administration of the Holy Supper was held in the cathedral on the morning of December 24th. In the afternoon the children's Christmas Service, conducted by Bishop de Charms, was attended by 715 persons. A service on Christmas Day was featured by special music, and Bishop Pendleton delivered the sermon, his text being from Luke 2:9-12, treating of the announcement to the shepherds and of the spiritual significance of the Lord's Advent.

     During the Fall season the Friday doctrinal classes were especially well attended, the Rev. Hugo Lj. Odhner presenting various phases of the subject of "Morals" in the light of the New Church.

     Death of Mr. Robinson.

     On December 26th, Ernest Frankish Robinson, for over thirty years an active and devoted member of the Bryn Athyn Church, passed into the spiritual world in his 71st year. He was born in Toronto, Canada, on November 2, 1862, a son of William Sherlock Robinson and Jane Frankish Robinson, members of the early New Church in that city. Like his father, Mr. Robinson was a pharmacist by profession, having graduated from the Ontario College of Pharmacy.

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In 1895, he married Irene Gordon, who survives him, together with one son, Mortimer, and two daughters, Beatrice (Mrs. H. Scott Forfar), and Margery (Mrs. Ralph McClarren). Another son, Victor, passed to the spiritual world in September, 1931. He is also survived by a sister, Mrs. Emily Gertrude Anderson, a member of the Olivet Church, Toronto.

     Mr. Robinson's thorough knowledge of the Writings was brought to a task to which he devoted his leisure hours for many years, that of making a compilation of all the cross references in the Theological Works, and also of the Philosophical Works. In addition, he made an Index of the Scripture references in the Spiritual Diary, which was described in New Church Life, February, 1933, pp. 63-68. These valuable works were undertaken in cooperation with Dr. Acton, and are preserved in manuscript awaiting publication.

     TORONTO, CANADA.

     Our Day School opened on September 16th with 13 pupils, which ominous number will likely be increased in the near future. Miss Dora Brown is again our teacher, with Mrs. John giving singing lessons. The Sunday School began on September 17th with 18 pupils, having Miss Vera Craigie and Mrs. Alec Craigie as teachers in addition to the pastor.

     In the Wednesday evening suppers and doctrinal classes, which commenced on October 4th, the general subject presented by the pastor is "The Relation of Religion to Life," the purpose being to see the application of Divine Doctrine in the things or states of life common to all. The attendance so far has been very good, the question and answer interest being well sustained.

     Forward Club and Sons of the Academy matters have been running more or less together, since a definite proposal to amalgamate the two was made by the local chapter of the Sons in the Spring of 1933. A committee considered the matter during the Summer, presented its report to the Forward Club at its September meeting, to the Sons at their meeting at the home of Mr. C. R. Brown on October 13th,-which also served the purpose of a get-together with Mr. Hobert Smith, President of the Bryn Athyn Chapter, who was visiting with Mr. and Mrs. T. P. Bellinger at the time. At both these meetings the new combined "set-up" was approved, and final ratification took place at a meeting of the two organizations on October 19th, when they became one in purpose and spirit. The officers for 1933-34 are: President, Frank R. Longstaff; Vice President, T. P. Bellinger; Secretary, E. J. Parker; Treasurer, D. McMaster, who, together with the Pastor (ex-officio), C. Bellinger, and R. M. Brown, form the Executive Committee.

     The new organization is working smoothly and well. Its program calls for historical papers at the first three meetings. That for November 16th was a paper on the "Rise of Roman Catholicism," presented by Frank Longstaff, Jr., B.A., and at the December meeting a paper on "Mohammedanism," by Mr. D. McMaster. Both speakers handled their subjects with the ability that we have come to expect from them, presenting their matter in an interesting and entertaining way.

     To round out the doings of our Club-Chapter we must record the pleasurable visit, on January 4th, of Rev. C. E. Doering, Rev. Vincent C. Odhner, Messrs. Daric Acton (President, Sons of the Academy) and Hobert Smith (President, Bryn Athyn Chapter). These four gentlemen came to us on a social and good-will visit in the interests of the Sons. We welcomed them with a men's supper, followed by a meeting with the whole society, at both of which all four spoke feelingly and effectively on the purposes of the Sons' organization, on New Church education generally, and more particularly on local school problems. In the meeting with the society, Dr. Doering's impromptu talk, based upon ripe experience in the teacher's function, together with his answering of questions, induced a warm, sympathetic sphere and much appreciative comment.

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     Armistice and Remembrance Day was observed when we foregathered at the church for a social game of "Aviation Euchre," visiting in imagination, by auto-giro, other societies of the church. In a brief address the pastor spoke of the fact that, "running concurrently with the noble resolutions, the hope that a better world would emerge from the chaos produced by the war, have been the disappointments of the passing years, ideals discarded and disdained, and clouds of war appearing with disturbing constancy. This anniversary should arouse in us all the desires we have for peace and good will among men." On Sunday his sermon on Isaiah 14:32, "The hope of the miserable shall be in Zion," encouraged a trust that the Lord will bring good to mankind out of the permitted evils of the Great War.     

     A most enjoyable musical entertainment was provided on November 25th by Mrs. John and her group of singers and instrumentalists. It was arranged by the local chapter of Theta Alpha in the interests of the Day School.

     Our Christmas observance began with very beautiful tableaux on Sunday evening, December 17th, the five scenes being: 1. "The Annunciation," depicting the appearing of the angel to Abram and Sarai, telling of the birth of a child to them in their old age. 2. The Birth of Moses, showing the finding of the babe in the bulrushes. 3. The Anointing of David. 4. The Nativity. 5. "The Eternal Adoration," portrayed by the children's all kneeling before the illuminated Word in the repository. The Pastor, standing in the background, repeated several passages of Scripture appropriate to the subject. This latter tableau was new, and created a most powerful and reverential sphere. To Mrs. Frank R. Longstaff and her band of helpers our thanks are due this year for the staging of these beautiful living pictures.

     The children's Christmas Tree Party was held on Friday night, December 22d, Mr. Arnold Thompson giving the talk to the young folks. The Sunday service on the 24th was preparatory to Christmas Day, when we also had morning service, with an attendance of seventy.

     Mrs. John Rothermel.

     Our friend and sister in the church, Mrs. John Rothermel (Emily Christina Bellinger), passed to her reward in the spiritual world on November 18, 1933, at the age of seventy-five years. She was born at Sebastopol, Ontario, near old Berlin, on December 17th, 1858. By her passing, a long earthly link with the New Church in Canada is severed, dating back to within twenty years of its known beginnings in this country. Mrs. Rothermel's parents were of the New Church, and she was confirmed on March 30, 1853. On October 16, 1581, the Rev. F. W. Tuerk officiated at her marriage to John Rothermel, who preceded her to the spiritual world in 1915. For long years she has been one of the most active workers in our society, and she was esteemed by us all for the constant and untiring service she gave the church. One of the uses it was her great pleasure to perform was the making of the Communion Bread. She was seldom absent from the services and doctrinal classes, and we shall greatly miss her presence among us.
     F. W.

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PHILADELPHIA DISTRICT ASSEMBLY 1934

PHILADELPHIA DISTRICT ASSEMBLY              1934




     Announcements.



     The Philadelphia District Assembly Banquet will be held in the Auditorium of De Charms Hall at Bryn Athyn, Pa., on Friday evening, February 2d, 1934, at 7 o'clock. Members and friends of the General Church are cordially invited to attend.

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COMING EARLY TO THE SEPULCHRE 1934

COMING EARLY TO THE SEPULCHRE       Rev. GEORGE DE CHARMS       1934


NEW CHURCH LIFE
VOL. LIV          MARCH, 1934          No. 3
     A TALK TO CHILDREN.

     "And very early in the morning, the first day of the week, they came unto the sepulchre at the rising of the sun." (Mark 16:2.)

     When the Lord was crucified, even His disciples did not know that He would rise again. The Lord had indeed told them many times, but they did not understand. They knew nothing about the other world, and they supposed that everything which the Lord promised was to be fulfilled on earth. They saw His mighty power. They witnessed His miracles?-the healing of diseases, the casting out of devils, and the raising of the dead to life. He commanded the wind and the waves, and they were still. Surely one who could do all these things was able to protect Himself against His enemies. Nothing could possibly do Him harm. When the mob had sought to throw Him over the cliff at Nazareth, had He not "passed through the midst of them"? When the Pharisees had tried to catch Him in His words, that they might bring some accusation against Him, had He not reduced them to silence by the wisdom of His words? When, therefore, He spake of His approaching death, they could not believe that He would really die. They looked for some hidden meaning in His words.

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     And then suddenly it all happened before they had time to realize what was taking place. He was betrayed by Judas, arrested, tried before Caiaphas and Pilate, and condemned to death. To their immense astonishment, He offered no resistance, performed no miracle, brought no punishment upon those who sought to take His life. He permitted that to happen which they had thought was impossible. They saw Him die upon the cross. Surely, after all, they must have been mistaken. This could not have been the promised Messiah. Sadness and despair laid hold on them, and they knew not what to do, or what to think.

     So did the Disciples return to their homes weeping, and mourning during that Sabbath day when the body of the Lord lay in the tomb. But when the Sabbath was past, Mary Magdalene, and Mary the mother of James, and Salome, having bought sweet spices, that they might anoint His body in token of their love, "Came unto the sepulchre at the rising of the sun" on "the first day of the week." They knew that a great stone had been placed at the mouth of the cave in which the Lord was buried, and they wondered how they would roll it away. But when they looked, they saw that the stone had already been rolled away. And when they entered into the cave, they found that the body of the Lord was not there. But they saw in vision an angel, clothed in a shining white garment, who said unto them, "Be not afraid: Ye seek Jesus of Nazareth which was crucified: He is risen. He is not here. Behold the place where they laid Him!" In fear and amazement they fled from the sepulchre.

     And presently they saw the Lord Himself. He was alive. His enemies had not done Him any harm. He had not gone far away. He was with them still, able to teach and lead, to heal and protect, even as He had been when on earth. Now for the first time did they begin to understand, remembering what He had said, namely, that He must suffer and be crucified, and the third day rise again. Now they began to realize that the "kingdom of heaven" of which He had spoken was not of this world, but that it referred to the life after death. The Lord had allowed Himself to be put to death, because He knew there was no other way to make them understand.

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In no other way could they be brought to know Him, not as a man, as a great prophet, but as the Lord, the God of heaven and earth, the Redeemer and Savior of the world.

     All this followed because, when He had been taken from them, when they thought that all was lost, when in their despair they felt like little children far from home, lost in the darkness of night, filled with fear, and knowing not where to turn, they had still clung to their deep love of Him. It followed because they sought to show that love in the only way they knew how, coming early in the morning to anoint His body with spices. Because of this they found Him. They discovered that He had not died. They saw His face, and heard His voice, and knew that He was with them still. And then the fears passed like a terrible dream from which they had awakened. They felt like children who had been brought back to their home, with its warmth and its comfort,-back into the protecting care of a wise and loving Father, in whom they felt perfect trust and confidence. Great was their joy; deep the happiness which filled their hearts,-a happiness which was felt by all who came to know them,-a happiness which filled their lives ever afterward with hope and courage and peace. For now they knew that the Lord was with them always. He did not have to be present in a material body. His was a presence more intimate and real than any they had known while He remained on earth.

     This is the joy and gladness which the Lord wished to impart to them, and for the sake of which, because He loved them, He was willing to pass through all the sufferings of His crucifixion. This is the joy which He wished to impart to all men, and to which we return each year at Easter time, when we recall His resurrection. For then do we also come to realize that the Lord is present today even as He was so long ago. Especially is this joy possible to those who belong to the New Church. For the Lord has come again. He has opened His Word, and through it as through a window we may look into the other world, to see Him there, as the Disciples saw Him after His resurrection,-see Him in the glory of His Divine Human, as He is seen by the angels of heaven.

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     We cannot find Him there unless we learn, even as little children, to love Him, and because of that love to seek Him in the Word. When we grow up to be men and women; when we must leave our home; when we can look no longer to our parents to guide and protect us, but must face life for ourselves;-then will we perhaps feel as if we were alone. It will appear as if we were lost in the midst of night, knowing not where to go, or what to do. It will appear as if the Lord, about whom we have been taught so much, had been taken from us. But if we will then go to the Word, in faith and simple trust, "early in the morning, the first day of the week," that is, at the very beginning of our life, seeking the Lord there;-then, in His mercy, we will find Him, even as the Disciples found Him. We will be given to see that He is present with us, that He has not gone away, that He is very near, ready to teach us what to do, ready to guide our steps in the way of peace. Then will a great joy fill our hearts, a sense of peace and safety under the governing Divine Providence of Him Who alone is our merciful Heavenly Father, and our God.

LESSON: Mark 16.
MUSIC: Hymnal, pages 52, 49, 50.
NEW CHURCH SERMONS 1934

NEW CHURCH SERMONS              1934

     A pamphlet published monthly, from October to June inclusive, by the General Church of the New Jerusalem. Contents: Sermons and other material suitable for individual reading, family worship, and missionary purposes, reprinted from New Church Life. Sent free of charge on application to Mr. H. Hyatt, Treasurer, Bryn Athyn, Pa.

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REFORMATION 1934

REFORMATION       W. CAIRNS HENDERSON       1934

     "Come now, and let us reason together, saith the Lord: though your sins be as scarlet, they shall be as white as snow; though they be red like crimson, they shall be as wool." (Isaiah 1:18.)

     To the faithful in all ages, the Lord communicates the power to become regenerate, through faith in Him as the Truth, and through life in good. The perpetual extension of this faculty is the everlasting covenant, at once the inspiration and the core of all revelation.

     Implicitly within it, as a prior requisite, is the assurance of endowment with the ability to be reformed. For spiritual rebirth proceeds through three distinct phases; and reformation, which is the product of worthy repentance, must of need be achieved as constituting the ground on which the heavenly proprium is built.

     In its cohortative opening phrase, the text is indicative of this endowment; of the organic whereby it functions; and of the mode in which it is to be wielded by man in the formation of this ground of spiritual life. It refers to that faculty of the mind which is designated the "UNDERSTANDING" as the subject of reformation. The sacred words that follow are a promise of the remission of sins, and a prophetic unveiling of that quality of life which is to crown the self-effacing ambition of the spiritual man.

     Briefly stated, the teaching is that if man, on his part, will rebuild his understanding through victory in temptation, and through reflection upon the truths of doctrine, and upon his relation to the Lord; then the Lord, on His part, will be enabled and empowered to lead him from the falsity of evil into spiritual truth, and from infernal and profane affections and delights into pure and heavenly loves. "Come now, and let us reason together, saith the Lord: though your sins be as scarlet, they shall be as white as snow; though they be red like crimson, they shall be as wool." Analytical examination of the series of ideas here presented will render the doctrine clear.

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     Much is said in the Writings concerning the significance of the promise in the text; but the internal sense of the words, "Come now, and let us reason together, saith the Lord," is nowhere given. Fortunately, however, there are three sources of information, prolific in suggestion, from which their meaning may be elicited. The Writings teach that the inspiration of the Hebrew Word descends so completely into the ultimates of expression that a given term often yields its inner content directly when its primitive meaning has been ascertained by the student. Furthermore, there is ample precedent in the Writings for seeking guidance in the spiritual sense of similar passages in the Word. And, lastly, there is a wealth of explanation in the Heavenly Doctrine concerning "reasoning" to which informative reference may be made. When these sources have been examined and compared, an eminently understandable teaching is within the purview of the investigator.

     The root idea of the Hebrew word translated "let us reason together " is "to be right." Reciprocally it means "to argue," and may either be so rendered, or else be expressed by a synonym-such as "to dispute," or "to contend in controversy." What is involved in the term, therefore, is the idea of a state of activity which consists in the action and reaction of two antagonists in relation to a given position or principle, one offering reasons for its acceptance, the other rebutting his points and showing cause why it should be rejected.

     In several places in the Word, the Lord is represented as the adversary of man. More than once it is said in the Prophets that He has a controversy with Judah and Israel, or that He will "plead" with them. The idea is carried over into the Apocalypse, in which the Lord says to the church in Ephesus, "Nevertheless, I have somewhat against thee." (Rev. 2:4.) Citation of the many passages is, obviously, impossible. Suffice it to say that in all of them the church is clearly represented as neglectful of the things of spiritual life, and the Lord as striving to bend its reluctant footsteps in the direction of the heavenward path. In a word, the Lord's dispute, or controversy, is ever with the unregenerate. For the perpetual issue between the Lord, whose love wills heaven for all men, and the unregenerate man whose lust demands satisfaction in hell, is whether man shall belong to the Lord, or shall be his own.

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     Ideally the conflict is between opposite loves. But love does not fight save in and through that in which it manifests itself. The teaching is that Divine Love fights through Divine Truth, and infernal love through falsity. So the concept of man's reasoning with the Lord which alone is tenable is that of conflict in the mind between revealed truth intellectually apprehended, and the falsities which serve to justify evils of life. And the plane of this conflict is, evidently, the understanding,-the rational faculty.

     The doctrine given in the Writings concerning reasoning infills this concept. In general it is, that when the Lord reasons with man, He exposes his natural evils and falsities by means of revealed doctrine, and even presses him to intellectual conviction of sin. Man's response is twofold. When his evil, native will fights through falsities to retain its natural freedom, which is to it as life itself, man disputes with the Lord, and temptation follows. But when he reflects and meditates upon Divine Revelation, and comes to understand, perceive, and receive it in faith and life, he reasons with the Lord, and not against Him.

     Thus a fascinating doctrine of moving power and great beauty emerges from these cryptic phrases. The strange invitation, so foreign to our thought, however reasonable it may have appeared to the Hebrew mind, saturated with the anthropomorphism of the book of Job, and familiar with Abraham's appeal for the doomed cities, becomes pregnant with spiritual meaning. An authentic vision of what is meant by reasoning between God and man looms over the horizon of spiritual thought. The Lord is presented as, from love, constantly urging man to the abnegation of proprial life; as offering, from wisdom, through the Word, cogent reasons for this renunciation: and man is seen as fighting back; refusing love; rejecting truth; fashioning specious reasons for the retention of that state of life which alone appears to him as grounded in freedom. And, of the mercy of the Lord, the combat is sustained until all hope of reformation is dead. The Lord visits "unto thirds and unto fourths"; until the very impletion of evil and falsity, He strives to draw man to "reason" with Him. This state must be attained before there can be any reformation; before there can be what is more interiorly meant by "reasoning," which is a state of willingness to listen to the voice of truth, and thoughtfully to meditate upon it, and this from an affirmative principle in the mind.

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And it is to this state that the Lord invites man when He says, "Come now, and let us reason together."

     It will be observed that in the progress of the man of the church this state represents an advance towards interiors. Regeneration is a threefold purification from evils, and every purificatory process therein originates from a distinct source, the whole forming an ascending series. First in time is the purification of repentance. That this is, peculiarly, purification from obedience is clear from the words in this series that enjoin it: "Wash you, make you pure; put away the evils of your doings from before mine eyes; cease to do evil; learn to do well; seek judgment, relieve the oppressed, judge the fatherless, plead for the widow."

     Throughout the series of passages in which the text is set the idea of purification here expressed is dominant. The first purification consisted in desisting from evils of thought and life when these had been discovered through self-examination But the state of life to which it led had not been given permanence by the free consent of the rational. And this is not enough; for the purpose of regeneration, considered as the entire process, is to give man a new understanding in which a new will may be implanted. The giving of this understanding is reformation; the implantation of the new will is regeneration proper. The living content of these new faculties is spiritual faith and the good of mutual love.

     How, then, is this new understanding, in which the heavenly proprium is to be built, imparted to man? Rightly to understand this, it is necessary again to consider the implications of repentance. The repentant strive to desist from evils of life, to reject principles of wrong thinking, to repudiate evil desires. But the perverted will and understanding from which those desires and thoughts arise have not yet been cleansed. Man is rationally aware that his evils have been rationally exposed from the Word. From his repentant state, which is natural, he looks with desire to the spiritual life. But that it may be attained there must be a cessation of natural life, and this the unpurified faculties of the mind resist with all their power. Temptations follow, and man is engaged in disputation with the Lord.

     And it is in these combats that there emerges the faculty which makes reformation possible,-the faculty of reflection.

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The doctrine is, that without reflection no one can be reformed, and that man reflects especially in temptations. The power to reflect is from remains of good and truth,-those remains which have begun to be operative through the cleansing of the natural.

     As man reflects upon the mercy of the Lord experienced in temptation, though unrealized until later; as he reflects upon the providence that leads him; as he reflects upon the course of his life as it appears in the light of revealed truth, and upon the nature of the final abode to which it will bring him; as he comes to see the consequence of evil and the end of good in relation to the field of use rather than as the cause of personal punishment or reward; as he does all these things sincerely, he comes by imperceptible degrees to an understanding of the truth of doctrine, to a perception of its truth, and to a reception of it in life. And as this is done a genuine spiritual faith is implanted in a new understanding,-a faith from which evils may be resisted as never before, a faith in which spiritual good may be implanted. This it is to be "reformed," and this it is to "reason" with the Lord.

     To those who so obey His dictate, the promise of the Lord is, "Though your sins be as scarlet, they shall be as white as snow; though they be red like crimson, they shall be as wool." This change of colors is a symbolic representation of the transformation in the quality of the mind that is effected by reformation. The reason why this change is expressed through the medium of colors is because, since colors are exhibited to the sight in light, they signify truths manifesting good, or, in the opposite sense, falsities manifesting evils.

     Scarlet is the color of flame and of blood, both of which signify life. It is by flame, especially as manifested in the natural sun, that all life in the universe is sustained. All the life of man's body depends on the blood, which is called the "life" of man in the Word. So "scarlet," in the Word, signifies truth living from good. In the opposite sense it means the falsity of evil, and it is in this sense that it is here to be understood. Snow, due to its white glitter, its purity, and because it is a form of water, a compact body of particles compressed and crystallized, represents spiritual truth, and especially, perhaps, truth formed into that harmonious, interrelated body which is designated "doctrine."

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The teaching is, therefore, that even if man, as to his understanding, is immersed in the falsity of evil, he can be led into the doctrine of spiritual truth.

     "Crimson," translated "purple" in the Writings, is a deep red with something of blue in it. As such, it is a fitting correspondent of celestial love, and, in the opposite sense, of the love of evil, especially as it stands forth in the love of self. "Wool," because it comes from a sheep, represents celestial good in which there is innocence. So the continuation of the teaching is, that, as to his will, man can be led by the Lord from love of self into heavenly love, if he suffers himself to be reformed.

     The quality of this love is indicated by the fact that the promise is to the spiritual. The internal of the celestial heaven is love to the Lord; its external the good of mutual love. To the celestial is granted a series of living perceptions of truth in the form of the Divine Human as Life Itself, and the truth, instantly perceived by them, is as immediately lived. And while they have need of doctrine as a basis or ground for the perception they enjoy, their need is different from that of the spiritual.

     But that which is the external of the celestial is the internal of the spiritual heaven, which is peculiarly distinguished by love to the neighbor, which is defined in the Writings as the "good of mutual love." And the basis of this love,-that which gives it form and direction, that from which the angels of the spiritual heaven think,-is doctrine. For while the celestial, as it were, live their doctrine without thinking about it in the performance of uses to the neighbor, the spiritual genius has need of a doctrinal formulation as an objective thing.

     It is to be observed, however, that there are two states of the spiritual in relation to doctrine, and these applicable to the man who is becoming spiritual. The first is that in which he looks from truth to good, and desires it; the second is that in which, when spiritual good has been appropriated, he looks from that good to truth. The first is, distinctively, the state of reformation with which the text is concerned. This is the state in which the truths of faith are implanted in the mind by means of temptations and reflection. And the comforting teaching is, that if man is reformed in this world he can be regenerated in the other life-though only to the celestial-natural or spiritual-natural degree.

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     Yet reformation is no more an end in itself than is the repentance which precedes it and makes it possible. For man does not become spiritual until, by undergoing the further process of regeneration, he appropriates spiritual good,-the good of mutual love, the acquisition of which is foreshadowed in the text,-and implants it in his faith. This is clearly taught in this series of verses, for immediately after the text it is written: "If ye be willing and obedient, ye shall eat the good of the land: but if ye refuse and rebel, ye shall be devoured with the sword: for the mouth of the Lord hath spoken." Amen.

LESSONS: Isaiah 1:1-20. John 3:1-21. T. C. R. 571.
MUSIC: Liturgy, pages 526, 633, 639.
PRAYERS: Liturgy, nos. 58, 73.
HEAVENLY REPRESENTATION 1934

HEAVENLY REPRESENTATION              1934

     "Infants in the other life are instructed chiefly by representatives suited to their capacities, which are so beautiful, and at the same time so full of wisdom from an interior ground, as to exceed all belief. Thus intelligence, which derives its soul from good, is insinuated into them by degrees. I am allowed to mention here two representatives which I was permitted to see, from which a conclusion may be formed with regard to the rest. First, they represented the Lord rising from the sepulchre, and at the same time the unition of His Human with the Divine. This was done in a manner so wise as to exceed all human wisdom, and at the same time in an innocent, infantile manner. They also presented the idea of a sepulchre, but not simultaneously an idea of the Lord, except so remotely as scarcely to be perceived that it was the Lord, otherwise than as it were afar off; because in the idea of a sepulchre there is something funereal, which was thus removed. Afterward, they cautiously admitted into the sepulchre something atmospherical which appeared like a thin watery substance, whereby they signified the spiritual life in baptism; this again with a judicious removal of everything unbecoming. After that, I saw represented by them the Lord's descent to those that were bound, and His ascent with them into heaven, which was done with incomparable prudence and piety. And there was this peculiarly infantile feature in the representation: They let down little threads, scarcely discernible, very soft and delicate, whereby they raised up the Lord; while a holy fear possessed them, lest any part of the representative should border upon anything wherein was not the spiritual celestial. Not to mention other representatives in use among them, and by means of which they are led into the knowledges of truth and the affections of good,-such as plays suited to the minds of little children." (H. H. 335; A. C. 2299.)

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NOTES ON THE CALENDAR READINGS 1934

NOTES ON THE CALENDAR READINGS       Rev. HUGO LJ. ODHNER       1934

     As mentioned in the January LIFE (P. 54), the Daily Readings from the Arcana Coelestia this year concern various aspects of the internal senses of the Scriptural story of Jacob's flight from Laban, his settlement in Canaan, and the subsequent story of how Joseph was sold by his brethren.

     Laban, at whose home in Syria Jacob labored for wives and herds: served for Jacob the same use as that performed by various societies of spirits and angels for the regenerating man. For in the pilgrimage of life man's spirit must sojourn in societies which are in "collateral" or "mediate" good, and which serve to introduce him into more genuine good (4073, 4077). Mediate good, being associated with worldly things, has evil and falsity adjoined to it (4099): indeed, "in man there is no pure good . . . nor pure truth . . . " (3993). But the Lord accepts such mixed good as a means to man's gradual purification. Angels may be said to be in genuine good, yet, in teaching concerning the mediate government which the Lord exerts through heaven, the Doctrine states that "some things do indeed come from the angels themselves who are with man," and that these things " are such as accommodate themselves to the affection of man, but in themselves are not goods, though they still serve for introducing the goods and truths which are from the Lord. (A. C. 8728.)

     In the process of glorifying His human, the Lord also attached to Himself societies of angels and spirits, by which means He scrutinized the quality of their interiors, and came into a Divine "pity that they could not be saved unless the Lord's human should also be made Divine, for them to look upon" (4075). These societies became indignant when the Lord receded from them; for the appearance to them was as if the states which the Lord had developed while amongst them were theirs-their gifts to Him! And yet they could not retain such states when He withdrew from them.

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Somewhat the same occurs when regenerating men are led away from "intermediate societies" (4151:2, 4110:2). And thus Laban is pictured as filled with indignation when he finds that Jacob has fled with his well-earned wives and herds, though ultimately the two make a covenant of peace between them.

     The apparent chastening of Jacob's character, by his arduous and profitable sojourn in Haran, reflects a change also in his spiritual representation. At first Jacob represents truth, and Esau good, both in the natural degree. Natural good is too vacillating and irresponsible to be the basis for the covenant of regeneration in the natural, and Jacob is therefore permitted to supplant him in the right of primogeniture. But in so doing, Jacob takes on something of Esau's representation, and comes to stand for the good of the natural-that is, the good of natural truth, or good acquired by a life according to natural truth such as is revealed in the letter of the Word; for "all truth has good within it" (3659, 3712, 3793). Later, on account of his relations with Laban, Jacob's representation is modified to include the idea of mediate good (4234).

     In the series of the Lord's glorification, Jacob's story thus represents how the Natural of the Lord was made Divine, through truth in the Natural. When he separated from Laban, Jacob represents mediate good in the Natural; but in reality this good was still truth, for the good of truth means simply truth carried into act and will. And therefore the appearance is that truth is prior to good. But the fact is that the "circle of life," which seems to begin in sensual knowledge, and climb through thought to will, and then descend through the thought into act, is itself actually produced by an influx of good (4247)-and, indeed, a Divine Celestial Good inflowing through the Divine Rational. This influx of good is now signified by Esau, the son of Isaac; for while at first the good of the natural had been fickle and undetermined, yet after the good of truth had developed a basis of progress in the natural, the natural or spontaneous influx of good from within is caught up in the ordered forms of that truth, and directs it to look towards heavenly ends, and to the good of life itself. And so a matured Jacob must now humbly go to meet a new and gentler Esau, before he can cross the Jordan and enter his promised land.

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     The Heavenly Marriage.

     The complicated marriage-relations of Jacob are considerably simplified in the light of the statements in the Arcana (n. 3952) concerning the reasons why Rachel purchased Leah's "dudaim." It is there shown that the only true marriages within the mind of the regenerate man exist between the good of a lower degree and the truth of a higher-that is, the next higher-degree. In the narrative, this is between Jacob (the good of natural truth) and his beloved Rachel (the affection of interior truth). Good and truth within the same degree are related as are brothers, or as a sister and a brother, and their conjunction would not indicate a progressing regenerate state, as may be seen by the fact that even natural good from an evil love may delight in doctrinal knowledge from a spiritual origin. Common sense perceives that the progression of a man to a higher plane of life is only possible if truth of a higher degree can become the object of man's love in its lower estate. The understanding can be given to see truths of spiritual import before the will can become really affected by the striving to realize its promises. Truth thus purifies and elevates good, and raises the will into a higher light.

      A glimpse of this law was undoubtedly seen in the days of the Ancient Church. The nuptial relations of the deities within some of the ancient pantheons may reflect that knowledge. If we adopt the hypotheses of the late Rev. C. T. Odhner, the correspondences of the six principal Graeco-Roman divinities would be indicated by the following diagram:

               Truth                Good
Celestial      Zeus or Jupiter           Hestia or Vesta
Spiritual      Poseidon or Neptune      Hera or June
Natural      Hades or Pluto           Demeter or Ceres

     Referring to A. C. 3952, the aforesaid author writes: "We regard it as more than a coincidence that Jupiter married, not Vesta, but June; that Neptune at one time united with Ceres; and that Pluto took for his wife Persephone, the daughter of Ceres." (The Mythology of the Greeks and the Romans, p. 28.) Significantly, Vesta alone remained a virgin, since the good of the celestial man enters into a heavenly marriage with the Divine Truth which proceeds from the Lord.

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NEW CHURCH AND MODERN SCIENCE 1934

NEW CHURCH AND MODERN SCIENCE       WILDRED HOWARD       1934

GOD AND THE UNIVERSE. By the Rev. Clifford Harley, a Minister of the Lord's New Church. Manchester: The New-Church Publishing Society, 34 John Dalton Street, 1933. Cloth; pp. 58; 1/6.

     The purpose of this little work, as stated on the title-page, is a "sympathetic examination of the book by Sir James Jeans, The Mysterious Universe, from the standpoint of the philosophy and theology contained in the Writings of Emanuel Swedenborg." The author is Minister of the Conference Society in South Glasgow, and his book is the expression of one who evidently has a firm belief in the philosophy of the Writings and the philosophical works, and who is also keenly interested in the philosophical implications of modern scientific theory.

     The four chapters are entitled: 1. The Expiring Sun. 2. The New World of Modern Physics. 3. Relativity and the Trend away from Materialism. 4. The New-Church Philosophy of Creation.

     The first chapter discusses, among other things, the conclusions of Sir James,-that the sun, having no extraneous supply of heat, must of necessity diminish and in time expire; and as the tendency of the earth is to travel away from the sun, rather than towards it, death by freezing seems to be the final and unhappy end of all mankind; or, as quoted from Sir James: "It matters little by what particular road this final state is reached; all reads lead to Rome, and the end of the journey cannot be other than universal death." To offset this pessimistic conclusion, Mr. Harley quotes at some length from well-known passages in the Writings in which the ends and purposes of creation are set forth, including the principle "that preservation is perpetual creation, as subsistence is perpetual existence." In this chapter he also discusses the tendency of modern science, as stated by Sir James, to interpret the stream of knowledge as looking toward a non-mechanical reality, in which the universe begins to look more like a great thought than like a great machine.

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     The second chapter discusses some of the more important changes that have taken place in the conceptions of modern physics. Brief reference is made to the theories of the atom, different types of radiation, such as radium, cosmic rays, etc., the laws of the conservation of energy, and of matter, and the more recent laws of indeterminacy. The author infers that it is some of these comparatively recent changes in the viewpoint of modern physics that make possible an easier acceptance of Swedenborg's philosophy. Thus, on page 30, he says:

     "In short, the frontiers of science are being pushed forward by the astronomer, the physicist, and the mathematician, until they approach ever nearer to the domain of the spiritual, and make it ever clearer to the rational mind that creation did not 'merely happen,' and is not a self-contained, self-preserved, and self-explanatory system, is neither mechanistic, nor fatalistic, but is indeed more like a great thought than a great machine."

     In his book on the Mysterious Universe, Sir James, whilst admitting the presence of a great thought in the process of creation, is yet uncertain, or at least silent, in regard to the question as to where the thought originates, or as to the nature of the creator from whence the thought or plan must proceed. In contradistinction to this state of mind, Mr. Harley points out repeatedly that the facts of nature, and of creation in general, point to the presence of God, rather than to a "great thought" or universal force. Thus, on page 31: "The only adequate explanation of the observed facts is that the universe is the creation of a supreme Mind, which is immanent in and manifested by all physical processes."

     In the third chapter, on Relativity and the Trend away from Materialism, the author briefly outlines the relation of ether to matter, the negative results of the Michelson-Morley experiments, sometimes called the "ether-drift" experiments, and the work and theories of Einstein, which largely followed from these experiments. Finally, the chapter contains a brief discussion of the three atmospheres,-the aura, the ether, and the air.

     In regard to the work of Einstein, leading to the denial of the ether, it is generally recognized, as pointed out by the author, that the inception or inspiration of Einstein's work was due largely to the failure of experimental science to detect an ether-drift, or the motion of the earth through the ether of space, notwithstanding the patient work of many scientists in this field, notably the experiments performed by Sir Oliver Lodge, Michelson-Morley, and some others.

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In spite of this long-continued search for an ether-drift, by many of the world's most famous scientists, the results have always been negative, until finally the conclusion was reached by many that, as there was no drift, there was probably no ether; or, as stated by Sir James, in the Mysterious Universe:

     "The experiment was performed many times, but no time-difference at all could be detected. Thus, on the hypothesis that our earth was surrounded by a sea of ether, the experiments seemed to show that its speed of motion through this sea of ether was nil. To all appearances, the earth stood permanently at rest in the ether, while the sun and the whole of creation circled around it." (Page 91.) And further: "We have seen how all experimental efforts to detect an ether have failed, and in so doing have added confirmation to the hypothesis of relativity. Every single experiment ever performed has, so far as we know, decided in favor of the relativity hypothesis. In this way the hypothesis of a mechanical ether was dethroned, and the principle of relativity set to reign in its stead." (Page 105.)

     But to the student of Swedenborg's philosophy this fact is of more than passing interest; for, as a fact of science, it tends to support the philosophy of Swedenborg in regard to the third aura, or the light-bearing ether of the Principia, where Swedenborg enunciates the principle that this ether, being an earth atmosphere, is bound to and carried with the motion of the earth, in the same manner that the air is held to the surface of the earth, and travels with it. (See Principia Ch. 5. Part 3.) It is clear, therefore, if we accept the philosophy of Swedenborg in regard to this ether, that such an ether-drift as is looked for by science is not called for, and the failure to detect it on the part of the experimental scientist can well be interpreted as scientific evidence in favor of Swedenborg.

     In the last chapter Mr. Harley deals with the New Church Philosophy of Creation as outlined in the Divine Love and Wisdom and other works of the Writings.

     The book will doubtless appeal to those members of the New Church and students of Swedenborg who have a keen interest in the developments of modern science, and it is hoped that its reading will stimulate many to a more thorough study of the many philosophical works of Swedenborg that deal largely with these matters.

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NOTES AND REVIEWS. 1934

NOTES AND REVIEWS.              1934


NEW CHURCH LIFE
Office a Publication, Lancaster, Pa.
Published Monthly By
THE GENERAL CHURCH OF THE NEW JERUSALEM
BRYN ATHYN, PA.
Editor               Rev. W. B. Caldwell, Bryn Athyn, Pa.
Business Manager          Mr. H. Hyatt, Bryn Athyn, Pa.

     All literary contributions should be sent to the Editor. Subscriptions, change of address and business communications should be sent to the Business Manager.

     TERMS OF SUBSCRIPTION
$3.00 a year to any address, payable in advance. Single Copy, 30 cents.
     NEW BOOKS.

DE WARE CHRISTELIJKE GODSDIENST ("The True Christian Religion"). By Emanuel Swedenborg. Translated into Dutch by Anton Zelling. The Hague: Swedenborg Genootschap, 1932. Buckram; pp. 1179; florins 9.50.

THE TEN COMMANDMENTS Their Christian Significance. Extracts from Swedenborg's Works. Compiled by Rev. J. F. Buss. London: Swedenborg Society, 1933. Paper, 16 mo; pp. 48; 6d.

     The extracts are from the Doctrine of Life and the True Christian Religion, explaining the Decalogue according to its natural, spiritual and celestial senses. The booklet was prepared in the belief that this revelation of the deeper meaning of the Ten Commandments should counteract the prevalent view that they are "merely Mosaic legislation for a nomad people of three or four thousand years ago, and consequently are not Divine Commandments at all, and carry no Divine obligations for the Christian of to-day. (Foreword.) We commend this as an example of the best type of evangelism, allowing the Writings to speak for themselves.

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At the end of the volume there is an advertisement of the Theological Works, which should be a feature of all our missionary pamphlets.

ALL THE YEAR ROUND. Daily Readings for the New Church. Compiled by Rev. H. Gordon Drummond. London: Published by the Reading Book Committee of the British New Church Federation, 1933. 16 mo; pp. 238; one shilling.

     An excellent collection of passages from the Writings, providing one for each day in the year. A reading from the Scriptures is also assigned for each day.

DIVINE PROVIDENCE AND HUMAN FREEDOM. Extracts from the Writings of Emanuel Swedenborg. Compiled by Rev. H. Gordon Drummond. London: Swedenborg Society, 1933. Paper; vest-pocket size; pp. 30; 3d.

STRINDBERG. BY G. A. Campbell. New York: The Macmillan Company, 1933. Buckram, 16 mo; pp. 144, 75 cents.

     A brief biography of Johann August Strindberg (1849-1912), Swedish dramatist, novelist, essayist, poet, composer, and painter. In the course of a turbulent life, he at one time became interested in the Writings, as noted in our pages during the years 1912-1919, and as thus described by the present biographer:

     While in Paris, Strindberg had been drawn to Swedenborg's works by the reading of Balzac's Seraphita, but had not made a detailed study of Swedenborgianism. His mother-in-law, well versed in the religion, now introduced him to further works, and Strindberg was tremendously impressed and comforted. The Swedenborgian doctrine taught him that his sufferings were for his past misdeeds, and that the purgatory through which he was passing represented merely a necessary stage in the journey towards a higher life. Strindberg discovered that the trials of Swedenborg, a Swede like himself, were exactly those that he had to endure, and he accepted an explanation which, by showing that the tortures had a purpose, liberated him from the fear of them to a great extent. Swedenborg, Strindberg wrote, "has frightened me back to God" and "shown me the only path to salvation: to seek out the demons from their dens within myself and to kill them--by repentance." He dedicated one of his books: "To Emanuel Swedenborg, Teacher and Leader, this book is dedicated by his disciple"

     Though Strindberg never wholly accepted the Swedenborgian doctrine, it had a calming effect on him, and the presence of the little daughter of his second marriage also helped him to recover his sanity; but he was not yet at the end of his dolorous way.

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The persecution mania returned, the electric girdle some times came to seize him, and at intervals he found the hand of Popoffsky threatening him with death once more. Strange things happened in the house, and his mother-in-law, who had hoped to complete his cure through the Swedenborgian doctrines, found the task too much for her. Strindberg's "demons" interfered in everything, and made life in the house a succession of awful terrors. "Depart, my son," she said at last, " for I am sick of this odor of hell." (Pp. 111-112)

     "His next play. Advent, was called by Strindberg a 'mystic legend' inspired by Swedenborg. It depicts a typical Swedenborgian hell, and introduces us to a judge and his wife who cannot bear the light to shine, and shut out the sun whenever they can. They have always kept within the letter of the law, and feel safe in pursuing a wicked course! since earthly justice takes no cognizance of such evil." (Page 122.)
BELITTLING THE WRITINGS. 1934

BELITTLING THE WRITINGS.              1934

     In THE NEW-CHURCH HERALD (London) for December 30, 1933, the Rev. L. Procter contributes a review of the book, Rebirth and Glorification, by the Rev. Eldred E. Iungerich, published by the author at Pittsburgh, Pa., last June. On the whole the comments of the reviewer are favorable, but he takes exception to Dr. Iungerich's using the term "Scripture" for the Writings when citing a passage from the Spiritual Diary. The closing paragraph of the review reads as follows:

     "To one unaccustomed to Bryn Athyn modes of thought, a veritable bombshell crashes when he reads of a character named Garland saying, 'I will let two passages from Scripture speak for themselves' (pp. 131, 132), and the Scripture from which the passages are read proves to be Swedenborg's Spiritual Diary. That status for his writings is implied throughout the book by Mr. Iungerich's manner of reference. Such a claim leaves me cold. Thirty years' acquaintance with the writings of the New-Church Seer impresses me with the understanding that the Scriptures are an exhaustless mine of precious gems, of which his writings show forth a few samples. Swedenborg explicitly and repeatedly declares that what he sets forth are but the most general things of the Arcana contained in the Scriptures.

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However, not to enter the labyrinth of polemics which have beset this subject from time to time, the ambition to present new Scriptures to the world-to say the least-is hopeless missionary tactics. It savors rather of military tactics. 'The basis and containment of the spiritual and celestial senses of the Word-as Swedenborg describes the genuine Scriptures-is being diffused under Providence like hayseed throughout the earth by the British and Foreign Bible Society; and if the world can be made to realize how the Lord's Servant illuminates those Scriptures, the rank of his writings will surely take care of itself. Every ounce of talent available should be directed to that vital purpose. There is none to spare for 'painting the lily.'"

     Our readers will observe that the term "Writings" is here printed without the capital "W." This may not have been intentiona1 on the part of the reviewer, since it is a style affected by the HERALD and other New Church journals in recent years, making it necessary for the editors to alter in this respect much of the manuscript submitted for publication. For it has been the almost invariable custom with New Churchmen from the beginning to capitalize the term "Writings" when it refers to the Theological Works of Emanuel Swedenborg. Such a laborious changing on the part of editors, to give ultimate point to their own attitude toward the Writings, amounts to a deliberate belittling of that Revelation which "surpasses all the revelations which have been made hitherto since the creation of the world." (Inv. 44.)

     As the reviewer seems to be not "unaccustomed to Bryn Athyn modes of thought," he should know that it is not the custom of General Church writers to designate a quotation from the Writings as a "passage from Scripture," although they would undoubtedly agree with what Dr, Iungerich meant by so doing in his book. For when the Theological Writings of Emanuel Swedenborg are accepted as a Divine Revelation, from the Lord, and not from a man, then they are as much "Holy Writ" or "Sacred Scripture" as the Divine Revelations written from the Lord by Moses, the Prophets, and the Evangelists.

     It is the Divine Truth in the forms of written revelation,-Truth from the mouth of God,-that makes those forms the Word of God. In all of them the Lord Himself speaks to men, and what He speaks is His Word.

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Therefore the Old Testament is the Word of God, the New Testament is the Word of God, and the Writings are the Word of God, because they are all Revelations of Divine Truth from God. Swedenborg declared: "As regards myself, it has not been allowed me to take anything whatever from the mouth of any spirit, nor from the mouth of any angel, but from the mouth of the Lord alone." (De Verbo XIII.)

     And so we do not regard it as incorrect to quote from the Writings as "Scripture." Such a usage, however, is quite exceptional among New Church writers, including Dr. Iungerich. To preserve the distinction between the Letter of the Word and the Writings, and to avoid confusion, they conform to the usage of the Writings themselves, where the terms "Scripture" and "Sacred Scripture" mean the Word of the Old and New Testaments. (See A. C. 961; S. D. 1950; Inv. 51; etc.)
NOTES ON THE CALENDAR READINGS 1934

NOTES ON THE CALENDAR READINGS              1934

     The first installment of a new series of "Notes on the Calendar Readings," by the Rev. Hugo Lj. Odhner, is published in our present issue. The former series of "Notes" appeared regularly in our pages from January, 1929, to December, 1931, when, owing to the pressure of other duties, Mr. Odhner was obliged to discontinue them. We are pleased to state that he now finds it possible to resume these interesting and useful comments upon subjects connected with the Daily Readings. We shall hope to publish an installment each month.
WORD EXPLAINED-TABLE OF CONTENTS 1934

WORD EXPLAINED-TABLE OF CONTENTS              1934

     We would call attention to the fact that the memorabilia and special subjects introduced here and there in the text of The Word Explained are listed in a Table of Contents printed at the beginning of Volume I of the English Edition. The references to the recently published Volume III (nos. 1650-3193) are on pages xxi-xxvi of the Table of Contents.

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HOUSE DEDICATION 1934

HOUSE DEDICATION       VICTOR J. GLADISH       1934

Editor of NEW CHURCH LIFE:
     As this subject has not been dealt with recently in your pages, I would offer a few thoughts upon it, in the hope that others may contribute to the discussion.

     In the Word a "house" represents the human mind, because a man's house is an outward representation of his mind, imperfectly so in this world, but perfectly in heaven. (H. H. 186.)

     There are many things that cause us to believe that the dwelling place, standing for the life which it shelters, should be dedicated by a religious ceremony, with a solemn invocation of the Lord's blessing. The dedication of a temple or house of God is approved in Divine Revelation. Together with the sanctification of altars and other major instruments of worship, it has been universally practiced by mankind from the days of the Ancient Church. But the dedication of human habitations is not manifestly enjoined in the Word. Yet there is much in the Word from which we may infer that it is a useful and orderly act. Let me cite a few examples.

     When Abraham departed from the home of his fathers, and pitched his tent in the Land of Canaan, "there he builded an altar unto the Lord, and called upon the name of the Lord." (Genesis 12:8.)

     In Deuteronomy 20:5, we read: "What man is there that hath built a new house, and hath not dedicated it! Let him go and return to his house, lest he die in the battle, and another man dedicate it." In the spiritual sense, to "build a house, and not dedicate (initiate) it" describes those in whom the good of the church has not yet been implanted. In the combats of temptation he yields to the falsity of evil, and "another dedicates" his house. (A. E. 734:12, 13.) In other words, as we first build a house and then enter into its uses, so the church is first established with a man by truths, but he is not really of the church until he is also in the good of life, and he then has a defense against his spiritual enemies.

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     The Lord said in the Gospel: "If a house be divided against itself, that house cannot stand." (Mark 3:25.) This is true of the mind of man. The internal and external of the mind must eventually cease their conflicts. It is the business of regeneration and the aim of the man of the church to make this end a unity under the rule of the internal spiritual man. It is manifestly true of the conjugial home that it cannot stand if it be divided against itself. It cannot become truly conjugial. And in the effort to prevent that division which hell never ceases to threaten, it is helpful to realize that such a division is really of the house against itself,-the separation of two elements which might be blended in a super-earthly unity.

     In the Epistles we read: "For we know that if our earthly house of this tabernacle were dissolved, we have a building of God, a house not made with hands, eternal in the heavens. For in this we groan, earnestly desiring to be clothed upon with our house which is from heaven." (II Corinthians 5:1, 2.)

     Like the sanctification of churches, the dedication of homes, or the initiation of their uses by formal religious ceremony, has been practiced from ancient times; but it would seem that it has more and more fallen into disuse. In our own times it is little observed in Christendom. But it has been revived in the General Church, although a Rite of Home Dedication is not provided in our Liturgy. When we consider what a vital instrument the home should be in the life of the church, and when we think of the connections which seem to link this ceremony with the genuine Ancient Church, we may well expect that it will become a fully recognized rite of the New Church, to be performed for those who desire it, and that it may widely serve to inaugurate in the home that living religion which family worship serves to maintain.
     VICTOR J. GLADISH
Colchester, England.

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Church News 1934

Church News              1934

     BRITISH BROADCASTING.

     For several years the New Church message has been broadcast from a number of stations in the United States,-Boston, New York, Philadelphia, Chicago, Los Angeles, etc. Many copies of the Writings have thus been distributed to radio listeners who applied for them, and some of these have accepted the Doctrines.

     In Great Britain, however, permission to broadcast the teachings of the New Church has not been granted, although earnestly applied for by those connected with the General Conference. It seems that the chief objection is that the New Church is a "minor" religious body.

     An editorial in The New-Church Herald of January 13, 1934, deals with the subject in these words:

     "The Inquirer, weekly organ of the Unitarians in this country, indicates that the British Broadcasting Company are contemplating a special series of religious talks next autumn. It says: 'Now is the time-before the program is finally fixed-for Unitarians and other religious minorities to prevail upon the authorities to plan their next series of religious lectures upon more comprehensive lines than those of the past.' It declares that it does not follow 'that an adherent of a religious minority would approach the microphone with the intention of grinding his own denominational axe, as a Unitarian, a Swedenborgian, or a Salvationist, as the case might be. Surely he could speak to his subject honestly and affirmatively without attacking the convictions of other people. But his denominational affiliation should be published and announced.'

     "We understand that the chief reason why these religious minorities are not given the opportunity to broadcast is announced as the smallness of their following. The authorities of the B. B. C. should, however, realize that the interest in, say Swedenborg, is not to be gauged by the number of enrolled New Churchmen. We have reason to think that the general public would be intensely interested to hear the views of minorities. It was a minority of One which changed the course of history!" (Page 15.)

     COLCHESTER, ENGLAND.

     Our Day School opened on September 10th with an enrollment of fifteen. Five of these were children of New Church parents, and ten were admitted from other homes, though only nine were in actual attendance. The parents of these are aware that our school exists solely for the sake of the New Church; they have manifested only a mild interest in our Doctrines, but no antagonism. Our chief difficulty, as formerly, is with the fewness of our own young children. The January term will open with not more than four children of New Church parentage, and consequently we have refused many urgent requests to take in other children, restricting the number to eight already enrolled. We have never given up the intention of restricting the school to New Church children as soon as the number available is sufficiently increased.

     A service of Harvest Thanksgiving was held on Sunday, October 1st. Before the sermon, and following an address to the children, offerings of the harvest produce were brought to the chancel. An invitation had been extended to all the children of our school and their parents, and the attendance of seventy-seven was a record since the dedication of the building (apart from Assemblies).

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About sixty of these were of our own congregation.

     On Sunday afternoon, October 15th, I visited the Alan Waters family in Romford. A service for their nine children was held in the afternoon, and in the evening the Holy Supper was administered to Mr. and Mrs. Waters.     
     V. J. G.

     COLCHESTER, ENGLAND.

     January 31, 1934.

     Christmas and New Year's Day have come and gone.

     At the school closing before the holidays a little fairy play, "Jessie's Dream," was given by the children, and was much enjoyed by the performers and parents alike. Later Mr. Gladish presented prizes to those pupils who had especially distinguished themselves in their studies. The evening closed with the showing; of a series of shadow pictures of the Christmas Story, the Pastor reading from the Word, and the children and friends singing the Christmas hymns.

     Our Christmas Service was held on Sunday, December 24th, and the children's service on Christmas morning, when they brought their offerings to the Lord.

     The New Year's Social was well attended, and the decorations showed what time and patience must have been expended by the committee. After a piquant supper, there were toasts and responses, then games, competitions, and dancing. Just before midnight, all were seated, and our Pastor read from A. C. 10200, and D. P. 187, and all joined in singing the 24th Psalm. The next day (Sunday) we had a very appropriate service, and the Holy Supper was administered.

     Our children's New Year's social was held on January 4th, and was in the hands of Mr. and Mrs. Sanfrid Appleton. We haven't as many children as we should like, and so the arrival of three little girls and one small boy from Romford gave us much pleasure. The presence of these four children of Mr. and Mrs. Alan Waters brought the attendance up to twenty children under the age of fifteen-l0 boys and 10 girls, counting babies-more than we have had for several years. We trust that it is a hopeful sign for the future. As is our custom, the adults of the society were present to assist, and to enjoy the children's play. Of course we had lovely time. First tea, then games and competitions, bonbons, and balloons, and a beautiful Christmas Tree with presents for every child.

     We do not resume doctrinal classes and regular socials until February, but during January we always hold the Annual Meeting of the society, and also a celebration of Swedenborg's Birthday. And I must mention a special social evening to meet Miss Jenny Gaskill, who recently visited Colchester on her way from South Africa to America. We were all very glad to have Miss Gaskill with us again, and to hear news of our friends in Durban and Alpha.

     The Annual Meeting was opened by our Pastor with prayer and readings from the Word and the Writings. The hearing of reports and the election of officers followed. We find that 1933 was a fairly satisfactory year from all points, and we go forward with good hope for 1934. The society voted to reduce further the call upon the Extension Fund of the General Church. This is the fourth successive meeting at which such action has been taken, making in all an addition of f100 to the society's annual undertakings in the past three and one-half years. Previous to this, the final payments had been made on the church building erected in 1924. Considering the smallness of the society, the financial response during the past ten or twelve years has been most encouraging, though it is well recognized how much we owe to the assistance which has been so generously given, both by individuals and by the Extension Fund.

     As our Swedenborg's Birthday celebration this year will not be held until February 3d, an account of that occasion must await another report.
     M. W.

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     REV. J. F. BUSS.

     An Obituary.

     It is with regret that we have to announce the death of the Rev. James Frederick Buss on Tuesday, January 23, 1934, at the age of seventy-seven years.

     He was pastor of the Kensington Society, London, for more than twenty-six years, retiring from active work last September. Born in Ohio, U. S. A., in 1857, he labored for the New Church in the ministry for fifty five years, being recognized by the General Conference as a Leader in 1879, ordained on August 18, 1882, and inducted into the office of Ordaining Minister on June 20, 1922.

     His first pastorate was in Jersey, Channel Islands, where he knew Frederick Tennyson, the brother of the great Poet Laureate. He afterwards ministered at Melbourne (Derbyshire), Newcastle-on-Tyne, Northampton, and Glasgow. While at Glasgow he suffered from a severe breakdown in health and went for a voyage around the world, during the course of which he preached in New Zealand,-the first ordained Minister to preach in that Dominion. He returned to Scotland, but sustained a relapse, and was sent for another voyage to South Africa, where he became the minister of the Durban Society, resigning in 1906. While minister at Kensington he twice again visited South Africa. On the first occasion he met David William Mooki, struggling to found the African New Church, and Mr. Buss's report to the General Conference convinced the Conference of the importance of the work being done by Mooki for his fellow natives. A month before his death, Mr. Buss expressed the hope that he would be known "as the man who found Mooki."

     Mr. Buss is, of course, well-known throughout the Church for his literary work, notably his translation of Vols. IV and V, of the Spiritual Diary. He wrote no less than 100 solutions to difficulties in regard to the Doctrines, propounded by members of the New Church Home Reading Union. The volumes containing these solutions are still much sought after. He was the Editor of The New Church Quarterly throughout the career of that periodical, and the author of What the New Church Teaches, The Criterion of Divine Authorship, and The Star in the East, besides other books and pamphlets.

     In his prime he possessed a prodigious and exact memory for everything connected with the Doctrines, being able to quote straight off chapter and verse for every statement he made. He was a clear thinker, and a precise and definite teacher, as all college students who came under his care at the New Church College, where he was for many years Professor of Church History and Exegesis, have reason gratefully to acknowledge. He was a stalwart champion of the Divine Authority of the Writings, beyond which for him there was no court of appeal, and of the distinctiveness of the New Church.

     As a minister, he unflinchingly upheld the New Church Doctrine of the Priesthood, and was never tired of acknowledging his indebtedness to the teaching he received from Dr. R. L. Tafel. His was a life of untiring devotion to the New Church and the Heavenly Doctrines, during the course of which he never spared himself. Notwithstanding the sore infirmity of deafness from which he suffered, he was possessed of marvelous courage, which was accompanied by unconquerable cheerfulness in every circumstance.

     In August, 1881, Mr. Buss married Miss Georgiana Henderson, the ceremony being performed by the late Dr. R. L. Tafel. He leaves a widow, two sons and a daughter. One son, Mr. Wilfred Martin Buss, is a prominent educationist in Durban; the other, Mr. Leonard Tafel Buss, is a Solicitor, and the Honorary Legal Adviser to the Conference Native Mission in South Africa.

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     The funeral service on January 27th was held at the church of the Kensington Society and was conducted by the Revs. W. A. Presland, W. H. Acton, and E. A. Sutton, M.A.
     A. E. FRIEND.

     GLENVIEW, ILL.

     On Friday, January 26th, our members once more celebrated the birthday of Emanuel Swedenborg. The toasts and speeches were preceded by a delightful meal, such as only the ladies of the Immanuel Church (and of other societies) can prepare. The toasts were drunk in real wine, and were proposed and responded to with the kind of vigor which is superinduced by the presence of something other than punch without a punch!

     The Rev. Gilbert Smith, as toastmaster, regaled us with some ten or fifteen minutes of most interesting discourse on certain attributes peculiar to Swedenborg, such as his double breathing and duality of thought. Mr. W. H. Junge then proposed a toast to the Church, and Mr. Sydney E. Lee responded. Then came toasts to Swedenborg, and to the Immanuel Church, with suitable speeches and appropriate songs. These were followed by the showing of sixty-six lantern slides of the various towns in which Swedenborg lived, and illustrating his life and work in Sweden and elsewhere. These slides were graciously loaned us by Mrs. E. J. E. Schreck, whose husband had collected them over a period of many years of painstaking study and labor. It was a great evening, and branded by some of the "oldtimers" as "one of the best yet."

     Our school closed for a few days while three of our teachers, the Misses Gladys Blackman, Venita Roschman and Lois Nelson, attended the Council Meetings at Bryn Athyn. Miss Gertrude Nelson accompanied them, and they journeyed by auto, driven by Mr. Gerald Nelson.
      J. B. S.

     SYDNEY, AUSTRALIA.

     "Man is led and taught by the Lord alone, and is led and taught immediately by Him when this is done from the Word. This is the arcanum of arcana of angelic wisdom."

     This quotation from the Divine Providence, 172, which had been copied some months ago, caught my eye as I was about to write this belated report. It seemed an appropriate commencement; for today is January 4th, 1934.

     Our day school is closed until the end of the month. Miss White's good work has resulted in another pupil's passing the examination which entitles him to five years free education in the Canterbury High School. This is Frederick Alfred Kirschstein, twelve last September. Last year, Thomas Douglas Taylor passed; and this year, at Canterbury, he was successful in passing his first examination there. But the problem is: What shall we do with our children-boys especially-in the world's present state, when mechanical devices of wonderful design and constantly increasing numbers are now doing what human hands once did? Apparently the only answer is: We must do our best in teaching them the "way of life"; for if they freely choose that way, the Lord will lead them, and then, whatever befalls, it will be best. We know the terrible state of the old Christian Church and world; nevertheless the Lord remains Governor among the nations, and whoever is willing to be loyal to Him shall not unduly suffer.

     On August 13th we had the pleasure of welcoming Mr. Frederick William Fletcher into our Society; and on the 25th of that month, his little daughter Ruth, eight years, was baptized in the Pastor's home. Then, on November 5th, Mavis Thelma Chalmers, three months, was baptized. Mr. Fletcher attends our services and other functions, and desires to make himself generally useful. The paper on "The Five Senses" which he read at our fortnightly meeting, October 15th was much appreciated.

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     At the fortnightly meeting on October 1st the Pastor read the Rev. Gilbert H. Smith's address on "The Success of the General Church" (N. C. Life, September); and on December 3d he read another paper by Mr. Smith, opening with the words: "We refrain from giving this paper a title, for fear of digressing too far from the announced subject." We thought so highly of it that three copies have been made, under the title: "What is Wrong with the World?"

     We now hold our Doctrinal Class fortnightly, and fortnightly we have a social tea, both in the evenings of Sundays; at the conclusion of which papers are read. Following that by Mr. Fletcher was one on "Light," by the Pastor; "Hearing," by Mr. Ossian Heldon; "Smell," by Miss Taylor; and "Taste," by Mrs. T. R. Taylor. This last was a very remarkable and interesting description of the sense that yields to something analogous in the other life. The last paper, on the "Sense of Touch," will be by Miss White.

     As posting time is close at hand, and it is desired that this report shall he in the editor's hands by the end of January I will conclude by wishing a Happy New Year to all.
     RICHARD MORSE.

     NORTHERN NEW JERSEY.

     Since our news report of a year ago, we have held services regularly every other Sunday at the residence of Mr. and Mrs. R. B. Caldwell, Jr., 53 Woodland Ave., Glen Ridge. Even during the hot Summer months there has been a most favorable attendance at our worship. It may surprise some to know that the cities of Northern New Jersey form a metropolis almost as large as Chicago, third city in point of size on this continent. Our people, widely scattered in this area, must face considerable difficulties in reaching our place of worship. Nevertheless, the average number in attendance has been twenty-six souls, including occasional visitors from New York and Bryn Athyn.

     We are fortunate in having Mr. John Caldwell, a student of the piano, to take care of the music of our services. Mr. Darrel Hicks, noting the minister's difficulty in preaching from a music stand, had a pulpit constructed for him, to order. A board for page-numbers was given to us from Bryn Athyn Cathedral. Some copies of the Liturgy and some chairs were loaned by the Academy, so that we now have ample equipment for our present needs.

     In September, Mrs. Francis Frost volunteered to take charge of the Sunday School, up to that time conducted by Mrs. Philip Odhner. Owing to the long distances the children must come we cannot have a special service for them before the adult service. They are led out just before the sermon, and return after it. During this interim, Mrs. Frost gives them instruction from the Word and the Writings, and teaches them some elements of Hebrew, which they enjoy very much.

     At the Christmas Service our church was overcrowded. The charm of the occasion was greatly enhanced by a representation of the Nativity scenes presented by Mr. and Mrs. Francis Frost. This representation was novel in character. Little figures, becomingly costumed, represented the persons of the sacred story, and these were given motion by means of invisible strings manipulated behind the small stage. The shepherds of the first scene were able to express their awe of the heavenly host, and departed for Bethlehem after the angel addressed them. In the second scene the wise men entered, and kneeled before the Lord, leaving their gifts before the manger.

     This manner of presenting the stories of the Word has heavenly precedent. In Heaven and Hell 335, we find a description of a representation by which little children in heaven were instructed concerning the ascent of the Lord with those who had been bound, and they let down little threads by which they raised up the Lord.

     Children and adults were greatly impressed by our Christmas representation, and felt deeply grateful to perfecting the beauty of the scenes and the dignity of the motion of the figures.

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It is thought that a similar mode of representation might be tried in other societies of the Church with equal success. The minister, Rev. Philip N. Odhner, introduced each scene by reading the beginning of the stories from the Word. Foster Krake, of New York, greatly to the sphere of the occasion by singing two Christmas hymns while the scenes were in progress.

     The Rev. F. E. Waelchli visited our group on February 11th, and administered the Holy Supper, following a useful and impressive sermon on that Sacrament. The great appreciation of this occasion leads us to hope that it may be repeated shortly, and that from now on it will be a regular part of our worship.     
     P. N. O.
EMANUEL SWEDENBORG AND THE HISTORY OF IRON 1934

EMANUEL SWEDENBORG AND THE HISTORY OF IRON              1934

     "The World's Schoolmaster: Emanuel Swedenborg and his Influence in the History of Iron "is the title of an article appearing in the November, 1933, issue of The Reading Puddle Ball, a periodical published from time to time by The Reading Iron Company, Philadelphia, Pa., a copy of which Mr. Fred J. Cooper has kindly sent us.

     Written by Mr. W. H. Baers, of Chicago, Ill., the article forms one of a series on "The Story of Puddled Iron," and pays high tribute to the influence of Swedenborg's researches and experiments in the field of metals, calling his De Perro (On Iron) the "first real textbook on the metallurgy of iron," and tracing the effects of his work upon iron making in Sweden and America. It is handsomely illustrated with reproductions of three steel engravings in De Ferro, depicting the processes of iron-making in Swedenborg's time, and features also a portrait of Swedenborg taken from an old print. Our readers will be interested in the following excerpts from the article:

     "Once in every blue moon the Fates put their heads together and decide to present the world with a universal genius. In America it was Benjamin Franklin: that seething combination of statesman, diplomat, inventor, author, philosopher and philanthropist. In Sweden, it was Emanuel Swedenborg. He was great in so many different ways, and pointed the way to so many discoveries and improvements, that he deserves to be known as the world's school-master. When his voluminous writings were collected in the 19th century, it was found that there was hardly one department of scientific activity in which he was not far ahead of his time.

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     "Swedenborg was the first to use mercury for the air pump. He was the first to invent a method of determining longitude at sea by observations of the moon among the stars. He was the first to suggest using experimental tasks for testing ship models. He anticipated all the Scandinavian geologists in his works on paleontology. He arrived at the nebular hypothesis of the formation of the sun and planets long before Kant and Laplace. He was thinking about machine guns at least two centuries before Chicago found them indispensable. In his spare moments, he invented an ear trumpet for the deaf, devised a way to keep lamp chimneys from smoking, and improved Swedish house stoves. He sketched a flying machine, which he knew would not fly, because at that time there was no motor powerful enough to propel it, but which he hoped would provide a start in the right direction.

     "Swedenborg's De Ferro was the first real textbook on the metallurgy of iron. It contains a wealth of detailed information on the smelting, conversion and assaying of iron, together with an account of chemical experiments on iron. The book also describes an early development of the puddling process as a method by which iron was made. For even then it was clearly recognized that, in the production of enduring wrought iron, the puddling process is essential.

     "During Swedenborg's lifetime, the iron industry in America was a lusty infant. The same year he published De Ferro-1734-the first factory for the manufacture of iron edge tools was established at Trenton, New Jersey. . . . Much of the superiority of Swedish iron has been due to Swedenborg's influence and inspiration. Swedish iron has been noted for its great toughness and ductility, and for this reason has found wide use in America. But just as Swedenborg inspired his native land to make better iron, so has Swedish iron inspired America to go Sweden 'one better' in the production of iron with the famous Swedish characteristics...."

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REPORT OF THE ANNUAL COUNCIL MEETINGS 1934

REPORT OF THE ANNUAL COUNCIL MEETINGS              1934




     Announcements.




     By an arrangement for special contributions, the May issue of NEW CHURCH LIFE will be enlarged to make possible the publication of two Addresses delivered on January 30th and 31st at the Council of the Clergy, together with the discussions that followed them. The Addresses are: "The Divine Human," by the Rev. Albert Bjorck, and "The Divine Within Men and Angels," by Bishop N. D. Pendleton. In addition, the April issue will contain the usual Report of the Meetings, as well as the Annual Reports of the Officials and Councils of the General Church.

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INTERCESSION AND RECIPROCAL UNION 1934

INTERCESSION AND RECIPROCAL UNION        N. D. PENDLETON       1934


NEW CHURCH LIFE
VOL. LIV          APRIL, 1934           No. 4
     "These words spake Jesus, and lifted up His eyes to heaven, and said, Father, the hour is come; glorify Thy Son, that Thy Son also may glorify Thee." (John 17:1.)

     The text is the beginning of the Lord's intercession, as recorded by John. He prayed for Himself to the Father, even as He prayed for the human race. His prayer was for mercy. He perceived the all but unforgivable sins of men, and the exceeding difficulty of human salvation. He felt the racial evil as sensitively influent into Himself, and as if He Himself were under condemnation. This was His temptation. He saw men as non-redeemable, save through the Divine power resident in Him. He saw this in Himself. The accumulated racial evil was His inheritance as a man. It was this that stood in the way of His glorification. While Divine power was resident in His Soul, the totality of human evil was enrooted in His mortal human. The conflict between the two brought Him to the cross, and effected His glorification.

     At the time of this intercession the Lord was in the world, and in His infirm human; yet He was far advanced in glorification. Hence the opening words of His intercession told of the immediacy of His glorification. He was becoming, in mind and body, even as He was in His Soul, that mercy for which He prayed; and He was now entering into the power of extending that mercy to all repentant souls who might receive of it through faith in Him, to each according to the measure of his faith,-the measure of the life of faith.

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In this way, and to this degree, that for which, in His humiliation, He prayed, and which in His glorification He became, was by Him extended to men; so that, even as He was glorified, and because thereof, so might men become regenerate, and this as if by their own power.

     But this power of regeneration with men was His gift,-the gift of His presence and Person as a Man. For this He was born, and to this end He contended victoriously with the evil influent into His mortal frame. He was born in fulfillment of ancient prophecy, which told in veiled symbols of His coming, and in cryptic words the inner life-story of His contest with the evil which by birth He was to put on, and of His continuous and final victory, through which He Himself, in mind and in body, became Divine, and one with the Father, even as in the beginning and from conception He was, as to His Soul, one with God.

     This unity of His mind and body with the Father was now near completion. The hour was come. The realization of this on His part appears as the opening feature of the intercession recorded in John: "Jesus lifted up His eyes to heaven, and said, Father, the hour is come; glorify Thy Son, that Thy Son also may glorify Thee." Something of incomparable import is here revealed. Not only was He entering into full and final union with the Father, but it is made manifest that that union was reciprocal, that is, accomplished by a mutual and reciprocal interaction between the Father and the Son. "Glorify Thy Son, that Thy Son also may glorify Thee."

     This deepest of Divine mysteries is central to all heavenly arcana bearing upon the Lord's glorification. The Writings describe it to rational thought by saying that His glorification was reciprocal; that is, it was effected by a mutual action and reaction between the Father and the Son, or, what is the same, as between the Lord's Soul of Divine conception and His body of human birth. In this process His mind partook, in a varying and changing degree, of His Soul, on the one part, and His body on the other. This intermediate mind was interiorly an output from His Soul, while outwardly it was as of bodily derivation; in this, like the mind of every man. With all men the mind is distinct from the soul, on the one hand, and from the body on the other.

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This distinction connoted a certain independence, as well as interdependence of the one plane upon the other. The independence was so marked, and of such a nature, that it may be said of the Lord that His glorification was and could be brought about only by a reciprocal interaction between the Divine and the Human, that is, between the Father and the Son, between the Infinite Soul of the Lord and His seemingly finite mind and His obviously finite body.

     Reciprocality expresses a relation between two separate entities, the one distinct from the other; or between two separate planes in one and the same individual. This last was the case in point with our Lord, though the appearance was of two separate Persons. The Lord in the world was, to all appearances, quite a distinct Person from the Father; and this appearance was so confirmed in the minds of men that, while acknowledging His Divinity, they separated the Divine into two and even three individuals, and maintained this separation as an eternal distinction.

     The human which the Lord put on in the world was, in ultimates, a material vessel, not in itself Divine; but it became so by virtue of the mutual and alternate interaction between the human and the Divine Soul of His conception. A marvel is here involved, of surpassing import, which should be seen. The reciprocation of His Human with His Divine implies the non-destruction of His Human by the process of glorification; and if so, then, even after His full glorification, His Human, though made Divine, was withheld from entire evanishment in the abstract Infinite. This Human was therefore secured in its ultimation to eternity as God-Man, and as God with man. Thus it stood forth everlastingly as the object of human worship-above the heavens, indeed, but also in the heavens, and in all worshipful minds,-an object and a subject eternally Divine, and in the Human form of Truth, clothed with the power of contact with men. As such, His Human was retained and maintained in the power of conveying saving mercy to all repentant souls.

     If, in thought, we predicate a total resolution and evanishment of His Human through the process of glorification, we cannot see it as forth standing to human and angelic view, which is so necessary to our hold upon our Lord. We must, therefore, believe that by His ascension He is nearer, not farther removed from man.

     While in the world, He interceded with the Father as if He were a separate individual.

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Our doctrine teaches that, while His glorification led to a perfect union, yet His intercession continued thereafter; and that it also became eternal, though changed from the mode employed in the world. The teaching is, that His intercession for the human race when He was in the world was made when He was in a state of humiliation. (See A. C. 2250:2.) But after His glorification He no longer interceded as a Son with His Father, but as the Lord of the universe with Himself. When He was in the world, and before He was fully glorified, He became Divine Truth. As this Truth He mediated and interceded. But after His full glorification He was still called the Mediator and Intercessor, because no one can conceive the Divine in itself, save through some idea of a Divine Man. Still less can anyone be conjoined with Supreme Divinity except through such an idea. Hence it is that the Lord, as to the Divine Human, and after His glorification, is called the Mediator and Intercessor; but, as said, He mediates and intercedes with Himself. (See A. C. 8705.) It is to be understood that this mediation with Himself was the eternal and infinite interaction between the Divine Truth and Divine Good, looking to the salvation of mankind.

     It is further taught that in all love there is intercession. It is love pleading, and this involves on the part of the Lord a continual extension of mercy. We are further informed that the Divine Truth which now proceeds from the Lord intercedes continually in its going forth from Divine Love, and that when the Lord was in the world He first became this Truth, that is, before He became Divine Good also. (See A. C. 8575.)

     When in the world, the Lord prayed as a man prays for human salvation. This was His very life, namely, the love of the human race which He had come to save, and which, through His intercession, He excused and forgave. (See A. C. 8573.) And this, even as in Himself He overcame the evils of mankind, and in so doing extended to men the power to become regenerate in His name. It is to this end that men, and the church composed of men, must take a vital hold upon the Lord as a Divine Man, through faith in Him-through faith in Him as the Truth. When in the world He was that Truth; and in and by the Truth He in turn glorified the Father; for His relation to the Father was that of Truth to Good; and of this relation it is said that Truth lives from Good, and that Good is qualified by Truth.

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As the Truth, therefore, He qualified the Father, or the Divine Good. He qualified that Good in Himself, and so to man. By this qualification the Son glorified the Father, even as by the descent of the Divine Good into the form of Truth in the Lord, the Father glorified the Son.

     The qualifying of good by truth is also the prime mode in man's regeneration. Only thereby can man be saved; and only thereby could the Lord become united with the Father; By this qualification, therefore, the Son glorified the Father.

     Note that the conjunction of man with God the Father, or with the Divine Good, is not possible save through some qualification of that Good; and this qualification is and can be effected only by some mode of accommodation. Indeed, qualification and accommodation are one and the same. This opens to a further realization of the great truth enunciated in the True Christian Religion, that "accommodation on the part of God was brought about when He became Man." By this accommodation the Supreme Divine was so qualified that man could see and know his God.

     The Scriptures teach, and reason sees, that God the Father has never been and cannot be seen. He was brought forth to view in the Person of our Lord, but not, in truth, as another and separate Person. For it was Jehovah Himself who descended; but in His descent He was veiled by degrees of human finition, that is, by the humanity of man. This was His accommodation, and His needed qualification; and herein it was, that by the reciprocal action of the human with the Divine, the Son was not only glorified of the Father, but He glorified the Father. This occurred in the "hour" mentioned in the text; and by that "hour" is signified every state of Divine exaltation which the Lord experienced as a Man in the world. In every such state the Lord was uplifted; and as He was uplifted, by the same token Jehovah descended; and this is the same as to say that glorification was effected by reciprocation. This is why the angels were seen ascending and descending upon Jacob's ladder. Amen.

LESSONS: Isaiah 53. John l7. A. C. 8573.
MUSIC. Liturgy, pp. 537, 575, 564. Psalmody, p. 8.
PRAYERS: Liturgy, nos. 96, 109.

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NOTES ON THE CALENDAR READINGS 1934

NOTES ON THE CALENDAR READINGS       Rev. HUGO LJ. ODHNER       1934

     In the course of the regeneration of man's Natural, there come states when what charity demands seems to be contrary to a life according to doctrine. On the one hand, charity is unquestionably recognized as having a prior claim upon one, but on the other hand it is realized that this will involve a change of one's former conception of duty. A fear takes hold of one's mind that the order of truth will be disturbed by good taking the first place. And this fear is pictured in the Word by Jacob standing by the brink of the Jabbok, near the ford of Jordan, trembling at the thought of what Esau, his elder brother, may do to him and his.

     This state leads to doubt concerning the truth which man has loved, and evil spirits attack him, even as the unknown "man" wrestled with Jacob before dawn arose. (Genesis 32:24-32.) By such temptation combats, the quality of man, from being natural, becomes spiritual; even as Jacob's name was now changed to Israel, although the text continues to speak of him as Jacob.

     The Arcana expounds the series in two of its internal senses,-the supreme sense, which refers to the Lord's glorification, and the "internal historical sense," which exhibits how the Jewish people selfishly hankered to be the special beneficiaries of God's mercy. In the supreme sense, Jacob here represents the Lord as to the Natural which was being made Divine; and the "man" with whom Jacob wrestled, as he "strove with God and men, and prevailed," stands for the whole angelic heaven. For the Lord, while He conquered hell, and dissipated the hereditary evil received through Mary the mother, also fought the tendencies of the "proprium" of all the angels, and by this means "reduced into order all things in the heavens and the hells" (4287, 4295). The temptations which the Lord admitted to Himself from the angels were "the inmost of all, for they act upon ends, and with such subtlety as in no way to be observed" (4295). The inconspicuous nature of this influx from the angels is shown by the unwillingness of the unknown to reveal his name (4296).

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     The teaching that heaven was "not pure" before the Advent holds equally true after it. The Lord continually withholds the angels from their evils and keeps them in good and truth, continually purifying all their interior degrees, from the inmost to the lowest. So far as they are thus purified, they "cannot tempt."

     Temptation cannot be said to be caused by such influx as man receives mediately through the angels, in influx in which something of their own is involved. (A. C. 8728.) For this is a mere accommodation to the man's state of affection, and man is wholly unconscious of the human imperfections within such an influx. In fact, temptations would arise for man if the Divine influx was not thus modified and tempered; for while evils and falsities are the cause of temptations, yet there is no distress or combat until the sphere of the Divine draws closer than man's pervert state, tempered by his goods and truths, can bear. Then a change of state is seen as needed, and man comes into anxiety.

     The glorification of the Lord's Natural is not here described as completed. Jacob, after the struggle, halted on his thigh; by which is signified that truths in the Lord's Natural were not yet in such a genuine order that all, together with good, might enter into celestial-spiritual good. The truths of the Divine Celestial-Spiritual, we are thus told, did not appropriate to themselves any truths in which were falsities, or which were distorted. For "when truths have been distorted, they then become no longer truths; but as they are distorted to what is opposite, so they accede to falsities " (4303).

     The Divine Celestial-Spiritual is signified by "Israel," Jacob's new name. What this is, can be seen in an image from the celestial-spiritual with the regenerate man, which gives quality to the second heaven (4286). That heaven is in mutual love, which is celestial, and in intelligence, which is spiritual. But the characterizing states of the higher angels of that heaven partake of the Rational, and are represented by "Joseph"; while the states of the lower angels of the same heaven "partake from the Natural," being intermediate between the Rational and the Natural, and are represented by "Israel" "Jacob," on the other hand, is a name which describes the quality of the first or natural heaven, "to which the Natural adheres." The new celestial-spiritual quality, given to the natural man by regeneration, is thus signified by Jacob's change of name.

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HEAVENLY SINGING 1934

HEAVENLY SINGING       Rev. F. E. WAELCHLI       1934

     A TALK TO CHILDREN.

     Singing began long, long ago,-likely in the Garden of Eden. The Old Testament very often tells of songs and singing. They are mentioned for the first time when Moses and the Sons of Israel, after they had been led through the Red Sea, in which the Egyptians who pursued them were drowned, sang a song praising the Lord for having delivered and saved them. (Exodus, chap. 15.) And we read that then also Miriam, the sister of Moses and Aaron, and all the other women, played on timbrels, and danced, and sang (vs. 20, 21).

     The Psalms of David are all songs that he sang while playing on the harp. In the books of the Prophets, songs and singing are mentioned in many places. In both the Psalms and the Prophets we read often of "a new song," by which is meant a song of joy because the Lord would come into the world as the Savior. (A. C. 8261; A. E. 326.) When the Lord did come, and was born at Bethlehem, the shepherds heard the angels sing that new song, although it was not so called. After the Lord had finished the work of salvation for which He had come into the world, and had returned into heaven, those who were His church on earth sang that song; that is, they sang songs of joy because the Lord had come as the Savior.

     But after a time the church could no longer sing that song because they no longer thought of the Lord Jesus Christ, the Savior, as the one only God, but believed Him to be one of three gods. It was so for a long while, until the Lord made His Second Coming, by giving the Doctrines of the New Church, in which He teaches that He alone is God. And now those who are of the New Church can sing the new song,-a song of love to the Lord, their God and Savior.

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     At the same time that the Lord began the New Church He also began a New Heaven. In the Book of Revelation (chapters 5 and 14; also 15), we are told of the angels of this New Heaven singing the new song, praising and thanking the Lord because He had made both His First and His Second Coming as the Savior. In that Book it is also said that only those can learn that new song, and so come into the New Heaven, who believe in the Lord as the one only God, and keep His commandments. (Chap. 14.)

     The angels love to sing. Their heavenly joy gives them gladness of heart, and from this comes their singing. From their joy and gladness the song comes spontaneously, that is, as it were of itself. (A. C. 48, 8261; A. E. 326.) I shall try to tell you how an angel song comes as it were of itself from their joy and gladness.

     Have you ever, when you felt happy, let that happiness come out in some song that you have never heard nor learned, but that you made up right then,-just the sounds of a song, without any words except "la, la, la," or something like that? Boys sometimes do that in whistling as they walk along feeling happy. In a way something like that the joy and gladness of the angels comes out into a song; but with them there come not only the sounds, but also the words, as it were of themselves. And, what is wonderful, many angels can sing together in this way, and this because with all of them the same joy and gladness comes out into the same sounds and words of the song. By the singing the joy and gladness are made all the greater. (A. R. 279.) This heavenly singing is far more beautiful and far sweeter than any singing here on earth could possibly be. (A. C. 3893.)

     Our Doctrines tell about angelic choirs, in which are many angels, singing songs of love to the Lord; and sometimes musical instruments accompany them. Also, at times, all heaven as a great choir joins in a glorification, or song of praise, of the Lord (C. L. 81); and then likely there is at the same time playing on thousands and thousands of instruments of music. (A. C. 418.) We are also told that in a society of heaven, every morning before the angels begin their day's work, there are heard sweet songs by young women and girls.

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Each time the song is some affection or feeling of heavenly love, which comes out into singing, as it were of itself. Sometimes, also, there is heard such singing by wives and young women, and at other times by wives alone. (C. L. 172, 18, 55, 155a, 207e.)

     Angels also have songs of another kind, which can be called social and festive songs. One of the times when they sing or listen to such songs is at concerts on festival days. And then there is also playing by orchestras on instruments of all kinds. (C. L. 17.)

     Of their different kinds of songs, the ones the angels love most are those of the worship of the Lord. When you sing such songs the angels are singing with you and feel a great joy. This joy they try to have you share with them; and this they can do all the better if your love and thought are in what you sing. (A. C. 8261; S. D. 491.) Really, we are able to sing such songs because angels sing them; for all singing of good songs on earth, even if not of worship, has its beginning in heaven, and so comes from the angels. (A. E. 326.) But there are also bad songs, which come from the devils of hell. These should never be sung. We should not even listen to them.

     Like the angels, the songs we should love most are those of worship. For us, as for them, they should be songs of joy, and should cause us all the more to love the Lord for His great goodness to us and to all in heaven and on earth.

LESSON: Revelation 5.
MUSIC: Hymnal, pages 81, 88, 135.
NEW CHURCH SERMONS 1934

NEW CHURCH SERMONS              1934

     A pamphlet published monthly, from October to June inclusive, by the General Church of the New Jerusalem. Contents: Sermons and other material suitable for individual reading, family worship, and missionary purposes, reprinted from New Church Life. Sent free of charge on application to Mr. H. Hyatt, Treasurer, Bryn Athyn, Pa.

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ANNUAL COUNCIL MEETINGS 1934

ANNUAL COUNCIL MEETINGS       WILLIAM WHITEHEAD       1934

     BRYN ATHYN, PA., JANUARY 30 TO FEBRUARY 3, 1934.

     COUNCIL OF THE CLERGY.

     The Thirty-eighth Annual Meeting of the Council of the Clergy was held in the Council Hall of the Bryn Athyn Church, January 30 to February 3, 1934, Bishop N. D. Pendleton presiding. Besides the Bishop and Assistant Bishop of the General Church, there were present eighteen members of the second degree, four members of the first degree, and two candidates, as follows: The Revs. Alfred Acton, K. R. Alden, W. H. Alden, Albert Bjorck, R. W. Brown, W. B. Caldwell, L. W. T. David, C. E. Doering, W. L. Gladish, Alan Gill, F. E. Gyllenhaal, E. E. Iungerich, H. L. Odhner, Theodore Pitcairn, N. H. Reuter, Homer Synnestvedt, F. E. Waelchli, W. Whitehead, R. G. Cranch, Philip N. Odhner, Vincent C. Odhner, and Willard D. Pendleton; Candidates W. Cairns Henderson and Erik Sandstrom. (Total, 26.)

     Following the meeting of the Consistory on Monday, the Council held regular morning sessions from Tuesday to Friday inclusive; one public session; three afternoon sessions with the teachers of the Academy Schools and other visiting teachers; and a session with the Executive Committee. (See Minutes of the Joint Council.)

     The leading doctrinal discussions in the Council of the Clergy this year revolved around two Addresses: "The Divine Human," by the Rev. Albert Bjorck, and "The Divine Within Men and Angels," by Bishop N. D. Pendleton. These Addresses, together with an extensive report of the discussions which followed, will appear in the May issue of NEW CHURCH LIFE.

     At the Friday morning session, an interesting paper on "The Origin of Man and Woman," being in part an interpretation of the work on The Worship and Love of God, was presented by the Rev. E. E. Iungerich, and discussed by a number of speakers.

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     At one of its sessions, the Council passed the following resolution by a rising vote:

     "We, the members of the Council of the Clergy of the General Church of the New Jerusalem, assembled in our Annual Meeting in Bryn Athyn, February, 1934, desire to express our abiding affection for our brother, the Rev. Ferdinand Hussenet, whom the Lord in His Providence has called to Himself. For many years our brother was a zealous priest in the Lord's New Church, noted for his fearless advocacy of the Principles of the Academy, and for his profound humility before the holy things of the Church which he administered.

     "We desire that our affectionate recollection of our brother be communicated to Mrs. Hussenet and the members of his family, and to the flock he ministered unto; in the hope that they will feel that we are closely united with them in our love for the worthy man whom our Lord has summoned to still more important services in the spiritual world."

     At the public session of the Council, held in the Auditorium on Thursday evening, February 1st, a valuable and stimulating address on "The Universals of Creation; or Good and Truth" was delivered by the Rev. F. E. Gyllenhaal before a large audience.

     The joint meetings of the Council with the teachers and workers of the Academy and visiting teachers were well attended, the maximum attendance being eighty-three.

     On Tuesday afternoon, with Bishop N. D. Pendleton in the chair, Mr. Eldric S. Klein read a thought-provoking and broad treatment of the subject, "Some Aspects of Education for Use." The three aspects of education suggested in Divine Providence, no. 105, provided the theological background of the paper, though the speaker dealt principally with the guidance of the affection of knowing in such a way that when students become adult their first affection of truth, which is grounded in some kind of worldly love, may, from use, be directed to the Word and to doctrinals, and not, from parental heredity, be directed toward evils. Some of the interesting numbers treated of were: A. C. 2480, 3603; S. D. 5839, 6072; C. L. 249; D. P. 142; Doctrine of Life 24, 86.

     The paper was discussed by a number of speakers.

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A general view was, that preparation for use, with us, is of a broader and deeper nature. At the close of the discussion, it was remarked that the paper should dispel a prevailing idea with some in the Church that if we trained our students for heaven we should ruin them for anything else!

     On Wednesday afternoon, with Bishop de Charms in the chair, Miss Angella Bergstrom, of Pittsburgh, Pa., read a paper on "The Teaching of Citizenship in our Schools." This was an interesting, practical, and vivacious plea for the vitalizing of civics in the elementary and high schools, and also for greater attention to current events. It was heartily received and actively discussed. Though varied points of view developed, the paper was warmly endorsed.

     On Thursday afternoon, with Dr. C. E. Doering in the chair, the Rev. F. E. Waelchli delivered an address on "The Affection of Truth," which was an inspiration to all present, and very finely provided the climax for a successful series of educational meetings.

     A resolution of appreciation for the work of the Women's Guild in providing refreshments after the sessions was unanimously passed.
     WILLIAM WHITEHEAD,
          Secretary.
PHILADELPHIA DISTRICT ASSEMBLY 1934

PHILADELPHIA DISTRICT ASSEMBLY              1934

     With a good attendance of local members and visitors from a distance, the Banquet of the Philadelphia District Assembly was held in the Auditorium on Friday evening, February 2d, Dr. C. E. Doering presiding as toastmaster and introducing a program of toasts, songs and speeches which proved very interesting and delightful to all present. The Rev. Philip N. Odhner spoke on the subject of "Council"; the Rev. Willard D. Pendleton on "Assembly"; and Dr. Alfred Acton on "The Priesthood"; and there were brief, informal remarks by other speakers.

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JOINT COUNCIL 1934

JOINT COUNCIL       HUGO LJ. ODHNER       1934

     BRYN ATHYN, PA., FEBRUARY 3, 1934, AT 9:30 A.M.

     1. The Forty-first Annual Meeting of the Joint Council of the Clergy and the Executive Committee of the General Church of the New Jerusalem was opened by Bishop N. Dandridge Pendleton with prayer and reading from the Word.

     2. The attendance was as follows:

     COUNCIL OF THE CLERGY:

     Bishop Pendleton, presiding; Rt. Rev. George de Charms; the Rev. Messrs. Alfred Acton, K. R. Alden, R. W. Brown, W. B. Caldwell, L. W. T. David, C. E. Doering, Alan Gill, W. L. Gladish, F. E. Gyllenhaal, E. E. Iungerich, H. L. Odhner, Theodore Pitcairn, Norman H. Reuter, Homer Synnestvedt, F. E. Waelchli, William Whitehead, R. G. Cranch, Philip N. Odhner, and Willard D. Pendleton.

     EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE:

     Messrs. Hubert Hyatt, C. Raynor Brown, Geoffrey S. Childs, Charles G. Merrell, Harold F. Pitcairn, and Raymond Pitcairn.

     3. The Minutes of the last Annual Meeting, held on February 4, 1933, were adopted as printed in NEW CHURCH LIFE, May, 1933, pp. 263-287, and corrected in the July issue, p. 352.

     4. The Secretary of the General Church read his STATISTICAL REPORT, which was accepted and filed. (See page 114.)

     5. The Report of the Secretary of the COUNCIL of THE CLERGY was, on motion, accepted and filed without reading. (See page 117).

     6. The Report of the Secretary of the EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE was accepted and filed without reading. (See page 124.)

     7. The TREASURER of the General Church called attention to the aim which he had set himself in his work as Treasurer during the last eleven years,-to place the General Church on as broad a basis of contributors as possible. In 1926, 44 per cent of the potential contributors actually contributed to the uses of the General Church, out recent business conditions had caused the percentage to fall to only 26 per cent.

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     The printed Report of the Treasurer, which has been sent out to all members, was adopted without reading, and filed.

     8. The Report of the Treasurer of the ORPHANAGE FUND was similarly adopted without reading, and filed. (See page 125.)

     9. The Rev. W. B. Caldwell, Editor of NEW CHURCH LIFE, reported verbally as follows:

     "Beginning with the February, 1933, issue, it was found necessary to reduce the size of our magazine from 48 to 32 pages monthly. From October to June, inclusive, 12 of the 32 pages were devoted to a sermon and other material, to be reprinted in pamphlet form as "New Church Sermons," and sent free of charge to about 400 persons. By the collection of a special fund, the May, 1933, number was enlarged to 144 pages, to provide for the publication of most of the addresses and discussions of the Annual Council Meetings.

     "Under the circumstances, it has been my effort to provide as great a diversification of reading matter as possible. Our writers have cooperated to a considerable extent by contributing shorter articles, and the Index for 1933 contains almost as many subjects and authors as when the monthly issue was 64 pages."

     10. The question of the possible publication of the transactions of the Council of the Clergy this year was taken up. It was reported that the Council of the Clergy had passed the following resolution:

     "Moved, That it is the sense of this Council that we do not disapprove of the publication of the 1934 proceedings of the Council, at the discretion of the Bishop." The Executive Committee had given the opinion that funds might be procured by private subscription for such publication, provided that it was confined to the essential parts of the discussion on the Hague position. Several speakers encouraged the publishing of such portions of the discussions as would contribute to a rational judgment on the part of the Church as to the two views expressed on the subject. It was pointed out that the discussions had taken place in a private body, and that the speakers had been unaware that a stenographic report was being made; and also that the Council of the Clergy was not an executive body, apart from the Bishop and the Executive Committee.

     It was moved by the Rev. Karl Alden, seconded and unanimously carried, that the Joint Council favored the publication, in NEW CHURCH LIFE, of such portions of the transactions of the Council of the Clergy as the Bishop may direct, provided that funds are collected by subscription to defray the additional cost.

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     11. The time and place for holding the FIFTEENTH GENERAL ASSEMBLY, originally scheduled for June, 1933, was then taken up. It was understood that the Assembly should be held in 1935.

     Rev. F. E. Gyllenhaal conveyed an invitation from the Olivet Church to hold the Assembly in Toronto, according to the arrangement made before it was postponed on account of business conditions. He described briefly the accommodations available in Toronto, the choice lying between holding the meetings at the Royal York Hotel, where comfort was assured, or at the Exhibition Park where-in June-there would be uncertainty as to comfort, since the available buildings were not heated.

     Much appreciation of the Toronto invitation was shown in the Council, but since an invitation had also been received from the Bryn Athyn Church, the discussion centered about the problem of which was the better place to hold a well-attended Assembly under anticipated conditions. Owing to an expected deficit in the Treasury, the entire Assembly Fund may not be available to the entertaining society. The Bryn Athyn invitation would obviate the renting of public buildings, and eliminate the need for hotel accommodation for guests.

     Bishop de Charms showed that what dominated our thoughts was the spiritual need for an Assembly, and felt that, if it were held in Bryn Athyn, a greater number, especially of the young people, could attend economically. It would also be held in our own sphere, which was especially of use at the present time, and we would feel the inspiration of our sacred associations.

     Other speakers voiced similar sentiments; and while it was thought that an Assembly could no longer be delayed, for the sake of a common illustration and a sphere of common support to strengthen the Church after a time of some confusion, yet it was felt better to delay the experiment of holding such meetings outside our own sphere.

     Bishop Pendleton made it clear that there was no desire on Bryn Athyn's part to displace Toronto, and that great good came to the Church from holding Assemblies in other societies.

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He believed that the Toronto people would understand the spirit behind our hesitation at the present time, and the reasons for it.

     12. It was unanimously resolved, That the Joint Council accept the invitation of the Bryn Athyn Church to hold the Fifteenth General Assembly of the General Church at Bryn Athyn, in 1935.

     13. It was unanimously resolved, That affectionate greetings be conveyed to the Olivet Church, in appreciation of their willingness to entertain the Fifteenth General Assembly.

     14. It was unanimously resolved, That the Secretary convey to the ladies of the Bryn Athyn Society their appreciation of the welcome refreshments provided in connection with all the meetings of the two Councils.

     15. On motion, the Report of the COUNCIL OF THE CLERGY was read. (See paragraph 5, above.)

     16. It was unanimously resolved, That this Joint Council, on behalf of the General Church, expresses appreciative thanks to the Rev. Theodore Pitcairn for his generous gift to the Endowment Fund of the General Church, as reported by the Treasurer in his Report for the year 1933.

     17. On motion, the Rev. Homer Synnestvedt introduced the subject of our responsibilities toward local schools that are faced with financial emergencies. The fact was alleged by him that the Baltimore Society, once with about 70 children, had practically passed out of existence because we were unable to meet such emergencies; and he pointed to the difficulties now sustained by the Kitchener School, which has 44 pupils; and of the serious difficulties of restoring a school once discontinued. He suggested that various scholarship organizations might help in such cases, and that at times funds might be temporarily diverted to that use. The Rev. Alan Gill made a short statement concerning the problems facing the Kitchener School, and their determination to go on with the work.

     18. On motion, the meeting adjourned, at 12:10 p.m.
     HUGO LJ. ODHNER,
          Secretary.

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ANNUAL REPORTS 1934

ANNUAL REPORTS       HUGO LJ. ODHNER       1934

     REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF THE GENERAL CHURCH.

     In our last report (NEW CHURCH LIFE, 1933, pp. 125-127), the membership of the General Church of the New Jerusalem, after an actual count of the membership files, which resulted in a downward revision of nine, was shown to consist of 2074 persons. Since that time, however, a check list has been very carefully constructed which reveals that the figure for December 31, 1932, should have been 2087. We believe that this name-list is as correct as can possibly be drawn up from the records, and we therefore assume it as the permanent basis for any future statistics.

Reported membership, December 31, 1932                         2074
Membership as revised from the check list, as of January 1, 1933          2087

     Having fixed the membership at the opening of the year 1933 as 2087, we find that, during the year 1933, sixty-nine new members have been received, while fifteen have been reported as having died, four as having resigned, and one as being dropped from the roll. The net increase of 49 thus leaves the total membership on December 31, 1933, as consisting of 2136 persons.

Membership, January 1, 1933                              2057
New members received                                    69
                                                   2156
Deductions, for deaths, resignations, etc.                20
Total membership, as of December 31, 1933                    2136

     These figures do not include the membership of the SOUTH AFRICAN NATIVE MISSION of the General Church, which, on December 31, 1933, reported approximately 969 baptized native members in various parts of South Africa, a gain of 32 since last year.

     In our last report, as printed in NEW CHURCH LIFE, 1933, (p. 126), the name listed among new members under Columbiana, Ohio, should read Mr. Tirzah Ammon Renkenberger.

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     NEW MEMBERS.

     January 1, 1933, to December 31, 1933.

     A. IN THE UNITED STATES.

     San Dimas, California.
Mr. Lawson Pendleton Cooper

     Hollywood, California.
Miss Cecilia Reiche

     Glenview, Illinois.
Miss Marjory Lee
Mr. Gerald Farrington Nelson
Mr. Charles F. Riefstahl

     Detroit, Michigan.
Mrs. Frank E. Day
Miss June Macauley

     Rye, New York.
Miss Elsa Margaretha Hilldale
Mr. Robert Coffin Hilldale, Jr.

     Middleport, Ohio.
Mr. Rail Bradbury Eblin

     Bryn Athyn, Pennsylvania.
Miss Vera Janet Bergstrom
Miss Anne Boggess
Miss Helen Macbeth Boggess
Miss Doris Eleanor Cranch
Mr. Frederick Jackson Davis
Miss Mary Evelyn Davis
Mr. George Cooper Doering
Mr. Roger William Doering
Miss Elizabeth Ann Edmonds
Miss Claire Marie Heaton
Mr. Laurence Xandry Odhner
Mr. Ormond de Charms Odhner
Miss Rose Blanche Pijoan
Miss Hesper Viola Powell
Mr. Joseph Walter Powell
Miss Mary Phyllis Powell
Mr. Norbert Henry Rogers
Mr. Elmer Eldridge Simons
Miss Una Simons
Mr. Dallam Tupper Smith
Mr. Leander Phillips Smith
Mr. Willard Owen Smith
Mrs. Willard Owen Smith
Mr. Carl Hermann Synnestvedt

     Huntingdon Valley, Pennsylvania.
Mr. Alfred Nelson Coffin
Miss Alice Fritz
Miss Dorothy Truelove Mansfield

     Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
Mr. Harold Covert Cranch
Miss Bertha von Moschzisker

     Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.
Mr. John Wilson Frazier
Miss Fanny Boggess Lechner
Miss Helen Elizabeth Lindsay
Mrs. Homer Schoenberger
Miss Joanne Schoenberger

     Southampton, Pennsylvania.
Mrs. H. George Field

     B. IN CANADA.

     Benton, Alberta.
Miss Rita Isabel Evens

     Toronto, Ontario.
Sir John Daniel
Lady Ann Daniel (Mrs. John Daniel)
Mr. Myrddin Daniel
Mrs. Myrddin Daniel
Mrs. Cerdwen John

     C. IN SWEDEN.

     Appelviken
Mr. Lars Bertram Liden

     Bords.
Mrs. Nils F. Larsson

     Jonkoping.
Mr. Ulf Sten Fornander
Mrs. Gustava Sofia Karlsson
Miss Inga-Lisa Nilsson
Mr. Sven Gunnar Nilsson
Mrs. Sven Gunnar Nilsson
Mr. Karl Rudolf Sarnmark
Mr. Ake Ryno Sigstedt
Mr. Carl Gustaf Ryno Sigstedt
Mrs. Carl Gustaf Ryno Sigstedt

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Mr. Gustav Arne Lennart Sigstedt     
Mr. Anders Emil Svahn
Mrs. Anders Emil Svahn               

     Stockholm.
Mr. Bjorn Adolf Hildemar Boyesen.

     Sundbyberg.
Mr. Andreas Sandstrom
Mr. Olof Sandstrom

     D. IN HOLLAND.

     The Hague.
Mrs. Catherina Magdalena Booden Adelink

     DEATHS.

     Reported from December 31, 1932, to December 31, 1933.

Mrs. John B. Synnestvedt, Glenview, Illinois, December 31, 1932.
Mr. Cornelius P. Unruh, Corona, California, January 12, 1933.
Miss Gertrude Hall Bolt, San Diego, California, January 17, 1933.
Mr. Johan Edvard Sandstrom, Sundbyberg, Sweden, February 8, 1933.
Mr. John F. Anderson, Stockholm, Sweden, February 16, 1933.
Mr. John Schierholtz Kuhl, Kitchener, Ontario, February 20, 1933.
Mr. Charles Stedman Ridgway, Durban, Natal, March 16, 1933.
Mr. George Frederick Poole, London, England, June 15, 1933.
Miss Francie E. McQuigg, Bryn Athyn, Pennsylvania, June 24, 1933.
Miss Elena Hager, Denver, Colorado, June 25, 1933.
Mrs. Stanley F. (Elizabeth Ann Edmonds) Ebert, Bryn Athyn, Pennsylvania, July 9, 1933.
Rev. Ferdinand Hussenet, St. Cloud, France, July 10, 1933.
Mr. Alfred Larson, Rockford, Illinois, July 20, 1933.
Miss Emma Roschman, Toronto, Ontario, August 19, 1933.
Mrs. Charles H. Sturnfield, Chicago, Illinois, August 30, 1933.

     RESIGNATIONS.

     From December 31, 1932, to December 31, 1933.

Mr. Pieter H. J. R. Wellenberg, The Hague, Holland, August, 1933.
Mrs. Pieter H. J. R. Wellenberg, The Hague, Holland, August, 1933.
Miss Jacoba Henriette Robbemond, The Hague, Holland, September, 1933.
Mr. Thomas Lee Fine, Walla Walla, Washington, November 29, 1933.

     DROPPED FROM THE ROLL.

     Mr. Madefrey Alethes Odhner, San Francisco, Cal., September, 1933.

          HUGO LJ. ODHNER,
           Secretary.

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REPORT OF THE COUNCIL OF THE CLERGY. 1934

REPORT OF THE COUNCIL OF THE CLERGY.       WILLIAM WHITEHEAD       1934

     January 1, 1933, to January 1, 1934.

     The present membership of the Clergy of the General Church of the New Jerusalem (see last directory published in New Church Life, December, 1932, pp. 565-568), comprises three members of the episcopal degree; 34 members in the pastoral degree; 5 members in the ministerial degree; and 2 licensed candidates for the ministry; making a total of 44 members.

     The changes in personnel during the past year were: (1) the passing, on July 10, of the Rev. Ferdinand Hussenet, Pastor of the society in Paris, France, (see obituary notice in New Church Life, September, 1933, pp. 40&9); (2) the ordination of the Rev. Willard D. Pendleton into the first degree; and (3) the authorization of Messrs. William Cairns Henderson and Erik Sandstrom as candidates for the ministry.

     Of the 44 members on the list, 19 are exclusively occupied in active pastoral work in various churches, societies and circles, including the Visiting Pastor of the General Church; 13 are engaged in the work of the Academy of the New Church in Bryn Athyn, besides performing uses in the episcopal and pastoral degrees; 7 are engaged in secular work; 3 are no longer in active pastoral or Academy service; and 2 are authorized candidates.

     In addition to these, and connected with the South African Mission, are: 5 native pastors, 6 ministers, 6 authorized leaders, and 3 theological students.

     Up to February 2, 1934, the Bishop of the General Church has received reports for the year 1933 from all members of the Clergy, except Pastors Elmo C. Acton (Durban, South Africa), Henry Leonardos and M. de Lima (South America); Minister Vincent C. Odhner (Bryn Athyn), and 3 native ministers connected with the South African Mission.

     From the reports received, the following comments and statistics have been derived:

     The RITES AND SACRAMENTS of the Church have been administered as follows:

Baptisms                                                  92 (+ 9)
Confessions of Faith                                    30 (- 4)
Betrothals                                         13 (+ 3)
Marriages                                              24 (+ 11)
Funeral Services                                         30 (+ 8)
Holy Supper:
Quarterly: as Celebrant 96; as Assistant 29                125 (+ 37)
Monthly: as Celebrant 40; as Assistant 10                50 (-10)
Private                                              20 (+ 5)
Ordinations                                         1
Dedications (private homes)                               6

     Note: The above figures do not include returns from Durban (South Africa), or the Society in Brazil. Nor do they include the South African Native Mission, for which Superintendent F. W. Elpbick reports 90 registered baptisms (Infant 45; Adult 45); and 12 deaths.

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     The Rt. Rev. Nathaniel Dandridge Pendleton reports the following brief statement of formal activities during the past year:

     As Bishop of the General Church of the New Jerusalem, he presided over the weekly meetings of the Consistory; the annual meetings of the Council of the Clergy, January 3-February 4, 1933; the Joint Meetings, and the Executive Committee; the Pittsburgh District Assembly, September 22-24; and the 20th Ontario District Assembly, held in Toronto, Canada, October 7-9. Preached in Pittsburgh and Toronto; and administered the Sacrament of the Holy Supper in both places.

     As Pastor of the Bryn Athyn Church, he presided over the regular meetings of the Pastor's Council, the Board of Trustees, and the Annual Meeting of the Society; preached at Bryn Athyn eight times, and conducted services when not absent. Conducted three doctrinal classes, March 17, 24 and 31.

     As President of the Academy of the New Church, he presided over the meetings of the Board of Directors; the regular meetings of the President's Council, the Theological School Faculty, and the General Faculty. Lectured twice a week to the Theological School, from January 9 through May 24, and from October 2 through December 20; also lectured twice a week to a class of College women, from January 10 through June 6, and from September 28 through December 21.

     The Rt. Rev. George de Charms, as Assistant Bishop of the General Church, reports that he presided at the District Assembly in Glenview, in October, on which occasion he preached, and administered the Holy Supper. Also made an episcopal visit to Cincinnati and Chicago.

     As Vice President of the Academy, he presided at the following Faculties: College, Boys' Academy, Girls' Seminary, and Elementary School. Also continued in charge of Religious Instruction, and presided at meetings of the Department of Religion. In the College he gave an educational course from January 9 to June 15; and in the Theological School a course in "Liturgics." Since October 2, in the Theological School, he has given a course in "Regeneration."

     As Assistant Pastor of the Bryn Athyn Church, he preached eight times, and conducted a series of four doctrinal classes from April 21 through May 12. He continued in charge of the Children's Services, receiving regular help from the Rev. Willard D. Pendleton, and occasional assistance from other ministers; also continued teaching Religion to the eighth grade of the Elementary School.

     The Rt. Rev. Robert J. Tilson, Pastor of Michael Church, London, England, reports that he presided at the 26th British Assembly, held at Colchester from August 5 to 7, 1933.

     He visited Colchester several times, and also the Circles at York and Stratford-on-Avon,

     He also continued to act as President of the "New Church Club," meeting monthly; and as a member of the Revision Board of the Swedenborg Society.

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     Rev. Alfred Acton, in addition to reporting as Visiting Pastor of the Washington Society, states that at the end of the year the translation of Volume III of The Word Explained came from the press. This volume completes Swedenborg's comment on Genesis. He anticipates that the comment on Exodus will take two volumes; on Joshua, Judges, etc., one volume; and Isaiah and Jeremiah, one volume; making four volumes in all yet to appear, though possibly they may be comprised in three. He also proposes to include the translation and possibly the Latin text of Swedenborg's De Messiah Venturo. This work has never yet appeared in print in any form. It seems to have been written by Swedenborg either just prior to or immediately after the History of Creation, and in any case before The Word Explained. The Index to the whole work will also take one volume, as he hopes to make it a comprehensive one.

     Rev. Karl R. Alden states that, in addition to his Academy duties, he continued to direct the Whittington Chorus. He also preached once in the Cathedral.

     Rev. Gustaf Baeckstrom reports that, in addition to his duties as Pastor of the Stockholm Society (Nya Kyrkans Fiirsamling), he delivered four public lectures in Sweden, with an average attendance of 95 persons.

     The group in Jonkoping (Sweden) has held regular services and doctrinal classes once a week throughout about eight or nine months in the year, under the leadership of Mr. Sigstedt when he had not been there. The average attendance was 20. He had given religious instruction to five children in Jonkoping; and Miss Edda Weise had continued the work in his absence. The group in Oslo (Norway) has held regular reading classes under the leadership of Miss Anna Boyesen.

     He had also administered the Holy Supper as celebrant twice in Jonkoping, once in Gothenburg, Boris and Malmkoping (Sweden), and as assistant once in Colchester (England).

     Rev. William B. Caldwell reports that he has been engaged as Editor of New Church Life, and as Professor of Theology in the Academy. During the year he visited the New York Society once, conducting a service and doctrinal class.

     Rev. L. W. T. David, after noting that he had been engaged as a Secretary in the Academy, reports that he had preached in Bryn Athyn three times, conducted the service twice, and assisted in the service on twelve occasions.

     Rev. Charles E. Doering reports that he has performed the duties of Dean of Faculties and Professor of Mathematics in the Academy. He has also conducted the morning worship of the Academy Schools; and preached once in the Bryn Athyn Church.

     Rev. Frederick W. Elphick, as Superintendent of the General Church Mission in South Africa, estimates the number of baptized native members to be 969, a gain of 32 over last year. In the native leaders' reports to the Bishop, several report a high number of deaths. This was due to an exceptional bad year of drought and starvation in Basutoland.

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     A new center in Sterkstroom, with about 20 members, has been in existence for about a year.

     There are 6 men and 10 women teachers in the 8 Day Schools; and 2 men teachers in 1 Night School. There are also 2 Instructors in Trades. The total number of scholars (always fluctuating) is from 300 to 350.

     He personally teaches in the Native Theological School; and officiates as Acting Pastor of the Alpha Circle, Ladybrand, O. F. S. He also reports conducting 7 services, and assisting in 2 services, for the Durban Society.

     Rev. Alan Gill, Pastor of the Carmel Church, Kitchener, Ontario, Canada, reports some increase in attendance at services, but also an increase in financial difficulty. One of the chief concerns at present is, how to maintain the School. In addition to the regular enrollment of 44 pupils, there are 27 prospective pupils, i.e., children of under school age who live within accessible distance from the School. In addition there are ten others living some miles away. This makes a total of 81 children of fourteen years and under in the Society.

     The Society's determination to maintain the School on as efficient a basis as possible, in spite of the financial strain, is therefore very gratifying.

     Rev. Victor J. Gladish, Pastor of the Colchester Society, England, reports that attendance at services and classes is slightly better than in the preceding year. In the latter half of the year, some of the young people have been bringing friends to services and socials; and there is reason to believe this affords some hope for growth.

     In May, he made a three days' visit to Mr. and Mrs. Kenneth Pryke, of Wallasey, near Liverpool, who stilt retain their connection with the Society. By arrangement with Bishop Tilson, a visit was also made to the circle of members residing in Bristol and Bath. He stayed with Mr. and Mrs. Imlah Dawson, of Bristol; meeting also Miss Mary Dawson, Mr. and Mrs. S. H. Lewin and family, of Bath, and Mr. Edward Morris and son David, and others. A Sunday service was held, and the Holy Supper was administered to nine communicants. Later in the day a paper on "The Necessity of Formulating Doctrine in the Church" was read and discussed.

     In July, he visited Northampton for two days, staying with Mr. Norman Williams and his mother. A service was held at the home of Mr. and Mrs. J. S. Pryke, at which the Holy Supper was administered.

     A short visit was also made to the Rev. T. F. Robinson, who remains alert of mind and in touch with the activities of the Church at home and abroad, in spite of being more rigidly confined to bed than ever.

     Rev. Willis L. Gladish, Pastor of Sharon Church, Chicago, Ill., reports that attendance at services and suppers still suffers from the depression; but there is recently a more cheerful feeling. At a Sunday evening service on December 10, 68 were present; and 75 were present at the Christmas service. He expresses appreciation for the assistance of Glenview musical talent. In spite of several membership losses by death and removal, there is prospect of an increase of members in the near future.

     Rev. Frederick E. Gyllenhaal, Pastor of the Olivet Church, Toronto, Canada, reports that, in addition to the usual Wednesday doctrinal classes, and the Sunday morning Sunday School classes, he has conducted fortnightly classes in the subject of Conjugial Love, both for young married couples and for unmarried young people.

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He has also conducted a class, for young people, aged 14 to 21, on Bishop de Charms's book, The Growth of the Mind. He reports that two of the local organizations have merged, viz., the "Forward Club" and the "Sons of the Academy Chapter."

     In connection with the Ontario Assembly of October 7-9, he remarks that one useful result of Bishop Pendleton's visit "was that the people for the first time realized the seriousness of the difference between the position of the General Church and the Dutch position."

     He visited the Montreal Circle five times, holding service, doctrinal class, a social evening, and an occasional class with the children, on these visits. Monthly suppers have been commenced at Montreal, followed by a reading from the Writings, the Doctrine of the New Jerusalem concerning the Lord, being the work selected. After private consultation with the members, he appointed Mr. R. F. Dykes Leader, or Convener, and Reader. Mr. Felix Duquesne was selected as Secretary-Treasurer. An offering is made at every meeting, the idea being to accumulate funds for the expenses of public lectures, and for a Building Fund.

     Rev. Thomas S. Harris, Pastor of the Arbutus Society (Md.), after reporting that the financial stringency would have made it impossible to carry on, except for the liberal provisions of the General Church, stated that there are 13 General Church members scattered throughout New England who look to him as their Pastor. He had not been able to visit them during the past year, but had tried to keep in touch with them. These 13 members are located as follows: 2 in Yalesville, Conn., 1 in Sterling, Mass., 3 in Lowell, Mass., and 7 in Abington, Mass. Those in Abington gather for worship every Sunday morning, and have a reading class after service.

     Rev. Eldred E. Iungerich, Pastor of the Pittsburgh Society, reports, in addition to the customary uses, that in his summer, August trip, Buffalo was added to the places visited, 17 being present at the doctrinal class given at the home of Mr. and Mrs. Roy Faulkner.

     Rev. Hugo Lj. Odhner, Assistant Pastor of the Bryn Athyn Society, and Professor of Theology in the Academy, reports, in connection with the Society, that he has had charge of the Chancel Guild and Usher's organization; and frequently assisted in conducting services. He preached 11 times, and conducted 13 doctrinal classes.

     He had also given courses in the Academy's Theological School, College, and High Schools.

     Rev. Enoch S. Price reports that, since October 11, 1933, he had, with Mrs. Price, been sojourning in the city of Mexico, and had discovered one New Churchman in the city. His name was Leopoldo Enoch Calleja, a very old man with a badly crippled body, but with very alert intellectual faculties. He stated that he had translated into Spanish Heaven and Hell, The True Christian Religion, and several other of the Writings; that the MSS are now in the city of Washington, awaiting the collection of funds for publication.

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     Rev. Joseph E. Rosenqvist, of Gothenburg (Sweden), now in secular work, reports that he has translated into Swedish the Apocalypse Explained up to no. 1050.

     Rev. Gilbert H. Smith, Pastor of the Immanuel Church, Glenview, Ill., reports that the work of the Church and School have been more seriously hampered by lack of funds than in any previous year. The essential work has gone on, but a percentage of teachers' salaries has had to be deferred. There is a larger School than usual, with Kindergarten and Ninth Grade. There are five teachers, one of whom, Miss Lois Nelson, teaches without salary, as her contribution to the work. Several of the families have been very much in need, and though the Society has given some little relief, and individuals have done what they could, the need still continues in some quarters.

     The Society is working together harmoniously.

     Rev. Homer Synnestvedt, in connection with the North Philadelphia group of the Advent Church, reports that the work is being carried on as far as possible in collaboration with Bryn Athyn. The weekly Sunday School is the only new feature, with 7 regular attendants and 4 others.

     He reports having preached 9 times during the year, in Bryn Athyn, Pittsburgh, Glenview, Chicago, Covert and Almont, Michigan.

     Rev. F. E. Waelchli, as Visiting Pastor of the General Church, reports that his visiting pastoral work was confined to the Near Middle West, where Middleport, Ohio, Detroit, Michigan, Riverside, Ont., and Erie, Pa., were visited each three times; Cleveland and Youngstown, Ohio, and Johnstown and Renovo, Pa., each twice; and Niles, Ohio, once. At these nine places the ministrations of the Church were brought to about 100 persons, including children. At seven of the places instruction was given to children, their total being 26.

     Unofficially, three visits were made to Cincinnati, at one of which he conducted a doctrinal class; also two visits to Pittsburgh, at each of which he conducted a class and addressed the children.

     At Bryn Athyn he preached twice, gave the address at Children's service four times, and conducted a private class on General Doctrine sixteen times.

     Rev. William Whitehead reports that he has twice conducted the quarterly services in the New York Society, and given two doctrinal classes in New York and Long Island; besides preaching once in Bryn Athyn.

     Rev. A. Wynne Acton reports that he has been engaged as Assistant to the Rt. Rev. Robert J. Tilson, in the Burton Road Church, London, England.

     Rev. Raymond G. Cranch, after reporting that he has been engaged in secular work, notes that he cooperated with the Secretaries of both Councils by making a stenographic report and transcript of the 1933 sessions.

     Rev. Philip N. Odhner reports as Minister to North Jersey, Camden, and West Philadelphia, and also as part-time teacher in the Academy of the New Church.

     The Northern New Jersey group held services every other Sunday, with an average attendance of 27, of whom 18 are members of the General Church.

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     He also reports that classes have been held in Camden (Merchantville) every three weeks, with average attendance of 13.

     From January to June, he held private Doctrinal Classes once a week for young people in Bryn Athyn. He preached once in Bryn Athyn, and conducted seven Children's Services there.

     In the Academy, he has been teaching two Hebrew courses, one in Swedenborg's Latin, and one in Commercial Geography.

     Rev. Willard D. Pendleton reports that he has been engaged in assisting in several of the activities in the Bryn Athyn Society, and also, since September, as part-time teacher in the Academy Schools.

     In addition to the above, statistical reports without special comment were received from the Revs. Hendrik W. Boef (Los Angeles, Cal.), Reginald W. Brown, Emil R. Cronlund (Bryn Athyn), Henry Heinrichs (Denver, Colo.), Richard Morse (Sydney, Australia), Ernst Pfeiffer (The Hague, Holland), Theodore Pitcairn (Bryn Athyn), Norman H. Reuter (Wyoming, Ohio), and George G. Starkey (Glenview, Ill.).

     MINISTERS IN THE SOUTH AFRICAN MISSION.

     Reports were received from all but one of the six Basuto ministers, and from three of the five Zulu ministers, as follows:

     Basuto.

     Rev. Berry Mapelepo, Pastor of the societies centering in Greylingstad Society, Transvaal, reports, in addition to the uses performed at Greylingstad, a number of sermons, doctrinal classes and lectures given at Alexandra, Silver Bank, and Heidelberg. He says: "The activities of the Mission in general show improvement, especially with the young folks in connection with studying about the new light."

     Rev. Jonas Motsi, Pastor of the Alpha Mission, Ladybrand, and as Assistant Superintendent there, reports, in addition to various pastoral and school duties, that on June 18th he "held a celebration of the birth of the New Church at Mafika-Lisiu; the subject we took in that celebration was of the late Bishop Emeritus W. F. Pendleton; and that was very interesting to many of the people who were there."

     On Sept. 22, he visited the group under one of the Leaders, J. Kandisa, of Sterkstroom, and performed various services there.

     Rev. Twentyman Mofokeng, as Assistant Pastor and teacher at the Alpha Mission, and as Pastor and head teacher (from October) at Luka's Village, Maseru, reports various duties; also that he has assisted in the Theological School, in the teaching of Conjugial Love, and of the True Christian Religion. He has translated Elellaents of the True Christian Religion, by the Rev. Hugo Lj. Odhner, into Sesuto. Also transposed hymns, anthems, and the Sanctus from the Liturgy, and translated their words into Sesuto (about 40 pieces altogether).

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     Rev. Nathaniel Mphatse, Minister of the Mafika-Lisiu Society, Basutoland, reports 76 members, and a Day School of 41 members, covering up to the 5th grade. There is also a Sunday School of 36 pupils.

     Rev. Sofonia Mosoang, Minister of the Khopane Society, Maseru, Basutoland, reports a membership of 39, and 56 pupils in the Day School.

     Zulu.

     Rev. John Moses Jiyana, Minister at Lusitania and Esididini, reports 44 members at Lusitania. He has delivered 5 lectures at Ellensdale, where there is hope of establishing another center, as he has already received 6 adults and 4 children. He also lectured at Crimen, with some promise.

     Rev. Julius S. M. Jiyana, Minister to the Tongaat Society, reports monthly visits to Shakas' kraal and Dreifontein, with baptisms, preaching and doctrinal classes at each place. He gives instruction to the Day School five times a week.

     Rev. Philip Johannes Stole, Minister to the Turner's Avenue Society, Durban, and to the Springfield group, reports additional visiting in town for evangelization. Also he has acted as Head Teacher to the Night School for the whole year, four nights a week. Respectfully submitted,
     WILLIAM WHITEHEAD,
          Secretary, Council of the Clergy.
REPORT OF THE EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE. 1934

REPORT OF THE EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE.       RANDOLPH W. CHILDS       1934

     The objective of the Executive Committee for the past year has been to give financial support to the vital uses of the Church without incurring a heavy deficit. In order to accomplish this purpose, it has been necessary to curtail normal activities. New Church Life has been decreased in size; the expenditures of the Orphanage Fund have been drastically reduced; the visits of the Visiting Pastor have been lessened; and, owing to the depreciation of the dollar, the allowances to ministers in foreign countries have been reduced.

     While these and other economies have been required by the world-wide depression, the Executive Committee looks forward, not only to resuming the support of normal uses, but to the adequate financing of the growing uses of the Church.

     The Executive Committee has held eight meetings during the year. Among the subjects under consideration were: The collection of the bequests of Mrs. Oliver Bradbury, Mrs. Francis Breitstein, and Mr. Timothy Kimball; the Orphanage Fund; the publication of the papers and discussions of the last Annual Council Meetings; the receipt of the proceeds of two life insurance policies upon the life of the Rev. Theodore Pitcairn; and the adoption of a budget for the year 1934.
     RANDOLPH W. CHILDS,
          Secretary.
February 2, 1934.

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REPORT OF THE ORPHANAGE COMMITTEE. 1934

REPORT OF THE ORPHANAGE COMMITTEE.       MOREL LEONARD       1934

     At a meeting of the Joint Council, held February 4, 1933, the appointing of an Orphanage Committee was referred to the Executive Committee, which appointed Messrs. Morel Leonard, Fred J. Cooper, and Arthur Synnestvedt, together with the Treasurer of the General Church, ex officio, at a meeting held February 24, 1933.

     Upon our accepting the appointment, we found that the Orphanage was in debt to the General Church $1,994.86, including interest, and that there were not sufficient funds on hand to meet the payments then due to the widows. It was therefore necessary for us to borrow $300.00 to make the payments.

     The Orphanage Committee has continued assisting the three widows and their families, consisting of ten children, but the amount of monthly assistance was several times reduced to a sum that would come within our means. A sum of $285.00 was expended each month for the first quarter, but this was gradually reduced to $160.00 per month in the last quarter.

     We have received a generous response from many members of the Church, as a result of the sending of letters of appeal and advertising; but the response to these appeals was not sufficient to carry on the uses to the extent they were in the past. The following comparison will show the results of our efforts:

     In 1932, 22 individuals contributed $1,778.43. In 1933, 113 individuals contributed $3,039.28, an increase of 97 contributors and $1,360.85 in contributions.

     We append a financial statement, which shows, among other things, that we are at present in debt $2,400.46, and that we have a deficit of $161.02 for the year 1933.
     Respectfully submitted,
          MOREL LEONARD.

     ORPHANAGE FUND.

     Financial Statement of the Year 1933, as of Dec. 31, 1933.

Assets                              Liabilities
Cash                     $552.70      Loan 2/28/33-excluding interest     $300.00
Investments (Book Purchase               Loan from General Church-
Value)                4,591.90      including interest                2,100.45
                              Net worth as of
                              12/31/33           $2,911.16
                                             Less 1933
                              Deficit           167.02      2,744.14
                    $5,144.60                               $5,144.60

     Expense                          Income
Assistance to Sundry
Persons               $3,055.00      Contributions                $3,039.28
Circulars, Postage, Stationery                Investment Interest                    41.64
And Bank Charges           87.34          Deficit                    167.02
Interest for 1933 on General
Church Loan                105.60
                         $3,247.94                               $3,247.94

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Church News 1934

Church News       Various       1934

     SOUTH AFRICAN MISSION.
     Since our last report, the work of the Mission throughout its various centers has been following its regular routine. Mid-December brought the annual examinations for the schools, and Christmas was duly celebrated by all the Mission groups. At the date of writing, the new term has commenced, including the autumn session of the Theological School at Alpha.

     During November and December, Mr. and Mrs. Elphick and family spent several weeks in Durban. This brought pleasant contact with the various uses of the Durban Society, and a fuller opportunity of meeting friends.

     Following the very long drought which South Africa has recently experienced, exceptionally heavy rains have fallen throughout the Union. Rivers in flood, bridges under water, muddy and impassible roads, have caused all kinds of delay in transport and travel. Alpha has had its share.

     Our friends from Durban had to be ferried over the "Moperi Spruit"-five miles from the farm-by means of the Alpha boat, which was transported from the Caledon River by motor lorry. A later device for crossing this occasional but troublesome stream was initiated by Messrs. Norman Ridgway and Fred Parker. A cable was thrown across the water, and passengers were conveyed in a box suspended thereto. These primitive contrivances, meeting the needs of the moment, will, we hope, prove the need for the building of a proper bridge by the Government.

     Our recent visitors, meeting with some of the experiences noted, have been: Miss Elsie Champion, Miss Jennie Gaskill (en route to Cape Town, London, Colchester and Bryn Athyn), Rev. and Mrs. Elmo C. Acton and family; Mr. and Mrs. P. D. Ridgway, and Mr. J. H. Ridgway. Unfortunately whooping cough developed in the Elphick home, which made it necessary for the Acton family to return to Durban sooner than arranged. This meant that the Alpha Circle was denied the privilege of having Mr. Acton conduct several chapel services and doctrinal classes. The Mission Council meeting and the annual audit were also affected, and our February program has been canceled. We hope to give a better account of ourselves in our next report.
     F. W. ELPHICK. Feb. 6, 1934.

     GLENVIEW, ILL.

     The February meeting of the Sons of the Academy chapter was held, by invitation, at Sharon Church, Chicago. Many Glenview members went by auto through the winter snows, and were rewarded with a very sociable and instructive evening. Following an abundant supper, the Rev. W. L. Gladish gave a brief account of the recent Council Meetings in Bryn Athyn. The address of the evening was on the subject of "Workers Through the Ages." by Mr. George K. Fiske, who gave an historical account of the free family workers, slaves, serfs, guilds, and unions, describing the gradual betterment of their condition, and favoring an even more general organization to this end.

     In the Immanuel Church School it has again become necessary to move the kindergarten to the club room,-an evidence of our need for more space.

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Miss Helen Maynard, long in charge of the library, is doing especially useful work, giving many hours of her time in aiding the children. She has established a connection with the Glenview and Evanston Public Libraries whereby we may enjoy their facilities. Our own library is steadily growing in size.

     The weekly meeting for the reading of New Church Life and other New Church periodicals is held regularly at the home of Mr. Louis S. Cole, and the members are hoping for an early return of the Life to its former size, as a weekly meeting calls for plenty of material. Mr. G. A. McQueen now presides at these gatherings as for merry.
     J. B. S.

     PITTSBURGH, PA.

     Swedenborg's Birthday was celebrated by our Day School at a luncheon on January 25th. The Sunday School children above the primary group were also invited. Walter Schoenberger, seventh grade, was toastmaster, and the speakers ranged from kindergarten to eighth grade. Every pupil in the Day School spoke. The kindergartners told about heaven and the children there, while the older ones recounted incidents in Swedenborg's life, his appearance, his house, and the Writings.

     The society celebration took the form of a banquet on the following evening. Mr. John W. Frazier was toastmaster and introduced an interesting program of speeches and songs.

     The Day School pupils entertained guests at a Washington's Birthday celebration on February 21st. Each child invited la guest and acted as host or hostess to him at a tea which was followed by a dramatic program. All the pupils of the school took part in a pageant depicting characters of Revolutionary times. Several of the girls, dressed as colonial dames, explained in a musical skit why they refused to drink tea; and five of the primary children told in a little play how they felt about the Washington cherry tree story.

     A spirit of gaiety dominated the dance in the auditorium on Friday evening, February 23d. The fancy costumes and bright colored decorations made brilliant the picture of many couples dancing to the music of an animated orchestra. The grand march, Virginia reel, and cards provided entertainment in which everyone could participate.     
     E. R. D.

     ST. PETERSBURG, FLA.

     The little circle of New Church people spending the Winter here is smaller than usual, though some came as early as Thanksgiving Day. Sunday worship is held regularly at the home of Mr. and Mrs. Seymour G. Nelson, and at these services Mr. Nelson reads the sermons of the Rev. Gilbert H. Smith. On one Sunday in January, when the Rev. and Mrs. Theodore Pitcairn were here for a few days' visit, Mr. Pitcairn delivered a sermon on the spiritual meaning of Jacob's serving twice seven years for Rachel. (Genesis 29:15-30.)

     We also meet at the homes on Wednesday evenings for a supper, a reading, and a social time. On these occasions, Mr. Nelson has been reading some papers by Bishop de Charms on the subject of "The Advent of the Lord to the Individual." On one Wednesday, Mrs. Nelson entertained us at dinner, after which Mr. Nelson Rave a talk on the Holy Land, illustrated with stereopticon pictures.
     E. V. W.

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FOR RENT 1934

FOR RENT              1934




     Announcements.



     For a family wishing to visit Toronto during the Centennial Year: Attractive furnished home in North Toronto; three bedrooms; sun room with southern exposure, overlooking beautiful garden. Would rent from May 1st to October 31st. Apply to Miss Christina Craig, 1534 King Street West, Toronto, Canada.
REPORT OF THE COUNCIL OF THE CLERGY 1934

REPORT OF THE COUNCIL OF THE CLERGY              1934

     The May issue of NEW CHURCH LIFE will be enlarged to make possible the publication of two Addresses delivered at the Council of the Clergy on January 30th and 31st, together with the discussions that followed them. The Addresses are: "The Divine Human," by the Rev. Albert Bjorck, and "The Divine Within Men and Angels," by Bishop N. D. Pendleton.

     Contributions are solicited to defray the expense of the enlarged issue, and will be received with appreciation by Mr. H. Hyatt, Treasurer, Bryn Athyn, Pa.

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ENDURANCE IN TEMPTATION 1934

ENDURANCE IN TEMPTATION       Rev. NORMAN H. REUTER       1934


NEW CHURCH LIFE
VOL. LIV          MAY, 1934           No. 5
     "In your patience possess ye your souls." (Luke 21:19.)

     These words of the Lord are an exhortation to the man of the church to be strong and courageous in times of temptation, and to have spiritual patience therein. For it is only through the patient endurance of temptation that he may gain as his possession the spiritual gifts of the soul imparted by the Lord as the reward of victory.

     There is no progress in haste and hurry, in impatience and unrest, in worry and discontent. All these are products of the turbulent natural, striving to have its own way. But the way of God, especially in the regenerate life, is slow with measured preparation, requiring calm endurance of temptation, in which patience is finally born when man learns to put his trust in the Lord. Similar to our text are the words of the Psalm: "Rest in the Lord, and wait patiently for Him. Fret not thyself because of evil doers, neither be thou envious against the workers of iniquity. For they shall soon be cut down like the grass, and wither as the green herb. Trust in the Lord, and do good; so shalt thou dwell in the land, and verily thou shalt be fed. Delight thyself also in the Lord, and He shall give thee the desires of thine heart. Commit thy way unto the Lord, and He shall bring it to pass." (Psalm 37:1-5.) "In your patience possess ye your souls."

     Two lines of teaching may be drawn from the text, one having reference to states and attitudes of truth, and the other to states and attitudes of good.

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"Patience," or "endurance," as the same Greek word is sometimes rendered, "signifies spiritual endurance, which is endurance (or patience) in sustaining temptations"; and those have that endurance who fight in themselves against falsities and evils. The word "soul" here signifies faith, or the life of truth; that is, the life of the understanding. And the Greek word here translated "possess" has the root meanings of to acquire, to beget, to purchase, to possess, and to enjoy. Hence the spiritual meaning of the words, "In your patience possess ye your souls," is that the man of the church, in and through the endurance and sustaining of temptations, acquires genuine truth,-a living faith. By victory in temptation he comes to possess a greater light in respect to truth. Indeed, he then, more than before, enjoys a deep enlightenment through the influx out of heaven from the Lord.

     But here the teaching concerning the state of good may be noted. For this heavenly light, this exaltation of the life of the understanding, if it is to be permanent, is only possible when it has been preceded by a cleansing of the will. Therefore it is said that the man of the church comes into the possession of this enlightenment through endurance in temptation. Only after the combat against some evil and falsity, and through the consequent removal of their obstructing presence, can a deeper and genuine enlightenment be given by the Lord. When the smudge of some false idea has been removed, the sunshine of heaven can the more easily pour through the windows of the mind. When man has struggled against some evil of life, some lust or cupidity, the organics of the mind are made more pliable to that influx; the substance becomes more yielding, and hence receptive of the influx of heavenly heat and light. Thus through temptation, and victory therein, the Lord forms man more and more into a vessel receptive of His life. The Spirit of God broods, as it were, upon the tender organic forms of his mind, shaping them into an image and likeness of their Creator.

     We have said that only through the removal of evil can a genuine enlightenment be given. But how is that to be understood, in the face of the teaching that even an evil man can have his understanding raised into the light of heaven, and hence see truths? The answer is, that truth thus seen is not permanent with an evil man, and does not become his own possession, but is removed after death.

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That truth alone remains which a man lives; and hence truth thus seen through the raising of the understanding apart from the will does not bring lasting, genuine enlightenment. All such enlightenment is but a knowledge of truth rather than a perception of truth. It is a viewing of truth from below and without, from a superinduced sphere around him, rather than any appropriation and possession of good in himself. The ability of man to comprehend the body of infinite truth by such a method alone, by the addition of each new knowledge, is like endeavoring to pluck out of the sky the stars of heaven, and arrange them again in their proper order and sequence; and for man to believe that of himself he can so arrange truth in his mind is equally audacious and impudent. The Lord alone can do this for man.

     Even when the understanding is raised apart from the will, the Lord alone causes man to see truth as true, and falsity as falsity. But this raising takes place only when some use is to be served, as when the Lord thus enlightens the leaders and members of the church in their uses, in order that the church may continue on earth. Nevertheless, such enlightenment, as far as the individual is concerned, is not permanent; nor does it lead toward his salvation unless it becomes fixed, not only in the constantly changing surface variations of his understanding, but also in the lasting substance of his eternal will. That is, the truth thus temporarily seen must be used by the man to re-form the substance of his will, and then it becomes his eternal possession; for then the image of truth, which is the image of the Divine, is stamped upon his very being, even down to the ultimate cortical glands of his brain.

     When the substance of his mind is so molded, through constant application of truth and the temptations which thus arise, then he is gifted with that genuine enlightenment which is the soul of faith spoken of in our text. Then the good that man does, the charity that he lives, becomes the vessel into which the light of heaven can inflow as its own proper receiving form. Each state of good becomes the medium for myriads of perceptions of truth, and thereby man's wisdom is immeasurably increased; and this because the truth is in harmony with the good, and both are in harmony with the Divine. The whole body of Divine Truth can then flow down from above and within, and be received according to the state of good.

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All the wisdom of the angels can be received, if man but prepares the proper vessels through the shunning of evil. This law of communication is even further extended in heaven, so that every truth that is known in heaven can be communicated to every angel there. Thus the impossible which man vainly attempts through the mere acquisition of knowledges becomes possible when the Lord is permitted to form the mind; for we are taught that the very cortical glands of the regenerating man are arranged in the pattern and sequence of the stars of heaven,-that ultimate image of the Divine order in creation. (D. L. W. 366.)

     But while man is regenerating he becomes impatient because of his inability to comprehend Divine Truth, to understand even the full compass and connection of the doctrines of the church. As a warning against this impatience the text is given, "In your patience possess ye your souls." Through patient endurance of temptation ye will come to possess the longed-for truth. We are not to be impatient in the receiving of truth, in the seeing of it and all that it means. Such a vision of truth as we dream of, such an enlightenment, cannot be forced; for the implantation of truth is from the Lord, and comes when the proper states of charity are present to receive it. The vision of truth that we desire so ardently is more than the vision which even the evil can procure through the raising of their understanding into the light of heaven; it is the vision that comes through the regenerate life,-the perception of truth that knows no doubts. Merely intellectual effort will not bring this; for it is a product of the regenerate life, and the offspring of the states of love in the will.

     As was said before, truth seen only through the raising of the understanding is but a loaned vision, granted to lead us on. It is not our own. It is piece-meal, easily losing its connection with other known truths, and this because of the endeavor of the natural of itself and by its own effort to encompass infinite truth with the human understanding,-to test God, as it were, and see if He be right. While such a spirit is present, while such an absence of humility prevails, little of truth can be seen,-only sufficient to enable the man to see a few of his faults, his evils, his rebellious attitudes and states, in order that he may have the means of coming into a better state in which greater light can be given.

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The veils from the hereditary will must be removed through temptation, through the subjugation of the natural and the removal of unworthy ambitions and loves. And one of these preventing states or attitudes is the desire to force the Lord's hand,-an unwillingness to wait patiently for our God. "In your patience possess ye your souls."

     But let us turn to the chapter in which our text occurs; for in the verses which precede it there is much that will throw light upon the subject of endurance in temptation. The Lord described to His disciples the coming day of judgment, saying, among other things, that there would then be "great earthquakes, and fearful sights and great signs from heaven. . . . They shall lay their hands upon you, and persecute you. . . . And ye shall be betrayed both by parents, and brethren, and kinsfolks, and friends; and some of you shall they cause to be put to death. And ye shall be hated of all men for my name's sake." (Luke 21:11-17.) In the internal natural sense, this last portion teaches that even those near and dear to us may be the external means of bringing us into severe temptations; but the spiritual sense enumerates the various evils and falsities of our own natures, showing that they are the real cause of temptation. This is what is meant when it is said, "A man's foes shall be they of his own household." (Matthew 10:36.) Our hereditary evils will often betray us, even while we are apparently in the regenerative effort, until finally, through such trials, some of our attitudes and beliefs, of which we are so fond, and which stand in our own way, are broken and destroyed. "And some of you shall they cause to be put to death."

     "And ye shall be hated of all." This expresses the attitude of our evil hereditary nature toward the new-born spiritual man. While regenerating, man is torn between two forces, and this is spiritual temptation. He sees the truth, and finds he cannot bring his will to follow it. Or perhaps he does apply it, and soon falls back into his old unregenerate ways. Then he may come to despise himself for his weakness, and to despair of ever overcoming his evil tendencies. What he should do seems plain, but the times he has not followed that truth are so many, and appear so clearly, that he begins to cry out in his heart as one lost, caught in the bog of his own corrupt nature, and being gradually drawn down into its depths.

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What makes the despair so great, and the temptation so grievous, is that now he knows how vile his evils are, and sees the future spiritual death that must come if he should again be drawn down into the miry depths of his proprium. At such times it seems as if the whole of his little world is falling to destruction. He is no longer in the apparent serenity and security which exists before he knows the evil state of his proprium through self-examination; and the despair this knowledge brings is increased by the fact that during a period of temptation he seems powerless to bring his will to do that which his understanding perceives ought to be done.

     The regenerating man is then like two men or two camps battling, and bitterly opposed to one another. This is more than an appearance, being really the case; for the forces of heaven and hell are combating in his mind through the medium of the good and evil spirits associated with him. The evil spirits rouse up his proprial nature in hatred against the newly-born spiritual man. At the same time, the new-born spiritual man, not as yet aware that the Lord is to do the active work of regeneration, tries vainly of itself to overcome the evil forces of man's hereditary nature. But because the man is trying to regenerate himself, of himself, through his own power, and not from the Lord, defeat is inevitable. He must reach the depths of despair,-a despair induced by his inability to overcome even one little evil in the combat. Then it is that a regenerating man feels the contest is hopeless. Then his whole spiritual world of ideals seems to be swallowed up and destroyed. But then it is that the Lord says, "There shall not a hair of your head perish. In your patience possess ye your souls."

     There is need of both courage and patience in the doing of that which one believes to be right, in the face of the opposing spheres which prevail in the world,-spheres which tend to make one ashamed of an effort toward regeneration. The ridicule and contempt, which are directed against those who are sincerely trying to live their lives according to the truth as they see it, are the devil's tools. The Lord teaches us in the Parable of the Sower that the seed of Divine Truth which falls upon "good ground" is found with "such as in a simple and good heart hear the Word and hold it fast, and bring forth fruit with patience." In the spiritual sense, "to bring forth fruit in patience means to do truths and goods even when living amid falsities and evils, that is, among those who are in falsities and evils." (A. E. 813:4.)

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     Such courageous action always brings on temptation, because of the conflict between what is true and what is false. In these temptations true endurance and spiritual patience are needed;-endurance, that the regenerate man may not give up the struggle to live the truth; and patience, not only with his own hereditary weaknesses, but also with the falsities and evils of those around him which seem to bring on his states of temptation. To the regenerate man, thus struggling, the Lord says, "That which ye have already hold fast till I come." (Revelation 2:25.) And also, "Behold, I come quickly, hold that fast which thou hast, that no man take thy crown." (Rev. 3:11.)

     Further, the Lord speaks these words to the man of the church: "I know thy works, and thy labor, and thy patience, and how thou canst not bear them which are evil; and thou hast tried them which say they are apostles, and are not, and hast found them liars; and hast borne with patience, and for my name's sake hast labored, and hast not fainted. Nevertheless I have somewhat against thee, because thou hast left thy first love." (Rev. 2: 2-4.) The "first love" is the first of the church with the regenerate man, which is a primitive spirit of charity and mutual love toward the neighbor. In the stress of temptation, when man realizes that not only his own evils,-the " enemies of his own household,"-but also the evils and falsities of those around him, lead him into states of temptation, then this first spirit of charity grows cold. He forgets his "first love." Therefore the Lord gives the following admonition, "Remember, therefore, from whence thou art fallen, and repent, and do the first works; or else I will come unto thee quickly, and will remove thy candlestick out of his place, except thou repent." (Rev. 2:5.)

     But to those who have held fast to their "first love" in the period of temptation, and especially afterwards, maintaining a spirit of charity towards others, by applying truths to themselves rather than to their neighbor, and thus conquering in the temptation,-to these the Lord says: "Because thou hast kept the word of my patience, I will keep thee from the hour of temptation." (Revelation 3:10.) Because the man of the church, thus addressed, has held fast to his "first love," not forgetting to be charitable even to those who seem to be the means of inducing upon him states of temptation, the forces of evil no longer have power to tempt him in that particular way, and consequently the Lord is able to protect him from that particular type of temptation.

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"I also will keep thee from the hour of temptation."

     One thing more than anything else that gives man the power to meet this kind of temptation is the realization that the internal causes of all his temptations lie in his own evil inclinations, in spite of the appearance that other persons have induced the temptation. No man is tempted except by an evil which he loves; and as soon as the love of that evil is removed, the Lord is able to "keep him" from that "hour of temptation."

     Finally, of such as repent and remove their evils, returning to their "first love" with a deeper realization of the character and meaning of spiritual charity, the Lord speaks in these words: "Him that overcometh will I make a pillar in the temple of my God, and he shall go no more out; and I will write upon him the name of my God, and the name of the City of my God, New Jerusalem, which cometh down out of heaven from my God; and my new name. He that hath an ear let him hear what the Spirit saith unto the churches." (Rev. 3:12, 13.) Amen.

LESSONS: Psalm 37:1-19. Luke 21:1-19. A. R. 82-85.
MUSIC: Liturgy, pages 575, 682, 658.
PRAYERS: Liturgy, nos. 82, 66, 72.
NOTES ON THE CALENDAR READINGS 1934

NOTES ON THE CALENDAR READINGS       Rev. HUGO LJ. ODHNER       1934

     In man's regeneration, the object of the temptations signified in the Word by Jacob's wrestling (Genesis 32) is that truth in the natural may become conjoined with good, even as Jacob was about to be united to Esau his brother. The prospect of such a union brings anxiety, in that the truth seems threatened. It seems endangered, with all its offspring. Nor would it be less than a destruction of all truth, if the principles of truth, whereby all the progress of regenerate life commences, were again to be submitted to merely natural good, with its characteristic blindness, weakness and inconstancy.

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     However, Esau has changed in state and representation, even as Jacob has changed. His hatred of Jacob is past; he is willing to forgive and forget; and he thus represents regenerate good inflowing into the good of truth in the natural.

     As a youth, Esau had represented the influx of good, or of delight, into the unregenerate natural, where such an influx, though indeed derived from the Divine Good itself, turns inevitably into fickle, unstable emotions which allow the sensual man to have dominion. Now, in his maturity, he has a better significance: For the influx of Divine Good into a natural which is ordered and disciplined by truths, is not so liable to perversion, and will not flow through it merely to stir up the delights of the sensual. But its influx will be met halfway by those ordered structures of the mind which are signified by Jacob and his wives and sons and chattels; and it will thus bear along with it the inner motivations and perceptions of the rational mind, which the Lord has furnished with the remains of innocence and truth implanted in childhood, and which therefore is able-aloof from self-to perceive truths in light even to conviction, and to become regenerate even before the natural of man, through its more indirect paths of labor and temptation, can be imbued with a spiritual quality.

     It is notable that the mutual approach of "Jacob" and of "Esau" in a man's mind is not sudden, but gradual. The internal sense discloses laws, not chronological sequences only. All the states of the mind, as they unfold, have to undergo similar modes of regeneration, but not necessarily all together or simultaneously. Just as we are told that Rebecca's coming to Isaac describes a state which continually recurs in the course of man's regenerate life (A. C. 3200), so now we must conceive of the meeting, here described, of good and truth in the natural, as a recurrent process rather than a single event.

     This is expressed by the description of how Jacob sent his sons and their mothers to meet Esau in the order of their significations,-first the handmaids and their sons, then Leah and her sons, and lastly Rachel and her son Joseph. "The general affections, with their truths, which are here the maidservants and their children, are first introduced into good; and then those less general, that is, particulars respectively, which here are Leah and her children; and at length those still less general, that is, singulars respectively, which are, here, Rachel and Joseph." (A. C. 4345:5.)

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Each state of truth, as soon as it becomes ready, is introduced into good; and thus the external or general concepts, which are more sensual and illusive, become imbued with affection first-before interior truths are born. (Compare A. C. 4342.)

     Such is always the case in life. The spiritual, through its influx of good, indeed conjoins itself always with the inmost states which have developed in the natural, but at first this "inmost" may be relatively external. Then, as the children of the mind are born, one by one,-that is, "as more interior truths are implanted in that good"-the conjunction of the spiritual and the natural "becomes successively more interior" (4353), and Jacob as it were climbs the ladder which he had visioned as a dream at Bethel.

     After his wrestlings of the night, Jacob's name has been changed to Israel, and he is able to view his brother, not as a rival, but as the elder of his house,-the emissary of Isaac his father. After temptations, the regenerating man is given a measure of hope and consolation,-a certain confidence that the affections which inflow into him after he has ordered his mind to the best of his ability and knowledge are not merely unguided impulses, but come from a rational origin, and are thus in their essence heavenly. He humbles himself in spirit. He knows that all he can do is to act as if of himself, from that conception of good to which the truth has led him; and thus he accepts as genuine the affections that move him on into the unknown ways of duty that lie before him. So urged, he moves on in his spiritual journey, but haltingly, because conscious of many weaknesses and errors, and slowly, impeded by the frailty and ignorance of the younger children of his mind, and delayed by consideration for the yet unborn.
NEW CHURCH SERMONS 1934

NEW CHURCH SERMONS              1934

     A pamphlet published monthly, from October to June inclusive, by the General Church of the New Jerusalem. Contents: Sermons and other material suitable for individual reading, family worship, and missionary purposes. Reprinted from New Church Life. Sent free of charge on application to Mr. H. Hyatt, Treasurer, Bryn Athyn, Pa.

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DIVINE HUMAN 1934

DIVINE HUMAN       Rev. ALBERT BJORCK       1934

     (Delivered at the Council of the Clergy, January 30, 1934.)

     In the Word to the New Church the Lord comes again to men on earth. He Himself is in that Word so fully that it may be said to be the Lord in His Divine Human. Through the very words and sentences in that Word He speaks to those who will be of His New Church, revealing Himself to them, and how He creates angels from men, and thus from the human race creates heavens. He tells us there that this creation of heavens from the human race is the end in view, the very purpose of His coming and the means by which that end can be realized are plainly shown us.

     He tells us there that the revelations of Divine Truth which are the Word, whether given to the Church in its childhood, its youth or its manhood, is such "that the things contained in its inmosts relate to the Lord Himself and His kingdom. From this is all the life of the Word." (A. C. 155.)

     In the Word to the New Church,-or, in other words, the Word in which He comes again to men when the one Church has reached the maturity of manhood,-the inmost things relating to the Lord Himself and His kingdom are revealed in the very words and sentences that we read there.

     But nothwithstanding this fact, and because we have but a very partial understanding of what is meant by the words and sentences which constitute the literal sense of the Word, the inmost things remain hidden by, or are only very generally and obscurely seen by us through, the literal sense.

     When we reflect upon things said that we do understand, we see that so it is, and that so it must always be.

     In the Word to the New Church the Lord comes in His glory. There He reveals Himself fully in all the glory of His Divine Human. The Word in which the Lord comes in glory is the last and final revelation of the essential Word which "in the beginning was with God, and was God."

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The infinite Life, Love and Wisdom speaks, revealing itself to us in words accommodated to finite minds. It is the basis upon which the Church and the heavens shall grow and progress in spiritual life and understanding to all eternity.

     This means that all truth, even the inmost, that concerns the Lord and heaven, or pertains to that unendingly progressing life of love and wisdom from the Lord that creates human minds into forms of heaven, is expressed in the very literal sense of the Third and Last Testament, or the Word to the New Church.

     The understanding within the Church of what is taught in the literal sense must therefore necessarily always at any given time-now, or thousands of years hence-be very partial, embracing so small a part of the interior and inmost truths there stated that it may be compared to a bucketful out of the ocean. Future men of the Church, living thousands or millions of years hence, having reached states of wisdom from the Lord that we now cannot even imagine, will, when they read the same words and sentences that we read, understand that they directly set forth spiritual and celestial verities that are completely hidden to us.

     From this,-that all truth guiding us to the Lord, and teaching us how to live from Him, is stated in the literal sense of the Third Testament,-we can see the necessity of the teaching that the man of the Church must not only draw doctrine from the literal sense, but must also confirm the doctrine so drawn by the literal sense; and it also throws added light upon the teaching that the Doctrine of the Church is as its understanding of the Word.

     The Church, then, if it is to live and grow, must constantly turn to the Lord with prayer for more light from Him to illumine its understanding; and, as the understanding is illumined, the Church draws and formulates new doctrines, each and all of which are the signs and expressions of clearer, deeper or more particular understanding of what the Lord as the Word teaches us in the literal sense.

     The doctrinals of genuine truth drawn from the letter of the Word in one state of progress are therefore never the last word. They are rather like seeds of truth sown by the Word, which grow into greater perfection forever. But the seed is from, and corresponds to, the truth that is the Lord; and, if drawn by the Church in a natural state, it may therefore represent a future, higher or more particular truth, which the Church will see when the spiritual degree of its understanding is more fully opened.

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     The Lord will not withhold the light which the Church needs for a continued advance in the understanding of His Word, if we, in humility of spirit, seek that light in the Word in which He is with all His infinite Love, and Wisdom, and through which He speaks to us and teaches us, if we are willing to learn.

     II.

     At the time we are living, or in the present state of the Church, there is lack of unity of thought, and even contention between differing understandings, regarding what the Word teaches concerning two of the most central and important subjects, namely, the Divine Human, and the Writings as the Word. This has been the case from the very beginning of the Church as an organization.

     The Word and the Divine Human are one, or distinctly one, as Divine Love and Wisdom are one. We distinguish between them, and must do so, owing to the character of our natural faculty of thinking, and of natural language by which we express our thoughts; but, interiorly seen, they unite; and what is said of one can be said of the other.

     In the literal sense of the Word the Divine Human is, for the same reason, spoken of in different series, each one presenting a distinct aspect. In one of the series the Divine Human treated of is the Divine of the Lord which is called "the Father," in another it is the Divine that is called "the Son," and in another the Divine which is called the "Holy Spirit," which three together make one, and are the Lord. To the series treating of the Divine in the Lord that is called "the Father" belong all passages that speak of the Lord's own glorified Human; for that is the same as the infinite Divine itself,-the Divine Man from eternity. Also those that speak of Divine Love Itself. We read:

     "The Lord's Human, after it was glorified or made Divine, cannot be conceived as human, but as Divine Love in human form; and this more than the angels, who, when they appear, as they have been seen by me, appear as forms of love and charity under the human shape, and this from the Lord; for the Lord, from His Divine Love, made His Human Divine, just as man, by celestial love, is made an angel after death, so that he appears as a form of love and charity under the human shape.

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It is plain from this that by the Lord's Divine Human, in the celestial sense, is signified the Divine Love Itself." (A. C. 4735.)

     This quotation also shows that the Divine Human can be seen and spoken of in as many senses as there are in the Word; and the distinct aspect given it is depending on in what sense,-the celestial, spiritual or natural,-it is spoken of.

     To the series that treat of the Divine in the Lord that is called "the Son" belong all the passages that tell us about the Divine Love and Truth in the heavens and with men as forms of love and charity from the Lord as the Father, but under the human shape,-that is, distinct individual forms; also those that treat of the individual man born by an individual human mother, in which the Divine Man Himself for a little while really existed and manifested Himself on earth; and also those that speak of the Lord's external in the Word. In other words, all that serves to reveal the Divine to man, or as a means of conjunction of the Divine Itself with the Divine in heaven or the church, or of men with heaven, is an aspect of the Divine in the Lord that is called "the Son,"-the Son of God or the Son of Man. More comprehensively still, this series may be said to include all passages that speak of the Divine under a human form, which also implies shape in one sense or other. A few examples:

     "That which is Divine is incomprehensible, but it can flow into man's rational through the Divine Human." (A. C. 2531.)

     "Without the Word there is no conjunction, that is, without revealed Divine Truth." (A. C. 9212.)

     "The appearing of the Lord is by Divine Truth, and moreover is Divine Truth." (A. C. 8443.)

     "The infinite can only be manifested through the Divine Human." (A. C. 1990:2.)

     "As Divine Truth is the Lord in the heavens, therefore also the Lord is present, and may be said to dwell, in all and every part of His Word, as in His heavens." (A. E. 1073.)

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     The Divine of the Lord that is called "the Holy Spirit" is treated of in that series of passages which brings to our understanding some light on the activity of the Divine Itself through the heavens or the Divine Proceeding.

     "The Divine cannot flow in except into the Divine, nor be communicated to man except through the Divine Human and the Holy thence proceeding." (A. C. 2359e.)

     "In the world He put on the Divine Natural also, in which He is present with men. . . .The glorified Human of the Lord is the Divine Natural." (S. S. 99e.)

     "The angels are in the Lord, because in the sphere of Divine Truth proceeding from the Lord." (A. C. 5316e)

     "Men of the church in the world are in the Divine Natural." (S. S. 6.)

     "The Holy Spirit is the Holy of the Spirit, or the Holy which proceeds from the Lord through spirits and angels, that is, from His Divine Good through His Divine Truth." (A. C. 3740e.)

      "The Divine Human cannot communicate itself to anyone except by Divine Truth, which is the Holy Spirit." (A. C. 6880.)

     "The truth which proceeds immediately from the Divine cannot be heard by any one, not even by any angel; for in order that it may be heard, the Divine must first become human, and it becomes human when it passes through the heavens. And when it has passed through the heavens it is presented in human form, and becomes speech, which speech is uttered by spirits, who, when they are in this state, are called the 'Holy Spirit,' and this is said to proceed from the Divine, because the holy of the spirit, or the holy truth which the spirit then speaks, proceeds from the Lord. From this it can be seen that the truth which proceeds immediately from the Divine cannot be presented to any one as discourse or speech, except through the Holy Spirit." (A. C. 6982.)

     III.

     All that is made known to us about the Divine Human in the literal sense of the Third Testament, and which to us appear as so many distinct truths, is as one single truth with the angels of the higher heavens.

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Human understanding of the deeper spiritual things told us in the literal sense of the Third Testament can come to us only as the Lord gives us light from the higher heavens, and we in that light read the passages that we have collected from the various books of the Third Testament, because we see that they contain teaching about the particular truth that we from affection for truth are anxious to understand.

     When light from the Lord through the higher heavens flows into our minds, the collected passages are reordered-apparently by ourselves, but really by the Lord-and they then become as so many mirrors in which we see truths corresponding to the truths of the higher heavens.

     The efforts hitherto made by men in the Church to understand the teaching given us concerning the Divine Human and the glorification of the Lord have usually started from passages which almost invariably direct the mind to the individual man born by an individual human mother,-the man that was "an hungered and thirsty," as we are, who needed rest, sleep and clothing as we do, and whom everybody, whether good or evil, who lived at the time and met Him could see with their physical eyes.

     We read in T. C. R. 109: "The glorification of the Lord is the glorification of His Human which He assumed in the world, and the glorified Human of the Lord is the Divine Natural. That it is so, is evident from this, that the Lord rose from the sepulcher with His whole body which He had in the world; nor did He leave anything in the sepulcher; consequently that He took with Him the Human Natural itself, from the firsts to the lasts of it."

     This, and other similar passages which teach that the Lord rose with the body which with men rots in the grave, have been understood to mean that the external natural, physical body, born by an individual human mother, is that Human which the Lord assumed in the world, glorified and made Divine, and which there became the same as Jehovah, or the infinite Divine Itself, and at last one with Him. To most men this seems to be the clear teaching in the literal sense of these passages. And all New Churchmen, priests or laymen, that I have met and talked with about it, have apparently so understood them, and have held that they do not admit of any other.

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     It is possible, of course, that to some minds there is no obscurity in this teaching, simply because it is "plainly stated in the Writings." To others again these passages, if they do not admit any other interpretation, bring with them impenetrable darkness. We understand,-or perhaps I should not say "we," as I now speak entirely for myself, not knowing if any others share my position, I understand that the truths revealed by the Lord in the Third Testament make it possible, or at least allowable, to enter into the mysteries of faith with the intellect, and thereby to get a rational understanding of them, in the light of which the mysterious element in them disappears. But even the most affirmative mind, sincerely believing that all that is said in the Third Testament is true, cannot, when he thinks of the many passages in which it is equally plainly taught that the Lord put off the human from the mother, and put on a Human from the Father, see anything but an unsolvable, obscure mystery in that teaching. To such an one the only possible solution is to assume that the meaning of the literal sense in at least one of the opposing sets of passages has been misunderstood. That assumption has caused me, in all my reading of the Third Testament, to be on the lookout for any statement that might verify that assumption, or in other ways throw light upon the teaching.

     For many years my thoughts have been drawn again and again to the statement in A. C. 2661: "The Most Ancient Church, which was called Man, was celestial. If this had remained in its integrity, the Lord would have had no need of being born man."

     The Lord came into the world to make His Human Divine. If the Most Ancient Church, or the Church called Adam, had remained in its integrity, it would have become the Divine Human of the Lord, or the Divine Natural.

     The revelation of the Word in an external form, coming to men's knowledge through the senses, was eventually to accomplish the same end, but by an inverted process; that is, instead of the interior perception of celestial things of love developing into rational comprehension of truths from love, and this forming a natural life at one with that truth-therefore a Divine Natural-men, from external knowledge of truth told them, would gradually develop an understanding of Divine Truth which would become rational as they in obedience lived according to it, and this rational would in its turn develop as real living perception of the good of love in the natural mind of men, so leading the Church back to the innocent state of childhood as it matured, uniting it with the mature man's wisdom from the Lord as the Word.

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     It made me try to visualize the development of the Church, had there been no Fall. As an aid to this, I studied the teaching given us regarding the Ancient Church and its continuation down to the Coming of the Lord, showing that they were Churches by virtue of remains, and therefore representative Churches, and the last or Jewish not even a representative Church, but only a representation of a Church. Reading and reflecting upon what is told about this, and about the revelations of Divine Truth and the character of the Word given through them, I connected what I so found with passages not directly treating of the same subject, such as the following:

     "By the Word, which was in the beginning with God, and which was God, and which was with God before the world, is understood the Divine Truth which was before creation in Jehovah, and after creation from Jehovah; and lastly the Divine Human which Jehovah assumed in time, for it is said that the Word was made flesh, that is, Man." (Canons, Redeemer, III:5.)

     "Jehovah God successively put off the human from the mother, and put on the Human from the Father, and thus He made that Human Divine." (Canons, Redeemer IX.)

     These two quotations from the Canons seem to teach that the human the Lord assumed on earth was the Word, or the Human of the Lord in heaven. This is strengthened by A. E. 43, where it says: "The Divine of the Lord is the all in all things in heaven, for this makes heaven in general, and with each one in particular.

     By 'the Word' is understood the Divine Truth which is in the heavens, from which are all things there. That the same is the Lord as to His Divine Human is evident, because it is said, 'And the Word was made flesh, and dwelt among us.'"

     The Lord is the Word. The Divine Truth itself, such as it is before creation in the Lord from eternity, one with infinite love, entirely above human comprehension, is the Lord.

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The Divine Truth in the heavens, that is, truth from Divine Love after creation, accommodated to angels and taking on human shape in their reception, is also the Lord; and the Divine Truth, proceeding from the Divine itself through the heavens to men on earth, is the Lord.

     The Divine Truth, so distinguished as to degrees, are called the Divine of the Father, the Divine of the Son, and the Divine of the Holy Spirit, and are the trinity of the One Lord.

     We are taught that this trinity did not exist in the Lord except potentially until the Divine itself, or Jehovah, had assumed a human on earth, and made that human Divine. Before that, the Divine of the Father, which is Esse and Existere itself, was; the Divine of the Son, or the Divine Truth in the heavens, was also; but the Divine of the Holy Spirit, or the Divine Proceeding, was not.

     Connecting this with A. C. 2359, "The Divine cannot flow in except into the Divine, nor be communicated to man except through the Divine Human and the Holy thence proceeding," and with S. S. 99, "In the world He put on the Divine Natural also, in which He is present with men. . . .The glorified Human of the Lord is the Divine Natural," the inferences I have drawn are: (1) that immediately before the Coming of the Lord there was with men nothing Divine into which the Divine could flow; and (2) that, although there was a Word with men on earth, in which the Divine of the Lord dwelt, and which bore witness of Him, the Holy, proceeding from the Divine Human in the heavens, could not by means of that Word be communicated to men; and (3) that by the glorified Human of the Lord is meant the Divine Truth of the Lord from eternity, Jehovah, coming down to men in an external Divine Natural form, and that in that Natural the Divine of the Father and the Divine of the Son are present with men on earth, by means of the Holy proceeding through the heavens or from the Son.

     IV.

     That this inference is in accordance with the Divine truth revealed to us by the Lord, can be seen when we consider the teaching concerning the manner in which the Lord glorified His Human and made it Divine, and the result of it in the universal spiritual world.

     In A. C. 5110, it is said: "The Divine, or Jehovah in heaven, is the Lord from eternity; and the Lord took on the same when He glorified the Human in Himself. . . .

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Hence it is that everyone is able to think of the Divine itself as of a Man, and at the same time of the Lord. . . . For in the Lord the Divine itself is the Father, the Divine in heaven is the Son; and the Divine thence proceeding is the Holy Spirit."

     When it says that the Lord, when He glorified the Human in Himself, took on the Divine, or Jehovah, in heaven, it means that the external Divine Natural truths with men on earth, and the Divine Spiritual truth with angels in heaven, in Him were united with the Divine itself so as to be One Lord.

     In A. C. 5663, we are taught that "the Divine in heaven is none other than the Divine itself, but in heaven it is as a Divine Man. This Man is what the Lord took on, and made Divine in Him, and united to the Divine itself as it had been united from eternity; for from eternity it was one. He did this because mankind could not otherwise have been saved; for it no longer was sufficient for the Divine itself to be able, through heaven, and thus through the Divine Human there, to flow into human minds; wherefore the very Divine willed to unite the Divine Human to itself actually by the human taken on in the world. The one and the other are the Lord."

     It is not easy to grasp at once much of what is implied in these words. When it says, "This man is what the Lord took on and made Divine in Him," "this man" clearly refers to the Divine which "as a Divine Man is in heaven." We are accordingly taught that the Divine itself, or Jehovah, took on the Divine Man in heaven, and made that Divine Man Divine in Himself.

     At first there does not appear to be much sense in this. It seems to imply, either that that which already is Divine can be made Divine, or else that the Divine Man in heaven was not actually Divine until made so by the Divine itself taking on a Human and glorifying that Human. As I understand it, this latter is just what the words do mean.

     The teaching contained in the statements quoted makes the mind turn again to the series of truth regarding the Lord's glorification, which teach that the glorified Human of the Lord is the Divine Natural, and to see that this Divine Natural, in which the Lord is present with men on earth, is not the physical body furnished by an individual woman as mother, but the Divine truth in which is the Divine love coming down to the natural plane of life, and there taking on an external natural form which is actually united with the Divine itself, one with the infinite love and wisdom which is the Human form, and from which men can be made forms of love and charity under the human shape.

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     The teaching turns the mind from contemplating Mary as an individual woman, and to think of her instead as representing the Church. "Affection for truth is signified by the mother, and makes the church in man." (A. C. 4257.) "Affection for truth and the church are the same thing." (A. C. 4427.)

     Affection for truth for the sake of truth is the first of a church, and also the last in a declining and dying church, to which the Lord can come and restore it to life and health. For when no such affection remains with men, there is nothing Divine in them into which the Divine itself can flow. Then the church cannot be revived, but must die. With the death of the church, the basis and foundations of the heavens are destroyed, and the life of the heavens themselves would gradually succumb to the onslaughts of the hells.

     As soon as the understanding identifies the Divine Natural with the Word in its external natural form with men on earth, and the teaching of the Third Testament concerning the Lord's glorification is applied to the conception and birth of a revelation of natural human life which is actually united with the infinite love and wisdom, then most of the difficulties that beset the mind disappear.

     V.

     We know that when the Lord calls Himself the "Son of Man," He speaks of Himself as the Word in an external form with men on earth, or as the understanding men have of that revelation of the Word, which understanding is the Faith of the Church. The external form of the Word with men is always necessarily given by means of the men who constitute the Church. The Church receives the Divine Spirit, and gives birth to it, or brings it forth in a form that can be seen by men.

     "The Divine Truth, which is the Word in which is the Divine Good, was the seed of the Father from which the Divine Human was conceived." (Canons, Trinity, IV: 4.)

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     When men do not perceive anything of the Divine Spirit of Truth in which is the Divine Good within the external form of the Word furnished by the Church, then the Word with them is only the Son of Man, not the Son of God.

     The teaching given us makes it possible for us to follow, and in a measure to understand, how the Word in a descending series took on external forms down through the ages, tracing its origin and conception to the Son of God in the Church called Adam, or, in other words, to the interior perception of good and truth received by the men of that Church from infinite Love and Wisdom, their Creator.

     We are told how memories of such perceptions took the form of doctrines with men in later states who were losing the inner perception,-doctrines which gave to them external knowledge of good and evil, which, if they obeyed, could endow them with conscience and keep them in mutual love or charity, and remains of good be kept alive and active in the performance of rituals and worship representing good and truth of spiritual life from the Lord.

     While there yet remained with men some true understanding of what the rituals and worship signified, there was a plane into which the influx from the heavens of the Most Ancient Church could flow and give to men of the Church on earth to understand more of the truth so represented. But gradually men of the Church lost all understanding of a representative meaning in the Word they had; and at last even the knowledge that it had such a meaning was lost.

     During the ages of the Church corresponding to the childhood and early youth in an individual, the truths of heaven coming down to men were wrapped up by them in external forms more and more difficult to understand as representations of spiritual things. The external form of the Word of the Israelitish Church had its birth during the period of time from Abraham to the birth of the Lord. It marks the culmination and end of the descending series of revelations from the Divine Human in the heavens as received and given form to by men on earth. In that form the truths of heaven were not revealed, but represented and signified.

     The Faith of the Church, or the understanding of the Word within the Church, did not rise above the representing forms; it was only human; their Word, as far as their understanding went, was the Son of Man only.

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     Then "it was no longer sufficient for the Divine itself to be able, through heaven and thus through the Divine Human there, to flow into human minds; wherefore, the very Divine willed to unite the Divine Human to itself actually by the human taken on in the world." We notice in this statement in A. C. 5663, that it is by the human taken on in the world that the Divine itself shall unite the Divine Human to itself actually.

     We are familiar with the teaching that the Lord was not only conceived but born by Jehovah, or the Divine itself.

     The Lord our God has no human mother; the finite cannot give birth to the infinite.

     The Word in its natural form with the Jewish Church was conceived by the Divine itself. In the highest heaven it was truth in which was Divine Good. As received by spirits in the lower heavens, formed from the Ancient Church, it became appearances of truth less and less actually united with the Divine Good, and as received by the Jewish Church it was entirely separated from the Divine Good, of which it was only a representation. The understanding which the Church had of it was merely human. This merely human representation of Divine Good had to be put off, and a Divinely Human understanding of it take its place, and by that the Divine Human in the heavens could be actually united with the Divine itself.

     As there was no man left in the Church, or nothing Divine in the Church left, to which the Divine itself could come and flow into, the Divine Itself, or Jehovah, the Lord from eternity, must bow the heavens, come down, and become man on earth.

     The finite cannot give birth to the infinite. God cannot be born by human mother. But the infinite cannot be made known or revealed except as received and active in finite man actually living as a natural being.

     The human being, in which Jehovah Himself was to be born and reveal Himself in human words and activity, or the infinite love and wisdom coming into existence on the natural plane of human life by taking on finite human form and shape-that human being must be born by human mother as other men are. How the Lord was born as a man like other men, we will probably never understand.

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     There are statements in our Word concerning it that open up a way for the understanding, but others seem to close it again. We are told that, when conception and birth are spoken of in the Word, nothing but spiritual births are meant. On the other hand, it is made evident that Jehovah did exist in the human shape of the external man called Jesus, born like other men by a human mother; and that He, without coming on earth as such a being, could not have glorified His Human and made it Divine Natural.

     VI.

     In A. C. 3938, we are given very clear teaching concerning the Esse and Existere of the Lord and man. There it says that "Reception of life is that of which existing is predicated."

     The Lord made His Human Divine Esse. The glorified Human of the Lord is infinite Life itself; it is not reception of life, and therefore the Lord, after His glorification, cannot be said to exist except as that which proceeds from Him, or, in other words, as the Word that reveals Him to men, the angels that constitute the Divine Human in the heavens, and the minds of men who are in His kingdom on earth.

     We cannot know a man's spirit except through its activity in a body, and we cannot know the Divine Life that is God except through the body it creates, infills, and through which it acts. In that body the Divine takes on Human aspect. It is the Lord's Divine Human standing forth, or existing and manifesting itself in angel's and men's affections, thoughts and activity,-affections, thoughts, and activity which they are conscious of as their own, but which are the Lord's in them.

     As a man born by woman, the Lord had to acquire knowledges and learn in the same way as other men. He was instructed in the Sacred Books of the Jewish Church, and in the tenets and doctrines which the Church had formulated from these books. In this way His human understanding of Divine truth was born by Mary, representing the Church. But the infinite love for men that was His inmost life-the Father of His existence-came down to and united with His human love of learning and affection for truth, rejected the understanding from the mother, and interpreted the representations of Divine truth in the Word with men in the light of infinite love.

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     "That He was born from the virgin Mary is known, yet as another man, but when again born, or made Divine, it was from Jehovah." (A. C. 2798.) "Jehovah God successively put off the human from the mother, and put on the Human from the Father, and thus made the former human Divine." (Canons IX.)

     If the teaching is applied to the revelation of the Word with men, instead of to the natural body of the individual man born by woman, "the former human" that was made Divine refers to the human reception and understanding of Divine truth born in the Lord from the Church as mother, which was gradually put off, and a new and Divine Human understanding born by the Father taking its place. In this process of glorification, the Lord, by making the human understanding in Him Divine, gradually assumed the Divine Human in the heavens-there also putting off what was from churches as mothers-so actually uniting the Divine Human in the heavens, or Divine truth, with the good of Divine love.

     "Man's rational must be formed by means of knowledges, external and internal, introduced through the senses, thus flowing in by an external way, and so in an inverted order. . . . The Lord, because He was born like another man, and had a nature inherited from a mother, was in this respect like another man, to the end that He might, by the combats of temptations, and by victories, reduce all things into order. Therefore also His rational was conceived and born in like manner as that with another man, but with the difference that inmostly in all things whatever that were His was the Divine or Jehovah, and thus the life of love to the whole human race, for whom and for whose salvation He fought in all His temptations." (A. C. 1902.)

     As the Lord's ascending Human Divine reception of the Divine life itself rose above the various heavens, He was tempted by the angels, but as He overcoming rose above them, there was in them a corresponding rebirth of life from infinite Life itself, as they, as if of themselves, accepted the truths of that life that He revealed. The union between the Divine itself and the Divine Human in heaven thus was made actual, so that the truth in heaven no longer was barn by churches as mothers, but by the Divine itself, or Jehovah, the Lord from eternity. The Divine Human in heaven was made the Son of God.

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"The Divine of the Father is the soul of the Son, and the Human of the Son is the body of the Father." (T. C. R. 112)

     When the Lord, rejecting the last from the mother, rose above the heavens, He is the Divine in the Lord called the Father. He communicates with men on earth through the Divine Human in heaven, or the Divine in the Lord that is called the Son, coming from there as the Holy Spirit.

     When men on earth receive the Holy Spirit, and their understanding, affections, and life as men are formed by it, then they are in the Divine of the Lord that is called the Holy Spirit-in the Lord's kingdom on earth, at one with heaven, and, together with heaven, constituting the Lord's body, proceeding from Him and united with Him as the body with its soul. "The spiritual body is formed through the truths and goods which flow in from the Lord through the spiritual world." (T. C. R. 583.)

     "The Church in the heavens and on earth is the body of the Lord, since they are in the Lord, and the Lord in them." (T. C. R. 416.)

     "Men of the Church in the world are in the Divine Natural." (T. C. R. 195; S. S. 6.)

     "The all of the Church with man is out of the Divine Human of the Lord, for the all of love and faith which make the Church proceed out of the Divine Human of the Lord." (A. R. 151.)

     "Heaven in its whole complex is the Lord, because it is His Divine proceeding wherefore, whilst He operates by or through heaven, it is likewise from Himself. But it is said mediately because the Divine operation is transfluent through the heavens; yet it takes nothing from the proprium of any angel there, but from its own appertaining to them." (A. E. 1166:2.)
DISCUSSION OF MR. BJORCK'S ADDRESS. 1934

DISCUSSION OF MR. BJORCK'S ADDRESS.              1934

     Rev. Willis L. Gladish: I was very glad to hear Mr. Bjorck this morning, and listened with a great deal of interest to his paper. It was a very able presentation of a certain phase of the doctrine of the Divine Human, but it seemed to avoid the reality of what was back of what he was describing.

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He described the reception by men and angels, but did not tell us anything about what was done in the Lord Himself, and what the Divine Human is as glorified in Him. There is a reality back of the perception by angels and men.

     He spoke of darkness and confusion about the Lord's taking on the human and putting it off. I don't profess to get to the bottom of those statements, but I do say that there is no darkness in them so far as I see them, but that they shine with light.

     The Lord put off the maternal human, and put on a Divine Human from the Father, and since the Divine is substance and form itself, substance and form was put on. Not only was it a change of state in angels and men, but also in the Divine Human,-the Divine Human, not as received by finite beings, but as the forthstanding of Jehovah. We do not worship the invisible Divine, as told of in T. C. R. 786-7. The difference between this church and all that have preceded is, that the New Church worships the visible Divine, and all before worshiped the invisible Divine. That does not mean that we worship the visible Divine as received by finite beings, but as received in the Divine Human. What I am getting at is the reality above the reception by the angels.

     Before I was ever allowed by my spiritual father, the Rev. L. P. Mercer, to go down to the theological school in Cambridge, I was warned by him of what is known as the "New England heresy." It is what Mr. Bjorck has presented. It is not a new thing. I was warned against the heresy that the Lord took on the human through the Virgin Mary, and then put it off and went back into the invisible Divine, so that He could not be seen in His own Divine Human. His own Divine Human is what constitutes the Divine in the New Church, and He can present Himself to a man who knows of that Divine Human without presenting Himself in the person of an angel. John Worcester taught that the Lord had gone back into the invisible Divine, and that the only way we finite beings can now see the infinite Divine is in the person of an angel, as before. But the teaching of the Doctrines which has made the Academy is that the Lord has glorified His Human and can be seen in His own Divine Human, and is so seen in the sun of heaven and among the angels. I do not find that in Mr. Bjorck's presentation.

     I have in my pocket a copy of a letter from Mr. Bjorck to Mr. Horace Howard, in which he argues that the sun of heaven is a presentation outside of the angels of their reception of the Divine. That is not my understanding of it. Of course, it is true in a way, but the sun of heaven is the absolute reality of realities, by which everything below God was created,-the first presentation of the infinite Divine in the finite realm; and the angels see it because it is there. It is not there because they see it. It seems to me to be putting the cart before the horse to say that it appears there because they have an internal perception of it. It is the one great reality of all. I do not quarrel with his description of their seeing it, but I object to his presenting it as idealistic, as though it has no existence except within them. It is apart from them. They see it from within, but they see it because it is there. I might as well say we see the sun of this world because there is a light in our eyes. The spiritual sun is more real than the sun of this world. Men see it because it is there. If they didn't see it, it would still be there. If we carried Mr. Bjorck's idea further, we would say, "God is there because we see Him."

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     We might say, "We project Him, and therefore we see Him." According to Mr. Bjorck's presentation, all would appear to be only in the perception, and that that is a quasi-perception.

     Are these angelic minds Divine or human? He says in one part that they are Divine; again that they are quasi-Divine. Is that finite or infinite? What is quasi-Divine? What is quasi-gold?

     In the Academy and the General Church we have for fifty years built upon two foundation stones which will never pass away. One is that the Writings are of Divine authority-not that our understanding of them is Divine authority, but that the Writings are of Divine authority: And the other is that the New Church worships a visible God. Both are fundamental. Instead of the Divine authority of the Writings, the Hague School gives us the Divine authority of the doctrine derived from the Writings,-the doctrine of the church by which we understand the Writings. And instead of the visible God,-the Divine Human,-we have an invisible God as before. The teaching of the Writings is-over and over-that the Lord added to the Divine among the angels the human from Mary, and made it Divine so we could see it.

     We read of the Lord as a man in the world, and then we remember that He put off all finite limitations, and made Himself to stand forth without limitations. First we have the maternal human. Then, by the knowledge of the glorification we put off those limits, and still see the Divine standing forth in human lineaments, absolutely Divine, and still limited by the fact that He was once a man in the world. So I have no trouble in thinking of the Divine Human as glorified-as a Man. God is the reality.

     I repeat. God took on the Divine by passing through the heavens, and He added to that a Divine Natural developed in the womb of the Virgin; and then by glorification He put off the maternal human, and put on the Divine, and we can see Him as the Mighty God without those limits. There is a medium, and that is the glorified Divine Human, wholly Divine, and still with such limits that we can get hold of it. That is the great reality of the New Church. Do not take it away from us! If you do, we perish. We must worship the visible God.

     Rev. E. E. Iungerich: I feel, as Mr. Gladish does, that Mr. Bjorck does not develop the reality in his paper. He said that he limited his paper for time, and I feel that his work was valuable along the line he presented. I made some notes as he went along, and I will speak to some of those notes.

     The Lord, when on earth, when He called Himself the Son of God, reminded men that it had been said in the Psalms that if those were called gods to whom the Word came, then why should they object to His calling Himself the Son of God? We have in that reference to Elohim the transflux of the Divine through the heavens, and it is used in the plural form to indicate that fact. The transflux through the heavens, it is said, was the former Divine, when the Lord spoke the Word, which latter phrase is an important addition to the statement that it was a transflux. There are apparently many transfluxes through the heavens. Angels are men living eternally, and there are many types of transnuxes, but occasionally there was a type of thought which passed when the Word was spoken, and that was the form of the Divine Human.

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I might illustrate: On earth we have many types of thought during the week, but on Sunday there is a holy sphere in which the Lord speaks the Word to us.

     In connection with the study which Mr. Bjorck has made we are interested in understanding how the Lord could bend the heavens and come down. His study, and the passages he brings out, bear on that subject, as to how the transflux through the heavens, when the Lord spoke the Word, could have been centered on Himself when He was on earth, and how in His seed of conception there was something of the historic thought and sequence. Many of our students have entered into that phase of the subject. I think it is a valuable study, but we must realize, as Mr. Gladish said, that the Lord whom we worship is a reality in that world, and that that reality is such that He no longer needs to assume the human of an angel to manifest Himself. He does at times appear with groups of angels. In treating of the Sixth Earth in the universe, Swedenborg speaks of a society which he approached, where the Lord was within, and there was a mark there which indicated the presence of the Lord among them. It was not as the appearance of the Angel Gabriel to Mary, but it was a society approaching with something distinctive in it.

     When the Apocalypse was revealed to John, a command was made to him. With him undoubtedly was the tradition about what the Word taught as to the Angel of Jehovah, and John wished to worship this angel who spoke to him. And this is what we would do if we put Divinity in human beings, and spoke of them as having Divine qualities. Then we would bow our knees and worship. John, from his traditional acquaintance with the Jewish Scriptures-when he saw an angel bringing him a message-was at once moved to worship him. But he was warned not to do that. The angel said: "I am one of thy fellow servants. Worship God!" And that warning in the Apocalypse, which predicts the Second Coming of the Lord, stands for a preamble to the New Church. The New Church will perish if we come into any mistake on that point. If we are going to speak of angels and men as Divine, we are not worshiping God. And the angel says, "See thou do it not. I am one of thy fellow servants. Worship God!"

     I would like to call attention to two things in Mr. Bjorck's address which do not preserve that distinction. In the work on Heaven and Hell it says: "The Divine of the Lord makes heaven, and the angels constitute it." Mr. Bjorck says: "The angels constitute the Divine Human in the heavens." Now to my mind that is mixing the angel with God. It is doing just what the angel told John not to do.

     Another statement which seemed to involve about the same thing was, that if the Most Ancient Church had not lapsed from its integrity, it would have become the Divine Natural of the Lord. I cannot subscribe to such a statement.

     Bishop George de Charms: I feel deeply indebted to Mr. Bjorck for giving this paper, because with his characteristic straightforward mode of presentation he has made clear the difference between the position which has been held in the General Church and that which is now presented by our friends at The Hague.

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He has made it perfectly clear that this is a difference between the interpretation of the Writings by means of an idealistic philosophy and their interpretation by an objective philosophy. We believe that this latter mode is sanctioned by the Writings themselves, in that they warn us openly against idealism. It was from a sense of loyalty to the plain statements of the Writings that the Academy adopted its mode of approach in the beginning. It did so in opposition to other tendencies in the church which appeared from time to time to interpret the Writings according to an idealistic philosophy. I readily recognize that if there is in the mind at the beginning of its thinking an idealistic philosophy, then the Writings will in many passages appear to support that view. I have been impressed with the fact, however, that when we so interpret the Writings we are led by the logical consequences of our reasoning into an unanswerable paradox,-a paradox which disappears if we approach the Writings as the Academy has done. One very obvious illustration is this: It is said in the Writings that the doctrine of the church is not the Word, but the understanding of the Word, and thus is something which has been drawn from the Word by men. Yet it is said elsewhere that doctrine is the Word, for it is the internal sense thereof. We are told by those who accept the Hague position, that this is a paradox. Yet the paradox disappears if we accept the plain implications of the Writings, that the Word itself is the very doctrine of the church Divinely given, and yet recognize that such Divine doctrine is altogether distinct from the doctrine which man draws from the Word. This derivative doctrine is not the Word, either as to its literal or as to its internal sense. This is always a finite and qualified human interpretation of the Word. When this distinction is made, both sets of teachings are readily understood, and there is no paradox.

     We find the same difficulty with other phases of the Hague position. For instance, I have discussed the matter of the Divinity of the angel, and whether the choice of good is man's or the Lord's. If the choice is the Lord's, the angelic proprium is, of course, Divine; yet it is also the angel,-a finite human being, and therefore not Divine. Thus again we end in a paradox. If, however, we accept the teaching that while the power of choice is the Lord's, the choice itself is man's, the paradox disappears; for then it becomes evident that the angelic proprium is not Divine.

     This fact means to me that the philosophy by which the Writings are to be interpreted is an objective, rather than an idealistic, one.

     Rev. Hugo Lj. Odhner: I had hoped, before the subject was opened on these lines, that I might have a chance to say a few good things about the study which Mr. Bjorck has presented. I felt delighted in hearing it, and I particularly liked the mode of simply taking doctrines from the Writings and building them up to a conclusion. Even if the conclusion was not actually drawn very clearly, it was hinted at here and there. I will confine my remarks to a few points.

     It was stated that the interpretation generally advanced in the General Church concerning the Divine Natural had regard especially to the body of the Lord on earth.

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But this view-that even the body of matter, which with man is dissolved into dust, was glorified-is, I believe, confined to relatively few. Be that as it may, whatever mode the glorification of the Lord's personal human may have taken, and whatever difficult problems may attend the understanding of it, yet in the understanding of that phase of the glorification is centered, as into an ultimate, all other truths about the Divine Human; and it would be regretful to me to have to put aside the subject of the Lord's personal glorification, as if it did not really play an important part in the thought of the church. I feel that the understanding of that is fundamental. Even a sensual man, if he is in a slight measure regenerate, can see the Sensual of the Divine Human; a natural man can see the Divine Natural; a spiritual man can be conjoined with the Divine Spiritual; and so on. (A. C. 4715.) Our understanding begins from below.

     Another statement was, that if the Most Ancient Church had not fallen, it would have become the Divine Natural. Now I don't think it would. I don't think there was any chance of the Most Ancient Church-or the heavens from the Most Ancient Church-ever becoming the Divine Natural. I would say that the necessity of the Lord's Coming was not present at the time of the Most Ancient Church, or before the Fall; for then the Lord could be present in a Divine Rational only by representation in the spiritual and celestial things in heaven, or as a representative Human. In one sense the Divine Natural was from the beginning in actuality, though the statement in Divine Love and Wisdom (233) is that it was in potency before the Advent. The Divine Natural is an eternal, infinite entity, but the statement has to do with the influx of the Lord or the immediate presence of the Lord in and with the natural degree of man, which could not have come to pass, as the Divine Human of the Lord in the natural, or as the Divine Natural, except by the incarnation. That is a subject which we can discuss from the doctrine.

     The same applies to the statements made in the paper describing how the Divine Truth descended with the different churches; how the Lord was present; and what is meant by the Divine of the Father, of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit. All those terms can be used relatively in different series, but I stress this,-that In every case the Lord's Divine is infinite. In every case the Lord's Divine, whether it be taken as the infinite in itself, without reference to the finite, or whether (for example) the Divine Celestial is meant, which is the infinite Divine in reference to the finite celestial plane, it is always infinite, and cannot be conceived to be anything else.

     One other point. The heavens can be identified with the body of the Lord when they are identified with the Divine Proceeding. But the Divine Human cannot be called human consciousness. Something of human consciousness may be adjoined, . . . but the human consciousness is not the Divine Proceeding of the Lord, and never could be. Otherwise man would be Divine, not only when regenerated, but at all times, since all the activity of the human mind is actuated by the Lord.

     I feel, therefore, that there is some further definition needed in Mr. Bjorck's concluding paragraphs about the body of the Lord.

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What is the body of the Lord when considered as the Gorand Man! I believe it is purely Divine. I conceive of it as that Divine design into which finite angels, in a partial fashion, fit in here and there. Yet never, by any gathering together of those minds to eternity, can any complete Divine Human result; for never can their consciousnesses, added together, make the Divine Human of the Lord.

     Rev. Theodore Pitcairn: I heard Mr. Bjorck's paper for the first time a few days ago; I took it home to read a few times; and I listened to it again today. My conception of the glorification of the Lord has been very vague in my mind, and my general line of thought was rather different from the presentation we have heard today. When I was in the theological school, this subject was particularly to the fore, and, as I remember it, all the leading professors had quite different concepts as to their understanding of the subject. At that time my sympathy was rather in the direction of Dr. Iungerich's; but as I read and studied, none of the conclusions appeared at all clear or satisfactory to me in my own mind, and I have no very definite concepts of my own. Nevertheless the trend of my mind has been different from that of Mr. Bjorck as he has presented it here; and therefore, when I first heard it read, it caused that disturbance of mind which is usually caused by anything new, and which is different from what one has been accustomed to thinking. And yet I felt that there were passages which Mr. Bjorck brought forward which I had certainly never considered, and which were very vital to an understanding of the issue, and that I would have to consider those passages very carefully before I came to any conclusion. I still have much obscurity on the subject, and yet it seems to me that Mr. Bjorck has brought forth things which may lead to a clearer understanding of this subject, which has been so very obscure in the church.

     Questions arose in my mind similar to those points which Mr. Gladish presented, and therefore I went to Mr. Bjorck and asked him how he understood those passages which Mr. Gladish brought forward. I was very disappointed that Mr. Gladish did not take that attitude. There are passages there which he does not seem to have considered. Instead of asking Mr. Bjorck how he interpreted the passages brought forward by Mr. Gladish, he has taken Mr. Bjorck's paper as something the Academy had always opposed, and that if it was not opposed, it would destroy the Church.

     Bishop de Charms objected to one statement in Mr. Bjorck's paper-that is, that existere can only be spoken of in relation to reception. These may not be the exact words Bishop de Charms used, but at least that was the idea. Practically those words are not things from Mr. Bjorck himself, but the statement to which Bishop de Charms particularly objected was a quotation from the Writings: "Reception of life is that of which existere is predicated." (A. C. 3938.) Bishop de Charms spoke of paradoxes in our position. I am sure that if he realized what is in our minds, he would see that those paradoxes have no existence, if what is involved is really understood.

     Rev. Albert Bjorck: I quote one sentence: "Reception of life is that of which existing is predicated." That is the quotation.

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     The other point is in regard to my understanding of the total teaching of the number concerning esse and existere. In my paper I said: "The Lord made His Human Divine Esse. The glorified Human of the Lord is infinite Life Itself; it is not reception of life, and the Lord can therefore, after His glorification, not be said to exist except as that which proceeds from Him, or, in other words, as the Word that reveals Him to men, the angels that constitute the Divine Human in the heavens, and the minds of men who are in His kingdom on earth." That is my understanding of the teaching; and I cannot see but that that understanding is in perfect harmony with what is said in so many words: "The reception of life is that of which existing is predicated." Moreover, it is said in the same number that the Lord cannot be said to exist except in what proceeds from Him.

     Something was said about understanding the Writings from an idealistic philosophy or otherwise. I can understand his reasoning, and I can also understand Mr. Gladish's protest. Mr. Gladish referred to a letter written to an old friend of mine who had some difficulty on the subject, in which I said that the spiritual sun is not the Lord Himself-and I think that is the teaching of the Writings.

     If we study what is said in Heaven and Hell, and in other books of the church, I think we will find very clearly that there is no other solution of what is said than that whatever is visible in the heavens is a projection of what is inside of the angels. That is not denying that the spiritual sun is that through which they have been created.

     We can only see the infinite as it is revealed in accommodation to our minds. Back of those appearances there is a reality that we cannot understand; but, through the Revelation, we can get an idea of the infinite in this way. We can see that the infinite God, the Spirit, is a Divine Man; and the Divine Human of the Lord gives us the possibility to see the Lord as a Divine Man,-a Divine Man in the same meaning that is used when it is said that the Lord from the beginning had a Human Essence which was infinite.

     In one statement (I don't remember the exact words) it says that, after the glorification, we can get an idea of the Divine as that Divine Love which goes out to give of Itself to others as the sun from which all creation is accomplished. (H. H. 124.)

     Wednesday morning, January 31, 1934.

     Dr. Alfred Acton: The order of the day calls for the reading of a paper by the Bishop, but I understand that Mr. Bjorck would like to make some closing remarks. I would like to move, therefore, that the order of the day be suspended to permit him to speak for a few minutes. (Seconded and carried.)

     Rev. Albert Bjorck: Bishop and Fellow Ministers: I gathered from what was said in the discussion which followed my paper yesterday that there was unanimous objection to the implication that angels or men could in any sense be called "Divine." That was implied in the paper I read, and it is my understanding of the teaching given us by the Lord in the Revelation to the New Church.

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I will try to give you briefly the reasons or the statements on which I base my faith.

     We know that the spirit of man is his mind, and that the mind is formed here according to his reception or non-reception of love and wisdom from the Lord, and that mind is therefore in this other world the spiritual body. In T. C. R. 583, it says the spiritual body is formed from the truths and goods that flow in from the Lord through the spiritual world. The spiritual body in which we live in the other world is formed during life here, and it is formed through the truths and goods that flow in.

     Then I referred to the number in the Arcana, 3938, where reception of life is spoken of. It states that "Reception of life is that of which existere is predicated." It says also that existere is predicated of the Lord, "but only when He was in the world, where He put on the Divine Esse." It goes on to say that "since He has become the Divine Esse, Eristeve can no longer be predicated of Him, other than as something proceeding from Him." In Heaven and Hell there is a whole chapter, the heading of which is: "The Divine of the Lord in Heaven is Love to Him and Charity toward the Neighbor." That "love to the Lord" must be in the angels. It must be that in the angels which is the Lord's, but which they feel as their own. In a part of the same chapter (no. 18) it says: "That the Lord's Divine in heaven is love, is because love is the receptacle of all things of heaven, which are peace, intelligence, wisdom and happiness." The angels who have peace, intelligence, wisdom and happiness constitute the heavens, and they have that because they have the love which receives the things of heaven. That is from the Lord, but it is a love which they perceive as their own love. Of course, when we think of the Divine Proceeding-and I think of the Divine Proceeding as forming the Body of the Lord in the heavens-there are several passages, in the Apocalypse Explained particularly, which speak of the angels themselves constituting the heavens as being the Divine Proceeding. In A. E. 1166 it says: "Heaven in the whole complex is the Lord, because it is His Divine Proceeding; consequently, when He is working through heaven He is working from Himself. It is said mediately, because the Divine operation flows through the heavens, and yet it takes nothing from the proprium of any angel there, but only from what is its own with them." That means that what is the Lord's is given to the angels in such a way that it pertains to them. It is that which flows through the heavens to man.

     I could not, in the paper yesterday, carry out in detail, (just mentioning it), the studies I made in regard to the Divine Human in the heavens before the coming of the Lord. The truth stated in A. C. 5663, that it was not sufficient for the Divine Itself to be able to flow through heaven to man, and thus through the Divine Human there, rests on the fact, as I understand the teaching, that the heavens formed in the later days before the Lord's coming-the Divine Human in the heavens-was not of a quality to let the Divine Itself through to men, and therefore the Lord had to come down to take on that Human in the heavens, and through that to restore the equilibrium.

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     The New Testament was given us by the Lord, and that was a new Divine Natural. This Divine Natural was in the heavens, in the spiritual world, before the church was established on earth, just as the truths revealed to us in the Writings were made known in the spiritual world before the New Church was established on earth.

     I am absolutely accepting the Academy principle that all authority rests in the Word. The Word of the Lord to the New Church has all authority, but we understand that Word differently. I know that to some here the reasoning I have put forward in that paper, and in the previous pamphlet, seems artificial and nonsensical, and leads to blasphemy. To me it is simply what I see that the Lord teaches, and I accept that teaching as authority. I do not accept any other authority, none other whatever. No other authority can I accept but that which I see as the Lord's teaching in His Word. If that seems nonsensical, I cannot help it. That is authority to my thinking and reason. I have tried-my motive has been to try and understand the truth as the Lord has given it to us, and that is all any man can do. If men then come to different understandings, if there is charity, they can then belong to one church. If not, separation is inevitable. And I thank you, Bishop, for "the opportunity you have given me to speak here before you, and I thank you for giving me the opportunity to say these closing words.
DIVINE WITHIN MEN AND ANGELS 1934

DIVINE WITHIN MEN AND ANGELS        N. D. PENDLETON       1934

     (Delivered at the Council of the Clergy, January 31, 1934.)

     The angels cannot think of God save as God-Man, for this accords with the flow of thought in the heavens.

     Yet when they think of the presence of God-Man in His creation, they call that presence, not God-Man, but the Divine. This also agrees with the mode of speech among theologians. (D. L. W. 72.) The Writings maintain this distinction; yet it is a distinction without a difference. The distinction arises from the conditionment of the Divine in its proceeding. While between the Infinite God and the Divine there is no difference, yet the distinction between them is of inexpressible importance to men and angels, who are thereby enabled to perceive the Divine presence, but only through and under a veil of finite appearances. Otherwise no man or angel could see God and live.

     God appears as a Sun, far above the angelic heavens; yet He is at no distance from the angels.

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His Divine is perceived as present in the angels, and yet they know that they, like all finite persons and things, are outside of God. (T. C. R. 43.) This, however, is not inconsistent with the presence of the Divine within them. They are outside of God, in that the Divine is within them by continuity, and not by continuity. The like is true of nature; the Divine is everywhere present therein, but is nowhere continuous therewith.


     The term "God," and especially "God-Man," conveys a personal idea of God which is most necessary to men and angels; while the word "Divine" suggests a Divine Essence,-an Essence which is God, which proceeds from Him and inflows into create forms. The terms "proceeding" and "inflowing" are, however, derived from sense illusions, i.e., from the spaces of ultimate creation. There is no such procession or influx of the Divine, for God-Man in His Divinity is omnipresent within and without all things. Human minds are slowly opened to an increasing perception of the omnipresent God. This gradual opening produces the appearance as of a successive and increasing Divine influx. In like manner, while the Divine fills all and each part of creation, it must not be thought of as divided therein, for it is non-divisible, and not separable from itself, under all conditions. (A. C. 1999.) And this, though it is spoken of as being divided among the angels; but is so said because the angels, even as men, are divided or separate, one from another. Also, the Divine is never different in one subject from what it is in another. The difference lies altogether in the created subjects. Yet every created subject is gifted with an image or an impress of the Divine, and this with indefinite variety. (D. L. W. 54, and D. P. 6.) This image, however, is not in itself Divine; yet it is competent to represent the Divine. Hence no finite thing, nor anything proper to nature, can be predicated as Divine. (D. L. W. 73.) This is why there is nothing Divine in the esse of men or angels. (D. P. 59, and D. P. 53, 57, 200.) Hence the saying that angels are not to be invoked, because there is nothing Divine in them (A. R. 818), that is, nothing Divine in their Esse.

     The Divine, which in and under all conditions "coheres" with itself alone, is one with Life. That which is called the life of men and angels is their qualified response to the omnipresent Life of God. The Divine presence may be as if appropriated by men and angels, but it is never to be claimed-never to be regarded as in them by other than a contiguous presence.

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The angels make a special note of this. (D. P. 57, 285.) Such, therefore, is the presence of the Divine when it is said to reside with men and angels.

     Let us note the teaching in A. C. 3043, as follows: "It was the Lord's will to make His Human Divine by the common way, such as with men. . . . The reformation and regeneration of man is a kind of image. . . . Man is made new, . . . born anew, created anew, and in so far he has as it were what is Divine in him. . . . It is said, as it were what is Divine, because man is but a recipient of life." What is here meant is that man, being recipient, is not Divine, either as to soul, mind or body; and yet, as a recipient, he has the near presence of the Divine within him. To this presence, man, as a vessel, may react either affirmatively or negatively, for man is gifted with the "faculty" of so doing, in accord with his free choice.

     This "faculty," in itself, is Divine; for the Divine alone enables man's reaction, whether for good or evil. The enablement is one and the same in both cases. As this "faculty" empowers man's reciprocation, so also it empowers his negation. It is God's power in man; and since this is the case, it is clear why it is said that the Divine can be in that only which is Divine in man; that is, the Divine can be only in itself with man, and this "itself" with man is the Divine present in man prior to his reception of, and reaction to, the Divine inflowing and effecting man's regeneration. Indeed, this Divine potency is in man prior to his birth, either natural or spiritual. Its exercise by man is an afterbirth development. "Faculty" is therefore a Divine empowerment, and its presence in man as a vessel is, under all conditions therein, only a contiguous presence. It is indeed a continual gift, for it unceasingly "inflows," or is ever present, and appears to man as if it were his, although it is from and of the Lord alone. (A. E. 64423.) It appears to the angels as if it were their own, because of their qualified employment of it. The evil mistake it to be their own.

     II.

     That man may misuse this life power, is what is meant when it is said that with the evil the Divine is turned into what is diabolical. (A. C. 3425.)

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The allowance of this misuse is an internal permission granted to all men, since otherwise there would be not even the appearance of human freedom; and if it were not for free choice, men would not be men, nor angels angels; and the Divine would be in them, not by contiguity, but by continuity; and they would in such a case be finite divinities, or gods. The line between is impassible. There is no breaking through it to God, on the part of man. Therefore it was provided from and by creation that the "esse" of men and angels should not be Divine. There was only one exception to this; only One born of woman was gifted with a Divine Esse. The Lord proclaimed this when He said, "I and the Father are one." The Jews took up stones to stone Him, accusing Him of blasphemy in making Himself equal with God. He answered them, saying, "Is it not written in your law, I said, Ye are gods! If He called them gods, unto whom the Word came, and the Scripture cannot be broken, say ye of Him whom the Father hath sanctified and sent into the world, Thou blasphemest, because I said, I am the Son of God?" (John 10:34.) The specific statement of the "law" to which the Lord here referred is found in the 82d Psalm, 6th verse, as follows: "I said, ye are gods, and all of you are sons of the Most High." Also, in the first verse of this 82d Psalm, it is said that " God standeth in the assembly of the gods; He shall judge among the gods." Again, "I will confess Thee with my whole heart before the gods." (Psalm 138:1.) "There is none like unto Thee among the gods." (Psalm 86:8.) "Jehovah is a great God, . . . above all gods." (Psalm 95:3.) Other like phrases may be found in Psalm 97:9, Psalm 135:5, in Deuteronomy 10:17, and in Joshua 22:22.

     In distinguishing Himself from other men, the Lord proclaimed His unity with the Father. He spoke of other men as those to whom the Word of God came, and of Himself as the "sanctified and sent." In appealing to the "law," in evidence of the fact that men also were called gods, He said the Scripture "cannot be broken."

     The Psalms are a part of that ancient Divine revelation which was clothed in representatives and significatives. This Scripture, indeed, could not be broken, because of its Divine content; but after the Lord's Advent its deeper meanings were exposed. Its letter was so raised by new Divine interpretations that the minds of men were, or could have been, released from a merely literal understanding of its verbal terms.

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The phrase, "I said ye are gods," is a notable case in point. If men are Divine, then are they Divinities, and if Divinities, they are gods. In the Jewish Scripture they are called gods, and the obvious or immediate intent was to distinguish Jehovah above all other gods. At that time each nation had its own gods, and each regarded its chief god as supreme over all others. In those days the idea of many gods was "seated in all minds," and especially in the minds of the Jews (see A. C. 8301), who thought that any angel who appeared to them was God. For this reason, when gods are mentioned in the Jewish Scripture, the angels are signified. This was so allowed because "the angels are vessels receptive of the Divine"; but, being such vessels, they in turn could only represent or signify the Divine.

     Yet the angels perceive the Divine as present with and within them, but only in and under the guardianship of modifying appearances (A. C. 3364.) And these appearances vary greatly; some of them are higher, and others of a lower order. The Lord, when on earth, was in like varying appearances, in accord with His human state at the time.

     In dealing with Isaac's departure from Abimelech, and his encampment in the valley of Gerar, the Arcana speaks of that encampment as signifying that the Lord betook Himself "from interior to exterior appearances"; and as an example of such exterior appearances, the text, "I said ye are gods," is quoted.

     It may be asked, In what sense is it a lower appearance that men are gods? It is hardly an appearance at this day that they are gods. The meaning is that it so appears from the letter of the Word, which was written when the deification of men was a prevailing custom. Still, the statement that the men spoken of as gods, in the Word, "signify" angels, does not relieve the fundamental difficulty, for angels are men. As to this we have the following from A. C. 7873: "In the Word gods are often mentioned. When angels are so called, truths are signified. . . . That truths are called gods, is because truth proceeds from the Divine itself, and in itself truth is Divine; consequently, they who receive it are called gods; not that they are gods, but that the truth which is with them is Divine." This is sufficiently definite as to the fact of the case. But we may ask, since the angels are not gods, what then are they?

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The following definition is given in A. C. 8301: "The angels are called "gods" (i.e., in the Word) because they are substances and forms recipient of truth in which is good from the Lord. . . . The Lord is good itself, . . . and from this good proceeds the truth, like light from the flame of the sun." This good and its proceeding truth are beyond question Divine.

     III.

     But what of the "substances and forms" which are the angels, or which compose the finite angelic structure, which, by its reaction to the Divine inflowing, imposes appearances upon, and sets limits to, the truth received?

     These substances and forms are to a greater or lesser degree in order with the angels, while with evil men and spirits they are in disorder. Abstractly considered, order is Divine, and disorder evil; but the order of the substances and forms of an angel is strictly a limited order, and because of such limitation the truth and good inflowing from the Lord is qualified under limiting appearances. These substances are many and varied in kind and degree. Their ultimates are in and of nature; and nature, in the mystery of God's creation, is that which has been deprived of life. That such a deprivation also characterizes the substances and forms of the angels, may be seen from the following quotation from A. E. 1131: "Angels, like men, are forms recipient of life, and these forms are from substances which are without life, thus in themselves dead."

     All organic substances and forms, whether in this or the world to come, are basically founded in and upon nature. But the natural sun cannot produce from itself any living thing. Its service is to provide a material which imparts fixation to organic forms. It is from the spiritual sun that the inner substance of all organic forms is derived; and even as men, so also angels are organized substances. Their difference from men is a difference in grade or degree, and, as with men, the Divine is in them by contiguity only.

     While we must sharply distinguish between the Divine and creation, whether natural or spiritual; and while we know that create forms are rendered permanent through fixation imparted by material or natural substances, yet we must not forget that finition began with the spiritual sun, and that there also was life's first deprivation.

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Creation is inclusive of both worlds, and we may conclude, therefore, that the substances and forms which constitute an angel are both natural and spiritual.

     As indicated before, the Divine proceeding is distinguished from God, not in its being, but in its stance; and we are advised to observe this distinction, lest in thought we think of more than one God. (A. R. 961.) Yet we know that nothing proceeds from God save that which is Himself. (T. C. R. 6.) We know that all the Divine taken together is God, and that this Divine is none other than the Infinite Divine proceeding from itself (D. P. 55), which is God (S. D. 6045), and which in its proceeding has created all things of heaven and the world. (A. E. 639.) This Divine proceeding is also the Divine forming. (Ath. 62.) As such it is spoken of as that spiritual essence which, regarded in itself, is Divine, and which is neither mutable nor extended, but is omnipresent. (Divine Wisdom VII.)

     The point of special interest here lies in the phrase "regarded in itself," in that it implies the presence of something other than "itself," namely, a primary veiling, or, if you please, the beginning of finition and the first of creation, which also was the beginning of life's deprivation, called death.

     This "spiritual essence" is not unlike the philosophic conception of the first natural point of Swedenborg's Principia, within which was the creative or infinite Divine in its first limit. The process of creation was a limiting process, and the finite became increasingly a complex of interwoven limits, which were non-Divine. These limits are as great or small as creation, wherein God-Man is ever present, but only by adjunction. His presence in first limits is that which is called a "spiritual essence," which in itself is Divine. The Divine cannot be said to proceed save in creation, that is, in and through a limited medium. It cannot proceed from that which is finite, but only through or by means of the finite; nor, indeed, can the finite proceed from the Infinite, but the finite can be produced from the Infinite; but this production of the finite "is not to proceed, but to create." (D. P. 219:2.)

     But what shall we say of that spiritual essence which in itself is Divine, and which in its first proceeding establishes an adjunction between the Infinite and the finite in its first-formed limitation?

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     This essence, as we see it, of necessity presents a dual aspect. As a nexus between the Infinite and the finite, it is the Divine in its continuity, but viewed from below or from without it cannot be seen save as the beginning of finition, in and through which beginning the Divine is addressed to contact with all succeeding finites. And while we may think that herein is discovered a limited Divine, yet we know that no limit is Divine, and that God in His proceeding is not less Divine, even as the Son is not less Infinite than the Father.

     On the other hand, we know that that which was "created in God by God" is not continuous with Him, for if it were, created things would have a Divine being or esse in themselves. (D. L. W. 55.) We know that, in creating, God finited His Infinity, but that in so doing He produced just that which was not Himself and not Divine; but by virtue of this creation by God, the finites, such as those of men and angels, were enabled, through the near presence of the Divine within them, to become receptive and reactive. It is on this ground that we have said that a distinction should be made, but no difference allowed, between the Infinite and the Divine; for creation, as shown, is not a Divine proceeding, but a production of finite forms and substances which compose both men and angels. The Divine in its proceeding passes into and through these formed substances, and resides in them by adjunction. Hence it is that,-while the finite may represent and signify the Divine, it is not Divine. Yet, as shown, in the order of its creation the finite is an image of the Divine.

     IV.

     This is the case, not only with men and angels, but also with all those sacred forms which clothe the Word. God is inmostly in them, by adjunction with them, and His Divine passes through and by means of them to men. Because of this, the Word may be seen under two different aspects, i.e., as merely human, or as a Divinely appointed and infilled medium, conveying and presenting the Divine in the world. Indeed, the literal Word of God is as a man in the world,-a man-prophet who speaks by inspiration from God. Interiorly the Word is as an angel, but a Divinely possessed angel, who speaks, not from himself, but from God. Being infilled by God's presence, the angel, at the time, knows no other than that he is God.

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His externals are quiescent. It is otherwise with an angel when his externals are awake and operative. This possession of an angel by the Lord is made possible by the fact that the angel's inmost soul, though a finite vessel, is, as to its content, Divine. When, therefore, the proprials of an angel are quiescent, and do not impede, the Lord descends through the angel's super-celestial soul and takes entire possession of him, in which case the angel "is the Lord's; yea, is the Lord." (See A. C. 1745.)

     By a like possession of the prophets in the world, the Word on earth was given in its ultimate sanctity. In case of such a Divine possession, it appears that the universal law concerning the qualifying effect of a receiving vessel, even of an unconscious vessel, superficially holds. Certainly there are indications of this in the case of the men through whom the Word was given, in that one prophet spoke and wrote in one way, and another in another, each in accord with the modes of speech pertaining to him as an individual. It may be that there is an analogue of this with an angel Divinely possessed to the point of self-unconsciousness. Yet we may be certain that neither in the case of the prophets, nor of Divinely possessed angels, were their proprials allowed, in the least degree, to impede. On the other hand, it is clear that this superficial qualification in the case of those who are possessed by the Divine is by no means comparable with those other rational qualifications which arise in and from the normally free state of angels or men,-a state which is characterized by human determination and conscious cooperation. This conscious reactivity is of wide variability, so much so that in their changes of state the angels pass from the highest degree of love to the Lord to a near approach to their propriums, which also "they love."

     This normal state of human freedom, and of conscious will and thought, is an imperishable gift. Only at times, and for Divine reasons, has it been temporarily suppressed or removed, as when there was need for an authoritative Divine outgiving.

     Swedenborg appears as an exception, in that he wrote when fully awake, and with understanding; yet his rational mind was possessed of God, in that it was strictly guided by God. That he was fully awake was a necessity, for many reasons; as, for instance, his conscious though guided derivation of the internal sense out of the letter, and his formation of that sense into doctrine, his intromission into the spiritual world, and the need of revealing the things that are there, in words of choice from memory.

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     Doubtless also there were differing degrees of self-awareness or of self-unconsciousness with the prophets and sacred writers of the Old and New Testaments, in each case according to the need. Sometimes they were quite out of themselves; at others, apparently less so.

     In Swedenborg's case there was no guidance of his hand by a possessed spirit, but his rational mind was Divinely guided, so much so that from the first day of his call he received all that pertains to the Doctrines of the New Church from the Lord alone. (T. C. R. 779.)

     Consider, in this connection, the notable difference between the ultimates of Swedenborg's revelations and those of the ancient Scriptures, wherein the internal sense is concealed by types and figures, having no open or direct reference to that internal sense. Not since the world began were there such revelations as those given through Emanuel Swedenborg. Among the prophets he stands by himself.

     It may be that men were confirmed in the thought of themselves as gods by their inability to distinguish infrequent states of Divine possession from their normal states of human freedom and human enlightenment. If so, we may understand that they would mistake an occasional overpowering influx as indicating that some Divinity pertained to their normal states. In other words, they began more and more to feel that the Divine was infused into them, and this means that they felt that the Divine was present in them, not by contiguity, but by continuity, in which case they would indeed become as gods. (See T. C. R. 4706.)

     This gravest of all misconceptions was first born in the Most Ancient Church, and it brought that Church to destruction. But such confusion of thought and feeling did not end with that Church. It became the recurrent affliction of the ages. It has invaded all Churches, under one guise or another, and this because the aspiration to Divinity is a deep proprial impulse,-a hidden allurement, having a powerful appeal to the senses. It begets emotions of high exaltation, which, once enjoyed, can with difficulty be resisted. (See S. D. 3661.)

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     On the other hand, Divine influx into and through the soul of man is, of Providence, imperceptible. The senses are not stirred by any realization of it. It is quite otherwise with the sense of an infused Divine. (See T. C. R. 470:8; D. L. W. 130.)

     While this affliction was highly devastating to the first celestial church, and while the following Ancient Church, in its beginning, was free from it, yet it recurred in the latter days of that Church, in a milder but still destructive form. Again men began to yield to the persuasion that they were gods, and this while they yet possessed some internal thought; but those who did so are likened to "firebrands" which brought on a "conflagration." The peril of profanation impended. To prevent this, Providence brought about a change of state, by a process of externalization. While in this there was security from profanation, yet the worship of men as gods continued, and spread round about to the Gentiles, of whom it is said that they first worshipped men as saints, then as divinities, and lastly as gods. (T. C. R. 292.)

     It was from this source that belief in many gods, and of men as gods, passed to the Jews, and found place in the Old Testament Scripture.

     In view of the above mentioned "affliction," and its perennial recurrence, we should not lightly brush aside the danger of any confusion of thought concerning the presence of the Divine within man.

     The fact stands that the doctrine of the Divinity of man is alien to and subversive of the consistent teachings of the General Church.
DISCUSSION OF THE BISHOP'S ADDRESS. 1934

DISCUSSION OF THE BISHOP'S ADDRESS.       Rev. THEODORE PICAIRN       1934

     Rev. Theodore Pitcairn: We have listened today to a fine presentation of a subject which interests us all, and I am sure that there is very little, if anything, in the Bishop's address that any of us would take exception to. He gave a presentation of a subject that has, I am sure, interested us all very much; and if he thinks that there are those who hold the views he condemns, he is mistaken. There was a certain phrase in which he seemed to imply that we denied certain things in regard to man's not having a Divine essence, or not having the Divine infused into him. That is certainly far from our thought. Certainly there is no one in the General Church who believes that man has a Divine essence, or that the Divine is infused into man. The Divine, as the Bishop has pointed out, is never continuous with man. It is always contiguous with man as a vessel of life.

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     As the, Bishop pointed out, the Lord alone had a Divine Essence, and He had a Divine Essence for this reason, that He made His Proprium Divine. Because He made His Proprium Divine, He spoke Divine Good and Divine Truth from Himself. That no man can ever do. The Lord alone could do that, because the Lord alone had a Divine Essence. Man can never speak any truth or do any good that is from himself, or from his own essence. He can only receive good and truth from the Lord. But we are told in the Word that these goods and truths are appropriated to man, and this is explained in other places by stating that these goods and truths are appropriated to man "as if they were his own," although they are not his own. They are Divine, because they are not his own. There are other passages which say that the Divine can never be appropriated to man. We have here an apparent paradox; but, understood in this way, I think the apparent paradox can be easily understood. The Lord said, "There is none good, save God." There is none true, save God; and all the good and truth which is with man is not man's own.

     Indeed, there are places in which "man" is used as meaning those goods and truths which are from God with him. We are told that the Most Ancient Church did not call themselves "man," but they so called the Lord alone; and those goods and truths which they had from the Lord,-that alone was "man"; and in that sense "man" was used with specific meaning. When were use the word "man," we usually mean what is meant in the passage referred to by "they themselves." (A. C. 49.) "They themselves" never could be Divine, but those goods and truths which they perceived, which they had from the Lord, which were said to be written on their hearts (the Word was said to be written on their hearts), those are called "man," and in that sense man may be mentioned as Divine, as distinguished from "they themselves"; for "they themselves" never had a Divine essence, nor could the Divine be infused into them. It was always contiguous to them, and never continuous with them.

     I was very much interested in what the Bishop said about Swedenborg,-that Swedenborg was prepared to receive Divine good and truth in his under- standing, and yet Swedenborg had no Divine essence; he was not Divine. Still the Lord used him as an instrument to write the Third Testament of the Word of the Lord-and yet that was always distinguished from what was Swedenborg's own. Nevertheless, the Bishop points out that Swedenborg was given a consciousness of those goods and truths. Those goods and truths, though in themselves infinite and Divine, in his mind, as he was a finite human being, must have been there under appearances of truth. Swedenborg could not see the Divine Himself any more than any man can. The Writings contain the infinite Divine Truth Itself. Swedenborg could not see the infinite Divine Truth Itself.

     Rev. E. E. Iungerich: I feel that we owe the Bishop a great debt of gratitude for his paper. He has clearly pointed out a danger, and that this danger can be so present with us that it will affect, not only our thoughts, but also the forms of our speech.

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We should not encourage in the forms of our speech anything that may lead the church, and especially the laymen with whom we come in contact, to think that we are giving any encouragement to the dreadful thought that the Divine has been infused into any man. And although I rejoice at what Mr. Pitcairn says, that no one in the church is encouraging such an atrocious falsity,-such an infernally besetting falsity as that which the Bishop's paper has spoken of,-yet I believe that, as far as the forms of language are concerned, the idea is being flirted with, as when it is said that the Existere of the Lord is states of reception with man. They will doubtless appreciate this paper, and endeavor to see that their forms of thought and language no longer confirm that idea. That idea is prominent in the Fifth Fascicle, and to my mind it can mean nothing else than the great danger shown by the Bishop. For this warning we should be thankful, and be careful to avoid that which has destroyed other churches.

     Let me give an anatomical illustration confirmatory of the position we must ever take with regard to the Divine being contiguous and not continuous with men. It is said in the Writings that the Lord alone corresponds to the bloods of the Gorand Man, and that the angels are in various organs. There is never any correspondence of the angels to the fluids which operate, for these are the Lord. Swedenborg had a perception of that fact when he wrote the anatomical works. You will note the very interesting statement that in every main artery the derivatives go off at right angles, lest there should be any component of pressure forcing the blood into those organs. This is to prevent infusion. Each organ is free to cull from the source of supply what it wishes. Each organ also has communication with the cerebellum, which projects something of the "own" of that soul there, in order to enable it to react. That also is by adjunction, and not by continuity. The organ is therefore able of itself to open up to receive of that nourishment from the Lord as it desires.

     If you say that the Existere of the Lord is something that is in the angels themselves, in their states of reason, it is just as if you said there was no existere from the soul in the organs-that there was no blood flowing in there to nourish them. The Bishop explained that beautifully in his paper, how the Divine is always the Divine, all the way down. The Writings say that even the lowest blood corresponds with the soul-that it is the soul operating on the lowest plane. So the Divine comes down and operates on all planes. It is not the state of reception in those organs that constitutes the "blood of the Lamb." We are said to be saved by the "blood of the Lamb,"-a beautiful picture of the Divine Truth, how it proceeds. It is not the state of reception with the individual organs. As the Bishop has shown, there are states of reception in which the Lord goes to them, and adds feeling, and enables them to receive of that "blood Of the Lamb" which is the Divine Proceeding, by which man can be saved. But that is not the angel. That is something from the Lord, adjoined by contiguity. The angel is the state of reception which the Lord enables these organs to maintain in that blood-stream of His Divine Truth.

     Rev. W. B. Caldwell: I thank the Bishop for his convincing treatment of this subject. It is a fine example of how the Writings are to be interpreted, not in the light of pre-conceived notions of the human mind, but in their own light, bringing passages together in a way which convinces that the central idea is true.

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I especially thank him for pointing out the danger that we are all in, that all churches have been in,-the human aspiration for divinity which destroyed the Most Ancient Church, when they became gods in their own eyes-which destroyed the Ancient Church and the Christian Church, and which is knocking at the door of the New Church. The devil is ever striving to destroy the Church. He comes in through the proprium of man, and we must be ready to resist him.

     Recently I came upon a phrase in the Arcana which states that the Ancient Church was destroyed by innovators,-those who brought in new ideas contrary to their Revelation, ideas which we might call novelties, or human inventions and discoveries. We all know the delight we experience when we find an idea which has not been found before, especially when we find it in the Writings, and wish to place it before the church. It is one way in which the Lord enlightens the church. But it is possible for men to get false ideas from Revelation, and from their own states of self-intelligence, and to put those before the church. That, I believe, is how the Ancient Church was destroyed by innovators. And we need not think that we are immune from such a thing. What is our true course as ministers if we feel responsible to the Lord for a true functioning of His light in the church? What is the proper course to pursue when we think we have a new idea! There are two things. One is, in the quiet of our own study to test out that idea from every angle in the light of the Writings as a whole, comparing passages diligently, waiting to reflect and meditate, and to be sure that the idea squares with all points in the Writings and the Word. That is one way we can avoid these innovations. The second is humbly to bring new ideas to this council, and lay them before our fellow ministers, and listen to what they have to say. That is the way correction will come, and adjustment, and we will preserve our sense of proportion.

     The new idea discovered at The Hague was, that the law of interpretation stated in the Doctrine of the Sacred Scripture, no. 50, is to be applied equally to the Writings. In a certain year, we are told, they "Came to see" that this mode of interpreting the Old and New Testaments applies "without reserve" to the Writings. It was a new idea, and it took possession of them. If they had first brought it to the Bishop, and to this council, they would have learned some things, instead of finding out afterwards that most of us do not agree with this mode of interpreting the Writings by correspondences, as in the case of the Old and New Testaments. The fruits of this idea we see today in the inversion of thought involved in the claim that anything human of angels or men can be called "Divine,"-which awakens a revulsion of feeling when such a thing is said. If you approach the Writings with such an idea, you can confirm it. You can confirm anything from Revelation by putting passages together. Mr. Bjorck, in his address yesterday, brought together an array of passages which, to his mind, confirm the idea that the angelic heaven is the Divine Human.

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The Bishop has brought together a higher and wider range of passages, by which he shows convincingly that it is contrary to the essence of the Writings to hold that anything finite can be Divine. In the contrary view I believe we have an example of that which will destroy the New Church. So far as the innovations of men take the place of light from the Lord, it will be destructive of the New Church.

     Dr. Alfred Acton: As always, the Bishop has treated of his subject in a universal aspect, and his treatment carries conviction with it; yet the truth which he presents is a simple truth that every man sees. Man is not Divine in any sense whatever, and the simplest man of the church would feel abhorrence at the statement that he is Divine. The Bishop gives also the philosophic reason, namely, that the Esse of God is Esse, and the esse of man is recipere, and therefore finite. This is so simple that Mr. Pitcairn himself is continually saying that we all believe it. In private conversation, and in the Council, Mr. Pitcairn has repeatedly expressed surprise that we should ascribe to him any such idea as that man is Divine. I have read his articles in the Fifth Fascicle, and the conclusion I came to is that the very writing of the articles was itself the admission of the idea that man is Divine. We do not naturally argue about so simple a truth; yet Mr. Pitcairn and Mr. Pfeiffer feel under the necessity of discussing this question, and of showing that in some respects man can be called Divine.

     Now I ask: Why do these gentlemen feel under this necessity? They say, "We do not believe anything of man is Divine," and yet they return again and again to their old contention. Why is this? This is new in the General Church. We have proclaimed the Doctrines as Divine Doctrines; we have proclaimed that the Lord speaks through Swedenborg; but we have never felt under the slightest necessity of discussing whether or in what respect the term "Divine" can be used of man. Why has this question come up now? It has come up because it is essential to the new teaching,-the vitiating essential. In external form, the question came up later, but essentially it was involved in the First Fascicle, because it is involved in the teaching that the doctrine of the church is of Divine essence and Divine authority. No one would complain if it had been said that the Writings are of Divine essence and of Divine authority. We all believe this; we all believe that the Writings are the Third Testament, the Latin Word, the Word in a Letter. But now it is said that the doctrine of the church is of Divine essence and Divine authority, and that the doctrine of the church gives entrance into interior truth. The doctrine of the church is to be derived through man's understanding. And as that doctrine is true, it enables us to see more interiorly what the Lord teaches in the Writings; it points to the Writings as the only source of authority. But now it is said that man's understanding of the Writings gives birth to something which is called the "doctrine of the church," and that this something born from God in man is of Divine essence and of Divine authority, is our guiding spiritual authority,-the illuminating thing which makes the church.

     With this claim, it is absolutely necessary to postulate that in man there is something which gives birth to what is Divine, and consequently that in some sense or other man himself is Divine.

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The conclusion is inevitable; and if the Dutch School had never said a word about it, it would necessarily have had to be supplied. It is involved in the position that there are two things in the church, both of which are Divine. We have only one Divine Doctrine, namely, the Writings. Let a man read and examine them; let him deduce from them doctrines or teachings as illuminating as you will-yet it is the Writings, and the Writings alone, that are Divine.

     I have no doubt whatever that when these gentlemen say they repudiate the idea of teaching that man is Divine, and still more the idea that there is anything Divine in themselves-I have no doubt they mean exactly what they say. I have no doubt also that it can be said of false doctrine that it does not at first manifest the dangers that it involves. The Nephilim did not begin by boldly proclaiming they were gods. False doctrine begins in a more subtle way. It begins always in the perversion of some truth; and in order that it may have power, it must ever be accompanied with some appearance of truth; but it is the falsity involved that the church must see and must oppose.

     This new teaching respecting Divinity and man, respecting the doctrine of the Church, man's understanding of the Word, being of Divine essence and Divine authority-this new teaching is having its effect. I feel it, and I have no doubt you have felt it. Its effect is seen in the tone which is adopted in these Fascicles. That tone is not the tone adopted in the ordinary discussions and papers of the church. There is an undercurrent of quietism in it,-an undercurrent that this is the Divine Truth. What do we read? "Now for the first time it has been given the church to see." "Now for the first time can the church enter from a natural to an interior state." Whether or not these expressions are quoted exactly, matters not; the spirit of them is everywhere apparent in the Hague Fascicles; the assumption that here we have a Divine revelation to the New Church.

     Such a spirit has never entered into the teaching of the Academy from the earliest days. There was never a thought in any man's mind that the Academy teaching was the Divine Truth. With the Academy it was a question, not of what the Academy teaches, but of "What do the Writings teach?" I feel that it is necessary to bring this out-that the Hague position inevitably involves, and must be accompanied by the claim, that man is Divine. I should like our younger ministers to see that. In some cases there is sympathy with the Hague position, but repudiation of the idea of man being in any sense Divine. I should like our young ministers to see that the one position involves the other, that they are inseparable.

     So we return to the simple truth that man is not Divine; that there is only one voice in the Church,-he Writings; and that that alone is of Divine essence and Divine authority.

     Rev. Philip N. Odhner: The Bishop's likening of the Divine Proceeding to the Janus-faced natural point struck me with particular interest. But I particularly wish to rise to Dr. Acton's statement as to sympathy with the new position by young men of the church. I have been in sympathy with what I considered their motive. I may have misunderstood the motive.

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I thought this might be said: I have been teaching a course in Commercial Geography, and in my textbook, and in any kind of social science, I see active in the thought of the world that which is described, not as idealism, but as humanism. Whether that is the correct technical term I do not know, but it is the thought of social relationships between men, and the psychology within their own minds. And this movement has not had its birth in the falsities of mankind in the world; it seems rather to arise from a turning of the human race upon itself, from those physical things that lie outside of men to those mental things which they find inside. It is a definite trend in the thought of the world, not from the proprium, but from the fact that the human race can no longer look at the outside world as it did, as something they may exploit, and from which they still may benefit. Men must now consider human relationships in the present economic state of the world.

     It seemed to me that this movement of the church had something of that humanistic attitude in it,-turning the thought inside one's own mind and examining the things there to see what is Divine there, to see what is of the Lord, and what is not of the Lord there.

     I have myself not accepted any conclusions held by De Hemelsche Leer, but I have been in sympathy with that looking inside of a man's mind to the relationship between man's thoughts and affection, regarding that as something internal-in fact, in some respect the internal sense of the Writings, though I do not like that term-rather than simply considering our actions towards the neighbor. That is what has interested me in this new movement. I have not agreed with the conclusions. I cannot see that they are correct. But that whole movement, of the study to determine what is of the Lord with man, and what is not of the Lord, I feel to be an irresistible movement. I do not see that it can be stopped, or that we should desire to stop it; If there was the desire to stop it, we would become external. I do not think that in that humanistic effort there is the necessity to call men "Divine," but there is simply the motive to determine that which is of the Lord in man, and to acknowledge that as Divine, in order that it may not be called man's-not by any means to fall into the pantheistic heresy of calling man "Divine," but nevertheless not to fall into the opposite heresy of calling that which is Divine man's.

     The whole progress of this internal movement of thought appears to be fraught with great dangers, but I cannot see that it necessarily involves that we will fall into the heresy which the Bishop has pointed out this morning. I do not see that it will necessarily lead to the conclusion that man is Divine. It should lead to a greater realization of that in man which is not his own. It is that which impels me to be interested in this new movement-not an interest which is in doctrinal agreement, but in agreement with the motive, so far as I can see it.

     Rev. Willard D. Pendleton: In view of Dr. Acton's remarks, I feel that this is an occasion where a younger minister can express himself, and I would like to go on record as being in sympathy with what was said by Dr. Acton this morning, and by Bishop de Charms and Mr. Gladish yesterday.

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Personally, I have no interest in either the motives or the conclusions of the Dutch School.

     I believe their conclusions are unsound; and as far as their motives are concerned, I know nothing about them. As Dr. Acton pointed out this morning, the logical outcome of their position is that the angels are Divine. My study of the Writings leads me to the same conclusion as Dr. Acton. I do not believe that it can ever be said that the angels constitute the Divine Human of the Lord. We are told in the Writings that when the Lord came into the world He glorified the Human, and that in so doing He made the Human one with His Infinite Soul. Consequently, if we say that the angels constitute the. Divine Human of the Lord, then we must also say that they are infinite. Now the Dutch School has said over and over again that the Lord makes heaven, and the angels constitute it. This is true; yet the Writings draw a sharp distinction between heaven and the Divine Human in Itself. And it is because of this distinction that the Writings never say that the angels constitute the Divine Human. The Lord is the soul of the universe; He is the soul of all creation. Moreover, the heavens constitute a body into which the Divine life flows. In this we all agree. But this body which is formed by the heavens is dead; it is inert; it is not the body which the Lord glorified. And any attempt to identify the Divine Human with the angel results in the denial of the fundamental teaching of Revelation.

     Rev. Homer Synnestvedt: Mr. Philip Odhner, in his remarks, commended the present-day swing of sociological studies away from the physical things outside of men to those mental things which they find inside. He expressed interest in the present movement in the church as possibly having something of the humanistic attitude in it, turning the thought inside of one's own mind, to see what is Divine there and what is not. In the field of modern science, however, in spite of a more interior scrutiny of human relationships, we must still be on our guard, since they leave out anything authoritative from religion; and so their whole psychology is one-sided, and merely from self- derived intelligence. It is the old story of the serpent in Eden: "If you will look at these things from yourselves, Your eyes will be opened, and you will be as gods."

     Rev. William Whitehead: I have never understood the spirit of the Academy position to involve that a man, whether young or old, must apologize for expressing, in freedom, his own views. I have always felt that the characteristic of this body was decidedly otherwise. So any judgment as to views certainly does not, with us, meet with a penalty because of either the boldness or the irregularity of the expression. A new idea is not necessarily false because it is new. Because an idea is an innovation is not sufficient ground for regarding it with prejudice or suspicion.

     The difficulty in this case has been that, to simple minds-I am quite willing to be associated with that group there have been strong appearances, at least in the usages of language, that the fundamentals of the faith of the General Church have been called into question, and that the matter has not been so much as to a more interior and philosophically accurate distinction between what is Divine and what is human in the understanding of the Word, whether of the Third, Second or First "Testaments,"-but the appearance has been that the interest has been in stressing what was said to be "Divine in the recipient, to the ignoring of the finite and human.

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     Those of us who have not delved into all the interstices of this controversy are at a disadvantage, because this matter has come piecemeal before us, more or less outside of the councils of the church. It seems to me that in an orderly church the wisest course-when an idea of great importance appears-is to bring it for discussion by fellow ministers, rather than first take it to heterogeneous groups of laymen, and, in general, endeavor to secure its adoption by members of our church before ministerial discussion has been afforded. I feel that is a matter of common sense.

     I hope that the Bishop's paper will be published,-not as a controversial contribution, nor to prevent discussion,-for free discussion is the keynote of our body;-not because a new idea has appeared, and must therefore be opposed, but because the Writings were appealed to in this paper, and because its teaching is plainly from the Writings. The laymen of our church should be put in a position where they can receive this illustration.

     There are in this controversy great possibilities of personal friction and disorder; but I do not feel that this clear paper should be productive of any thing but the most friendly, harmonious and charitable relations. We should all face the truth, even if it means an acknowledgment that we may be wrong. I believe a man's size may be measured by his willingness to recognize that he is wrong.

     Thursday Morning, February 1, 1934.

     Rev. Theodore Pitcairn: We are gathered here as fellow ministers, and we all belong to one Church, and there has arisen a difficulty between us. Now the question is, "What is the nature of that difficulty?" To me it appears to be a difficulty of misunderstanding. I admit that I may not understand what you have in mind in certain things you have said. It also appears to me that you have not understood what we have in mind. It has been said that we say, "You do not understand us, because if you understood us you would agree with us." I am sure that is not the basis for our saying that you have not really understood what is in our minds. The reason I say that we are not understood is that you seem to attribute to us things that we have certainly never had in our minds. Hence the things you attribute to us seem so foreign to what we believe. That is why I feel you have misunderstood. We should do everything possible to try to understand each other. We may understand each other and still differ, because if we understand each other, and still have differences of view or opinion, that does not cause any feeling of estrangement. If we understand each other, and still have different views, I do not think that causes estrangement; but if we do not understand each other, then we have something which tends to cause estrangement; and therefore I feel that we should not cease in our efforts until we try really to see if we cannot understand each other.

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     There are two points where the essential difficulty seems to lie. One is in regard to what is the Lord's with man; the other regards those things in our position which appear to you to imply two authorities in the church. I would therefore like to speak to those two subjects.

     Dr. Acton said yesterday that in no sense could man be said to be Divine. I think I agree with what he has in mind. What I understand him to have in mind is, that we can never say that we are Divine in any sense, and I would certainly agree with that statement, if that is what he means, because we, of ourselves, are certainly never Divine. But when we use the word "man" we do not refer to ourselves, or what, in the passage I have referred to previously (A. C. 49) the most ancients called "they themselves." I believe there are many uses of the word "man" in the Word. I recently read through all the numbers I could find in the Concordance under the word "man" and "human," and under the headings, "Divine," and "God," and "Divine Human," and all the words that were conjoined with "Divine" in the Concordance. When we say that there is a sense in which we believe it could be said that man is Divine, it does not in any way refer to what we might call "we ourselves," but it refers solely to those gifts of the Lord that are His, and are never ours. And I believe that the Word calls those gifts "man," and that the Word teaches that these gifts are Divine.

     It says in the Psalms, "I am a worm, and no man." Now that seems to me what we mean when we say that man is Divine. We ourselves are "worms," but it is only those gifts which are the Lord's that are "man and I believe that it is taught that these gifts are Divine, and that these gifts are charity and faith. I would like to read the three main passages on which I based my article in the Fifth Fascicle, "The Lord's Own with Man." They are not very long. Dr. Acton said he read this article recently, and that to him I appeared to make man Divine. I said the purpose of the article was to show that we ourselves are in no way Divine. These are quotations from the Writings:

     "On this account they called no one 'man' but the Lord Himself, and the things which were of Him; neither did they call themselves 'men,' but only those things in themselves-as all the good of love and all the truth of faith-which they perceived they had from the Lord." (A. C. 49.) The essential man is never our own; for we ourselves are not man. In one sense we cannot say that we are "man." The word "man" is used in various ways. It is sometimes defined as that which is different from an animal, and sometimes as what is different from an angel, and as denoting other distinctions.

     In A. C. 2022-3: "'To be to thee for God.' That this signifies the Lord's Divine in Himself, is evident from what has been said above respecting the Lord's Divine Essence, that it was in Himself." "The Divine with those who have faith in the Lord is love and charity." (A. C. 2023.) Now it is certainly love and faith that are the essential man; and still, because that is never our own, but solely the Lord's, therefore it is Divine, and we may never ascribe it to ourselves. It was because the Most Ancient Church knew that faith and charity as here said are Divine, that when they began to ascribe these to themselves, instead of ascribing all love and charity to the Lord, they became Nephilim.

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     I will just read one more quotation. This is a little longer, and I will read the whole number, although the first part does not apply so directly:

     "In the preceding chapters, where Isaac and Rebekah are treated of, the subject in the internal sense is the rational, and how the Lord made it Divine in Himself. In the present chapter, in the internal sense, the subject is the natural, and how the Lord made it Divine in Himself. 'Esau' is the good thereof, and 'Jacob' the truth. For when the Lord was in the world, He made His whole Human Divine in Himself, both the interior Human which is the rational, and the exterior Human which is the natural, and also the very corporeal; and this according to Divine order, according to which the Lord also makes new or regenerates man. And therefore, in the representative sense, the regeneration of man as to his natural is also here treated of, in which sense 'Esau' is the good of the natural, and 'Jacob' the truth thereof, and yet both Divine, because all the good and truth in one who is regenerate are from the Lord." (A. C. 3490.)

     Now this distinction seems to me quite clear. The Lord had good and truth in Himself, and therefore He made Himself Divine, while this good and truth with man is never from himself, but solely from the Lord; and therefore man, viewed as a vessel of life, is never Divine, and yet this good and truth which make what are called "Esau" and "Jacob," or the natural, are certainly not things that the Lord does not give man to perceive; not things of the soul away above his mind; but they are things of natural good and truth. I do not see how this passage could be interpreted otherwise. You may understand these passages differently from what I do, and therefore I have presented them with the hope that you will express your understanding of what you take from these passages, in order that possibly we may come to a better understanding of each other's position. I have not as yet heard you explain how you interpret those passages. Maybe you have explained them, but at least I have not as yet comprehended your explanation of them or just how you understand them. What I understand is called "Esau" and "Jacob" in this passage appears to be the essence of man, and yet it is pointed out that man has not a Divine essence, and that the Divine can never be infused into man. I think the two things involve two different series of thought. In my own mind I see no paradox in them. Certainly it is those gifts of the Lord, and which are the Lord's, which are the essential man-not we ourselves.

     When we see man as a vessel of life, then the subject is quite different. Then we are not regarding his faith and charity, which are said to be Divine, and are with man, but we are regarding man as a vessel, what we might call "We ourselves." And from the inmost soul of man, which is far above the heavens, all the way down, man is a vessel; and a vessel never has a Divine essence which is properly its own; and therefore when it says that man is a vessel of life, it can never be said that man has a Divine essence. That, it seems to me, is quite a different subject than when it speaks of faith and charity, which are the Lord's, which form the essential man.

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I see no paradox in those two series of thought. Some of you seem to. Certainly we would never say-this is perfectly obvious to us-that the Divine can be infused into man, for that would imply that man has spiritual life, the life of charity and faith, which are his own,-infused into him so that they are his own; while the truth is that all faith and charity flow continuously into man from the Lord. It is never infused into him. Again I do not see any essential difficulty here.

     The other subject, upon which I would like to read a few words, is concerning the two authorities in the church. This and the former seem to be the two difficulties which are confronting us. My mind is a little tired, and I therefore preferred to write it down.

     It has been said that De Hemelsche Leer would establish two authorities in the church, namely, the Word and the doctrine of the church. I believe that the doctrine of the church has no authority in itself, and that man can ascribe to it no authority, and that the only authority which it has must be the authority which the Word ascribes to it. I believe that the Word does ascribe authority to genuine doctrine from the Word, and that this authority of the doctrine makes one with the authority of the Word, from which it is drawn.

     It appears to me that our difficulty in coming to a better understanding lies in the fact that you do not realize what we mean by the authority of the doctrine from the Word. When we say that the doctrine has authority, we mean that the internal doctrine from the Word, as described in the Word, has authority, and it has only such authority as is ascribed to it by the Word. You appear to have taken our meaning to be that a magazine could claim to have authority for itself in the church. We agree with you that such a claim would be preposterous. If a doctrine is a doctrine which is in and from the Word, then such teaching as is given in the Word concerning genuine doctrine applies to it; but no man or body of men may set up an independent doctrinal authority in the church; for every man must be left in freedom to go to the Word to see whether the doctrine accepted by the church is in and from the Word or not. It is my belief that the Word ascribes Divine attributes to the genuine doctrine that is drawn from the Word.

     It has been said in these meetings that the Word does not ascribe Divine attributes to the genuine doctrine from the Word, but teaches that such doctrine is merely human and fallible. If this is true, then the doctrine drawn from the Word has no authority, for the doctrine has no authority from itself. In all my reading I have found no passage in the Word which teaches that the genuine doctrine of the church is merely human and fallible, but I find many passages stating that it is Divine and is "the Christ." I can only accept that which I see taught in the Word; and, as far as I am aware, no one has presented passages from the Word which teach that the genuine doctrine drawn from the Word is merely human.

     If we really try to understand each other, it seems to me that we should realize that, interiorly regarded, we are in agreement as to the nature of authority, and that all authority is in and from the Word.

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     Dr. Alfred Acton: What Mr. Pitcairn has said as an explanation of his understanding of the word "man" and his application of the term "Divine" to that word, is exactly what I have understood his meaning to be. There is no misunderstanding whatever. No one ever supposed he considered man, as to himself, is Divine; but he meant that the term "Divine" can be applied to man, looking at man from what is of the Lord in him. That I think we all understand, and that is what I repudiate. Man is a vessel receptive of life; and everything of man, whether he be regenerated or not regenerated, is still qualified by that fact. What is Divine with man,-life, and the faculty of rationality and liberty,-is equally with a good man and an evil; but when we talk of man, we talk of man as the receiving vessel. If he is regenerated, we say he is an image of God,-a human image. The term "Divine" can only be applied to that which is Divine in Itself.

     The fact that there is no misunderstanding, that we do understand what the Hague proponents mean, is shown by the fact that there can be no possible dispute among us in the belief that what is of God with man is in itself Divine, and that man is human,-human even in his reception of God.

     If this is what Mr. Pitcairn believes, why does he insist on applying the term "Divine" to man? If we have misunderstood the Hague position, why do the proponents of that position hesitate to say that in no sense is man Divine? It is because they do think that in some sense man is Divine.

     So in regard to authority. Why is it that the Hague position declares that something else than the Writings is of Divine authority? We say the Writings alone are of Divine authority. Mr. Pitcairn tells us that the Writings say that the doctrine of the church is of Divine authority. I am not aware of any place where the Writings say that, unless by the doctrine of the church it is the Writings themselves that are meant. But clearly what is meant is the doctrine as developed from the Writings by men. This also is proclaimed by the Hague position as having Divine authority; and it is this claim that me oppose. What man teaches has the authority of the man who utters it. To the man who hears it, it has authority only so far as he sees it to be the teaching of the Writings; and it has this authority, not because it is the perception of a man, or the doctrine of a body of men, but because the Writings teach it. Why is it that Mr. Pitcairn cannot openly state that the Writings are the sole authority in the church? Why does he add that the doctrine of the church also has Divine authority?

     Rev. Theodore Pitcairn: You say you understand us. I will not answer that, but what I hope for is to understand what is in your mind. You have made certain statements, but I do not understand how you make your statements agree with the passages I have presented. That is what I would like to understand.

     Rev. Hugo Lj. Odhner said he believed that the Bishop's paper answered Mr. Pitcairn's question (in regard to A. C. 3490), and also explained how we understand that the Divine life is present in man. The paper was itself a sufficient reply to Mr. Pfeiffer's arraignments of the Bishop's previous address.

     Referring to Mr. Philip Odhner's comments, the speaker realized that Mr. Pfeiffer's emphasis of the doctrine of the discrete and quasi-discrete degrees of the mind may appear to some as a new thing, although it had been presented repeatedly in the past.

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He continued:

     At times I have felt that possibly I had misunderstood De Hemelsche Leer. Then something turns up that utterly confounds that idea. For instance, at innumerable times Mr. Pfeiffer has emphasized with great fervor that there is no other authority than the Writings. We all love to hear such a statement. But it turns out that that is not really what he means, in our meaning of the words. What he really means (as he explains on the first page of the reply to the Bishop in the Fifth Fascicle, p. 130) is that with those who accept a certain new, universal premise, the things that they then see in the Writings are authority to them. But that is interpretation. It is not making the Writings the authority, but placing that authority somewhere else. The question is whether it is not self-authority rather than Divine authority.

     To my mind, it does not answer the question to say, "Well, we do not make the truths that we see from the Writings to be Divine, or to be authority, to anybody except ourselves." This is the answer I have received again and again: "No, we are not forcing anybody to believe what we in our minds have set up as our authority from the Writings, because that would be human authority in the church." Very well. Now I say there is a thing even worse than human authority, or the human authority of anyone in the church, and that is self-authority-authority within one's self-such assurance in our own understanding of doctrine as to believe that this is infallible, or that this is Divine.

     Here is a simple difference between us that has to be treated. I believe that genuine doctrine, wherever it is, has authority and Divine power in it. But I do not believe that you can, with any certainty, tell that the particular things which you have in your mind from the Writings are of that authority, or that they are identical with genuine truth; and therefore the understanding of genuine truth is a different thing from the genuine truth. The genuine doctrine of the Word, so far as it is genuine, of course carries the authority of the Word over into it; but so far as it is not, it does not, and we cannot tell how far our minds are influenced by something else.

     Perhaps they do not mean to teach that. But again and again it becomes evident that they do; and it is evident that the state on the part of the laymen connected with the movement is such that they can say what is written on pages 75 and 76 of the Fifth Fascicle. On page 75, one writer attempts to answer something in Bishop de Charms' Address to the 1931 British Assembly, and quotes the confession of Peter (Matthew 16:16). This confession, in respect to the New Church, is said to signify "that now in the New Church there is a faith that the Third Testament not only is a complete Word, but that this Testament is the proper Word and the foundation for the New Church. This faith has become possible by, and is based on, the truth that the Doctrine concerning the Sacred Scripture without reserve applies to the Writings of Swedenborg. That this truth is not of men, but that it is a Divine Truth, appears from the words: 'Flesh and blood hath not revealed it unto thee, but my Father which is in heaven.'

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That this faith signifies an entirely new foundation for the New Church, appears from these words: 'And I say also unto thee, that thou art Peter, and on this rock I will build my Church.'"

     So far as I can make out, this "truth," which is simply a statement of the first thesis, is here claimed to be a Divine Truth; and, gentlemen, that is what we object to. We do not like to have a human formula claimed to be a Divine Truth.

     In regard to the passage Mr. Pitcairn brought up (A. C. 3490), which to his mind conclusively proves that man is Divine, or that that which is properly called "man" is Divine, the statement is, that the Lord glorified His Human to the corporeal, inclusive of it, and that similarly He makes new or regenerates man. And then it says, Therefore Esau and Jacob, in the representative sense, signify the good and truth of the natural in the regenerate man, "but still both Divine, because all good and truth which is in the regenerate man is from the Lord."

     Now how do we understand these to be Divine? "Jacob" is the truth in the natural. "Esau" is the good which inflows (as all good does) into those particular forms of truth which are called "Jacob." "Esau" is the good of the natural. Before regeneration, "Esau" is unable to guide the mind, or be a basis for anything, because before regeneration it is purely a Divine influx into the sensual. Everybody knows that,-that it is a Divine influx. "Jacob" is Divine Truth in the natural. Its origin is from the Word, and from this an order is established in the natural. Both of them are from Divine origin-both are Divine. But this fact does not make the vessel Divine; nor does it make Divine that aggregate form which is called "man." The fact that man has Divine things in him-the fact that many of the things in his mind are in Divine order-does that make man Divine! Man is his own personality, a component of all the different things of his affections and thoughts, from whatever origin, and while man cannot be said to be a being separate from "Esau" and "Jacob,"-separate from that which from a Divine origin is operating in him-yet man is a different thing. There is a Divine reality, I believe, a Divine influx or presence, behind everything of human life in the mind, no matter how lowly or how exalted; there is a Divine reality pressing in there, and making the human state real. That is Divine, is the power of the Lord with man; and that is not man. The evident thing is that man is not the life, but the reception. And the reception means the qualification of that Divine life in an order made by human choice and directed according to the personality of the individual. The Divine can inflow through all finite things, and be a means for effecting Divine ends through them; but these are not of man. The infinite never came from the finite, but the infinite can operate through the finite, and then it is still infinite. But reception has to do with man's cooperative and usually conscious action, which is utterly finite, and is different from the influx that causes it.

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     There is no other authority than the Writings. Mr. Bjorck, Mr. Pfeiffer and others have in a very direct way stated as much. If we could only face a the fact that there can be no authority inside a man that appears as a part of himself! That would not be authority any longer. That would be "I."

     I am not my own authority. The very fact that we speak of authority means that we are submitting to something. We do not submit to ourselves. We submit to the civil law outside of us; we submit to the Word and its teachings outside of us. We do not make our authorities to submit to the things in our own minds which are part of ourselves. Neither can we submit the Writings to anything before we take them as authority. Suppose, for instance, that we had the view that the Writings were authority indeed, but only if we interpreted them in a certain way. I do not believe the Writings would be authority then. The moment you take a universal that reinterprets the meaning of the thing that you take as an authority, you are setting up a new authority. The moment you take the Writings, and, like Barrett, interpret them from the theory that there is to be no external church organization, but that Swedenborg simply illustrated by an external church the way it was to be in the individual, you reinterpret the Writings from that thesis, and there is no authority to you left in them. It has vanished.

     Another gentleman believed that there was Divinity in man, and he had an idea of a celestial sense in the Writings. He started his description of the New Church by saying that Swedenborg was a symbol of the New Age, and anything that Swedenborg did in a premonitory or prophetic sense,-going into the spiritual world, obtaining a new sense to the Word, and so forth,-man could do also, and so become a second Swedenborg. That universal thesis reinterpreted the Writings to a point at which there was no authority left.

     Others came along,-Charles Augustus Tulk, and idealists like Mr. Spaulding,-and they assumed another thesis,-that there is no natural world. They read that into the Writings. Did these Writings have authority any more? Did they go to them with a view to finding out and checking? They went to them to confirm; and so far as that part of the truth was concerned, there was no possibility of the Writings teaching those men. They were not learning from the Writings; they were introducing things into the Writings. And the permeation theory is of much the same character. Tulk was not in a negative attitude toward the Writings. Cone believed that the Writings were the Latin Word. They went quite as far as the Hague position does,-that the Writings have a spiritual sense. And what was the spiritual sense they found? It was what they started out with. When you read the Writings in the light of a defined proposition, what you find as its "inner current" is of course precisely like your own premise.

     What the Academy is trying to do is a bold attempt, a brave thing,-namely, to try to put away theory when we go to our Revelation. That is to my mind what is meant by the warning not to taint the source of truth from the rational. Put away theory, and let the Writings speak what they plainly speak! I do not see how any theory can be adopted as a universal of interpretation without causing blindness to whatever opposes it.

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We are told that that is the way every heresy has arisen in the old Christian Church. That is what a heresy means,-not to let the Word speak for itself. As long as the men of the Christian Church were willing to go to their Gospels, and let them speak to their hearts, they were kept in the truth. They had illustration from an affection of truth which laid aside their own opinions, and got only the light from the Scripture itself.

     Something has been said at The Hague to the effect that the Christian Church, if it had progressed according to order, would have seen the spiritual sense of the New Testament. I have searched for such a teaching in the Writings, and have not found it. There might be one, but I don't believe there is any, for this reason, that no church ever saw a spiritual sense in its own Revelation, apart from those genuine shining truths which are in the very letter of it. It is an interesting fact that, while all the wiser Christians saw symbolic meanings in all the Old Testament rites, etc., yet those who, like the Gnostics, tried to see a spiritual sense in any categorical way in the New Testament, fell into heresies.

     Question: You mean Origen!

     Mr. Odhner: Yes, he, like Clement of Alexandria before him, was of that movement which is called "Christian Gnosticism," and Swedenborg classifies Origen among the heretics of the early church. They were not heretics because they saw a spiritual sense in their Revelation, but because of the things that they put into that Revelation. One of the things Origen read in was the non-eternity of the hells; another was that men must not pray to the Lord's Human. The Christian Gnostics had the proposition that there was an inner light within man, by which his mind was so illumined as to be able to see this spiritual sense in the Word, and to see the connection of truth. We believe in illustration, but we do not believe in placing reliance upon those lights in the mind, which should be checked again and again by the Writings. The moment you adopt a thesis, and read that into the teaching of the Writings, you do away with their authority.

     Rev. E. E. Iungerich: I wish to speak on each of the two crucial points which Mr. Pitcairn brought up. First," Does anything connected with a man deserve to be called Divine?" And second, "Are there two authorities?"

     Last year the discussion of the first question was all on a philosophical plane,-"spiritual out of celestial origin"; and you can get almost whatever you please out of such abstractions unless you come down to the concrete. Yesterday I gave an illustration from the human body,-that human beings may be compared to organs in the body, each of which has the "as-of-itself" in it; that the Lord comes into contiguity with those organs in two ways, one by the brain connection, inmostly from the cerebellum into that organ, and the other by the blood-stream which comes to it from without. Both contacts are by contiguity. There is no infusion, and the organ is kept in perfect freedom between those two. If you withdraw either, the organ will die. Certain organs of our body, such as the vermiform appendix and the gall bladder, may be removed, and the man can go on living without them.

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But the moment contact with the Lord stops, that organ must drop out. If there was anything of life in itself in that organ, it would keep on, and would not be a detriment to the system.

     Now we are taught in the Writings that a man is in those two contacts-quite above self-consciousness. He knows nothing about it. From the inception of life, remains are implanted,-innocence and mutual love,-and without that ground in him he could not really be led by the Lord. I will illustrate that, if you please, by the connections which come down to those organs. We compare the "Own" of the Lord with the gift of reactivity which comes down from the brain by fibers to that organ. Then the Divine Truth comes to the man from outside, even as the blood to the organ. If there were not remains there, the man could not be brought to the Lord's kingdom in any way. The remains are there. They are from the Lord by contiguity, if you please-not the man's own; and the truth then comes from without.

     Why do we say we worship the visible God? Because we worship something from the plane of truth of which we are conscious. We know from doctrine that the Lord must be there, and that enables us to turn to receive that truth. That truth flows in-that bloodstream flows in, and the organ, having the power of reactivity, and being fed from without, develops and grows as man grows in spiritual stature. Is there any respect in which the Divine can be predicated of that organ I only as to that which is adjoined by the Lord. The organ has its own reactive.

     What is man? He is his ruling love. The kind of ruling love determines the man, and he is free to make that love look to the Lord, or to look away. There is nothing Divine in that. If he looks to the Lord, he brings the sphere of heaven around that. If he looks away from the Lord, he is refusing the Lord's guidance.

     The Writings show that the Holy Spirit is the operation of the Lord by means of some medium that brings Him forth. We must recognize that fact, because it is taught by our Doctrines,-that the Holy Spirit is transmitted by means of the Word, by means of the Holy Supper, and by means of man to man. That, to one who is very young, may be looked at idolatrously. The Catholics have done so with regard to the elements. They have made them the actual glorified Body of the Lord. The bread and wine are said to be Divine, and once they are consecrated they remain Divine forever. In that way they have absolutely divinized the whole vessel. That is a great heresy. They even discuss as to whether, if a mouse nibbled the wafer, it would divinize the mouse!

     The minister when conducting a service is often regarded by children as the Lord, and the parents do not oppose it, because the minister does represent the Lord, and because the child is in an external ritualistic state. To him the representative is the reality. In se it is not. That is the point in regard to the Holy Spirit. The Lord operates by means of men; and that is one reason why we exhort our parishioners to try to see what is of the Lord in their brethren, so that they may appreciate them as forms of charity.

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We are not encouraging them to look at this or that man as Divine, or as having in himself any Divine quality.

     Before the sermon we offer an ascription "to the Lord Jesus Christ, Father, Son, and Holy Spirit," not because we think that what we are going to say is a Divine utterance, even though we have prepared a sermon which we believe to be a message from the Lord to the people; but when we offer that ascription we believe it will turn the minds of the congregation from thought of the minister, and that they will get a feeling of the presence of the Lord in that church, and also be led to read the Writings more thoroughly and more industriously.

     Now with regard to the other point,-the two authorities. There is a statement in the Doctrine of the Sacred Scripture, no. 76, which has been exalted in the Hague theory to the place of supreme authority in all that it teaches about that doctrine. The statement is to the effect that the state of the church is "not according to the Word, but according to the understanding of the Word." But that is not meant to supplant the teaching that the Lord alone builds the church by His Word. If it was the only thing said in that work, you might regard it as a complete confirmation of the thesis that it is not the Word, but the understanding of the Word, that makes the church with man. It merely means that the understanding of the Word exhibits what is at every stage the quality of the church with a man. The first thing brought forth in that work is that the Word is the presence of the Lord with man, in ultimate fulness, holiness and power; and that there is a spiritual sense in that Word. Then it says that doctrine must be drawn from the Word, and confirmed by it, that you may come into a state in which you will see the naked truth. It does not say that you have to revolve some theory in your mind, and then read the Word; but it says in effect, "Find the naked passage, and follow the lead of that, and then the other passages will also be translucent, because they are the same doctrine, and it will confirm the things taught to you from the more elevated passages."

     It is well known to us that in the series of Revelations there has been an increasing number of naked passages. In the Old Testament they are few and scattered; in the New Testament more plentifully; in the Writings almost everywhere. But there was always enough to lead men's lives, and that is what the Word is for. It is not for intellectual stimulation and development, but it is given to lead us to heaven. The Doctrines will not bring us into any interior truths, except so far as we may persist in them to the end of life. There is not going to be any wonderful intellectual development among men, merely because of their keenness to ferret out this or that principle; but there is a Providence guiding us, and at times it casts a veil over the Writings. And when that happens we should examine ourselves, and find out what the trouble is. The veil is in our own minds, not in the Writings, which are the clear exposition of the spiritual sense brought down from heaven. That is what is meant by the New Jerusalem. The spiritual sense is among the angels, and it has been brought down to earth. If it is covered with a great veil, then it has not been brought down. That is an obvious proposition.

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     It has been the effort of our Church not to determine the meaning of the Writings in the light of our own state of thought. We should be willing to admit that our mode of thought at any time may be incorrect. There is nothing Divine in it. It is fallible. In that lies our salvation. Later the Lord may give us a better type of thought in which to read the Writings. If you remain crystallized in the idea that it is the Lord speaking in you, then it will be static, and you will see only the passages which confirm the limited viewpoint, just as in the Christian Church those in faith alone see only the passages that confirm it, omitting the thousands of passages which teach a life of good works. Mr. Pfeiffer presents some confirmatory passages. I would say to him, and to those with him, "If you will endeavor to let the Lord, and not this theory, lead you, you will sweep along and see a whole range of passages, in which the other passages you adduce are explained. If not, you will see only a few passages which seem to confirm, and you will not be in the stream of the Lord's guidance through His Writings."

     Rev. W. B. Caldwell: I would ask the privilege of adding something to my remarks of yesterday. One minister thought that what I said on the subject of "innovations" seemed to discourage new ideas in the church. Yet I did say that it is by means of new ideas that the Lord enlightens the church. That is how the church grows. But the serious question is,-when we get a new idea, especially what we think is a great idea, what are we going to do with it?

     I spoke of how the Ancient Church was destroyed by innovators. The exact statement is, "The First Ancient Church, like all Churches, in process of time degenerated, and was adulterated by innovators," or "by the cupidity of innovating,"-the desire to create something new, apart from their Revelation. (A. C. 1188, 1241.) That state in the Ancient Church is represented by the building of the tower of Babel. "Go to, let us make brick, and let us build a city and a tower, whose top may reach unto heaven." (Genesis 11:3, 4.) It was creating something artificial and man-made. And that is what I meant by the danger there is in the mere desire to innovate. You all remember Swedenborg's experience early in life, when he found that what he had discovered by his own experiments assumed an undue importance in his mind and put other things out of focus. And so he put away his instruments, and thereafter based his deductions upon the experiments of others.

     I would like to call attention to a few of the more superficial "innovations" introduced at The Hague. In quoting from the Writings, they often say or write, "The Word says:" One naturally expects a passage from the Old or New Testament, and so such a usage is confusing to the mind of the listener or reader. Sometimes they refer to the Writings as the "Sacred Scripture." I believe the Writings are "Sacred Scripture," but for the sake of distinction and to avoid confusion we follow the custom of the Writings themselves in referring to the Old and New Testaments as "Scripture" or the "Sacred Scripture." Then they continually use the term "Third Testament" for the Writings. I believe they are the Third Testament; but if we adopt that term for general use. we must refer to the Hebrew Scriptures as the "First Testament," and to the Gospel as the "Second Testament."

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So also I believe that the Writings may be called the "Latin Word," but that designation has not been adopted for general use in the church. Any of these expressions may be used occasionally, but they have become established at The Hague in a way that seems to take for granted that hereafter the church is going to use them. That, of course, the church has the right to decide, and I believe they should have been discussed in this Council before they were propagandized throughout the General Church.

     Their magazine is called, in English, "The Heavenly Doctrine." The only way we can refer to it without continual confusion is to use the Dutch title, De Hemelsche Leer. To say the least, it is not good literary form to call a magazine by the name of a book. If you quote from either, you must explain whether you mean the magazine or the book. But "The Heavenly Doctrine" is not only the name of one of the works of the Writings; the term embraces all the truths of the Second Coming, and to call a magazine by that name was a mistake.

     Rev. Homer Synnestvedt: I want to introduce a somewhat different note here, by approving of something in Mr. Bjorck's remarks and in his paper. It is this. There is something like the Writings in the method of his approach. I feel that Mr. Bjorck speaks our language. What I liked about it was this, that he approaches the subject of the nature of the Divine Human of the Lord without trying to dwell on what became of the matter in the Lord's body, or the sphere-particles derived thence. When he speaks of Mary, he speaks of what she represents, and the Mary-body means that body of Divine appearings in the Word which are the truths about Mary and the use which she performed. It is the same in the Writings. Although Swedenborg was a scientist and physicist, he nowhere in the Writings shows any sensual-scientific interest in what became of the ultimate body of the Lord, and how this body became invisible, yet left nothing behind. The best way to understand that is to approach it from the spiritual side; for we are taught that to approach the Divine of the Lord from the human closes the mind, and to approach the human from the Divine opens the mind.

     There is another law, however, which must counterbalance the above,-namely, the psychological truth that there can be no thinking that does not rest back upon a definite idea in the lower mind. (Cf. A. C. 3310e; W. E. 1286, etc.) The Lord always provides objective forms upon which the interior thought can rest. I do not say you should think from that, or limit your thought by that, but you muse not separate the objective idea if you want New Church thinking,-the invisible seen in the visible. Swedenborg's message was the bringing of spiritual truth down to the publishing of it by the printing press, and it has been done so thoroughly before the rational that it is called the "glory in the cloud," or the bright cloud through which the light shines.

     One thing more. There is something else in this whole thing that is probably exceedingly fascinating and attractive, which has a truth in it as well as a mistake in it. That is the idea of humanism. During the Italian Renaissance it was called Italian humanism, because through the Dark Ages the church had debased and degraded man in such a way that he had become almost like an animal.

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Man was a worm, and the more he debased himself the more holy he was. As a reaction from that, there came before the world about 1400 A.D. some copies of the writings of the ancient wise men. That opened up the minds of the people, and they began to see that man, after all, was a worthwhile proposition, and that he could have wisdom of a higher sort, such as the ancients recognized as conjoining him with God, and that he could be a noble creature. Some scholars became Pagan, but others combined this with the best spirit of New Testament Christianity, and there arose a new kind of education, which is the type of the finest education we have today.

     What I want to call attention to now is that this development and refinement of men, called humanism, is being revived now, and put in the place of religion. It is a revolt against the materialistic crudity of the science of yesterday, but in doing this they do not look to the Word, and so they can develop only a natural, self-derived humanism. We must avoid attributing to ourselves those things which the Lord places in us to the end that we may be lifted up to receive His gifts, and thus become human in the true sense as distinguished from animals. We have that, and we should be able to go forth joyously and gladly, and stand forth as the church of the Lord, and yet not claim this to ourselves. Humanism is necessary for the development of loyalty, confidence and the joy of freedom. There is some appeal to that spirit in the Dutch position, but if they lose sight of the distinction which the Bishop's paper so clearly brought out, the whole thing will go astray, and it will become like the Unitarians and the Quakers, and especially like Mrs. Eddy's idea, where they find something of the Divine appropriated to each regenerating person; and a false humanism is produced. This will happen to the New Church if we are not careful.

     Rev. Norman H. Reuter: I have been impressed by the necessity of having clear ideas in relation to all the terms of the Writings. Swedenborg never used terms in a loose or allegorical sense, but always in such a way that they must be thought of in connection with certain universals. The first thought in connection with the term "Divine" is that it applies to the Lord alone. When used in connection with man, it is used to show that the Lord is the All in all of the universe. Only when the mind is held in that thought can we see anything of Divinity with man as from the Lord. When we view the subject looking from man upward to the Lord, it is seen that all good and truth which flows in is Divine as to its integrity and origin, and thus we come into the acknowledgment that the Lord is everything and man is nothing. But when the attention is turned away from the Lord, and directed downward toward man as a free but finite agent, and Divinity is ascribed to his reception, then the effect is to attribute that which is of the Lord to man, which is the opposite of such an acknowledgment. That is why we confine the term "Divine" to the Lord. It is intrinsic in the word.

     The three passages quoted by Mr. Pitcairn startled me at first, and then I noticed that the whole effort of A. C. 3490 is to teach that everything in creation, even in the natural, is from the Lord.

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The special point in the use of the term "man" is to show that he is only man in the degree that he receives life from the Lord. Man is thought of as a vessel, and the Lord as life. In that sense the whole effort of the passage is to show that what is from man is human, and what is from the Lord is Divine. It is always the idea of the Divine with man rather than in man. You can deny it only by metaphysical reasoning, and when this is constantly reiterated, it brings falsity with it.

     In the Writings, where the teaching is given concerning the glorification of the Lord and the regeneration of man, it always points out with great care that the regenerating man is not made Divine, but celestial and spiritual. Why do the Writings constantly use "celestial" and "spiritual," if the regenerate man is Divine? You can find five or six passages where the word "Divine" is apparently applied to man, but the only reason the word "Divine" is there used, and seems to be attributed to the man, is because it is emphasizing the truth that everything is from the Lord, and that man is but a vessel. Those few isolated passages have been taken as a universal, and the idea that man is Divine is read into them, giving them a meaning that is not there. This is a perversion of truth, by making a universal from a particular, and looking at universals in the light of particulars.

     Rev. W. L. Gladish: I enjoyed the Bishop's paper yesterday. It was thoroughly done, as is always the case when the Bishop handles a subject. But the astonishing thing is that it was necessary to consider the relation of the Divine and the human. The first thing I learned in the New Church was the distinction between the Divine and the human. Yet it is necessary to treat it now, because it has been confused.

     After the Bishop's paper, Mr. Pitcairn said he agreed with everything in the paper, but-and then he proceeded to differ greatly. In regard to authority, he said that the only authority is the Writings; but when you read the Writings in the light of your own doctrine, where is the authority? And he says, "Here is a passage. What do you understand by that?" Why, we could go on for a thousand years, and he could ask us what we understand by this and that passage, and we would never get together.

     The same with regard to the Divine Human. The Divine is what is from God and of God. The Lord can be in man, and yet nothing Divine be attributed to man. If they understand by the Divine what we do, why do they use these other terms? We cannot argue over each passage, but there is a clear-cut distinction between what is Divine and what is human. Do they believe what the General Church believes? They do not.

     This thing worries me. Every point raised last year was fully answered, and they said, "We do not understand one another." That is always the claim,-that we do not understand them, and that they do not understand us. We understand words in their usual meaning. When we say "man," we do not mean what the Most Ancient Church meant when they said "man." We mean man as a vessel. Now that vessel is not Divine, and never gets to be Divine. Mr. Pitcairn knows that, and I know it. Why don't we understand that?

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It seems to me that the distinction between the Divine and the human is as clear-cut as it can be.

     Dr. Alfred Acton: I call attention to this, which has been repeated several times,-that a difference of doctrine does not separate if there is charity. I think that is easily misunderstood. There can be charity between us and Convention, but not organic union, because the differences between us are too great.

     Rev. F. E. Gyllenhaal: In connection with the subject of authority I would like to read from Conjugial Love, no. 295. It is, I believe, one of the two places in the Writings where the term "authority" is used. In the opening of the chapter on "Betrothals," we read: "The things written in this book have for their end that the reader may see its truths from his own rational, and thus consent; for in this way his spirit is convinced; and the matters whereof the spirit is convinced take a place in the mind above those that enter from authority and its faith without reason being consulted." The passage then speaks of the crab walking backward, and continues: "Not so if he thinks from the understanding. Then the rational sight selects from the memory things suitable whereby it confirms the truth regarded in itself."

     Internally, this work and all the Writings are given that the spirit may be convinced. There is no authority in the spirit or its reasonings. The only authority which can be recognized is in the books which are written for the purpose. They are the things to convince the spirit, and they are the sole authority.

     Bishop N. D. Pendleton: I agree with the statement of the former speaker. Not only the new doctrine itself, but the manner of its presentation bespeaks a spirit which the General Church cannot accept and remain the General Church. The idea of the Divinity of man is not the only point of difference. There are several questionable formulas put forth, not tentatively, but with the sound and finality of edicts.

     The General Church has always been free in its approach to the Writings. No devised formula has been insisted upon. Because of executive duties, and the necessity for decision, a feeling has gone around, with some, that there is a lack of freedom. Necessarily there is at times an appearance of constraint where there is not an affirmative attitude toward what is being done. This cannot be avoided in all cases. The spirit of the General Church has been that the Writings are our only law, and that all are free to go to them and derive their light and leading. As to this approach, the General Church has not been dictatorial.

     I want to say a word with regard to my address of yesterday, concerning the Divine within men and angels. There is a danger in the feeling that the Divine is to be identified with the regenerate states of angels or men. This assumption may, in some appearance, be confirmed by taking from the Writings half a phrase here and another there. If you should find a place in the Writings where it seems to imply this, consider carefully the context. I gave, in my address, an illustration of an apparent contradiction in the Writings-one the reality, and the other an appearance of that reality.

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     When the Divine is enclosed in finite forms, we should not speak of those forms as Divine; they are finite vessels. Remember the warning given in the Writings concerning the terms "Divine celestial," "Divine spiritual," and "Divine natural." The Divine is, indeed, in every man and angel, and in their regenerate states; yet no regenerate state is Divine. A human state, though reborn, is always a finite image-called an "image" with the spiritual, and with the celestial a "likeness." The things above the heavens are said to be full of the Divine; but mark you, these things are full of the Divine; obviously the something filled is not that which is Divine. Do not, therefore, confuse the Divine proceeding with the vessel into which it in flows, or with the medium through which it passes. When God finited His Infinity, the result was something non-Infinite, and non-Divine. If we keep that distinction clearly in mind, we will not misuse the term "Divine." It is a waste of energy, and a confusion of thought, to try to prove that a finite vessel is Divine, and this, no matter how far up the vessel may be in the scale of finition. Man is a vessel as to body, mind and soul.

     The Hague group is not deeply impressed by Academy traditions. Theirs is a new environment, and a new state. They have also a new method of interpreting the Writings. Their mode of thought is not that which has prevailed in the General Church. They have something so new that you should take it up and turn it over to find out what it really means. Theirs is, indeed, a new doctrine. I believe in a progressive doctrine of the church, in the sense of derived doctrine; but I do not believe in its Divine authority. The Hague seems to place their doctrine above the Writings. In other words, the Writings, as to their literal sense, are to be mastered by a correspondential internal sense, apparently identical with the new doctrine. This argument, to me, is upside down. It involves grave uncertainties, and will lead to endless contentions.

     There is no question of charity between us. Truly, charity unites, and I would not have charity broken with anyone. The difficulty is that the new orientation at The Hague has set a division between us, and there is no way of reconciling the two adverse points of view as they now stand.

     Rev. Theodore Pitcairn: Would you like me to speak a word? Certain charges were brought against our position last year, namely, that we were striving to set up an authority between man and the Word. There was the appearance to me last year, and again this year, that while in form the General Church has not made an externally binding creed or doctrine by council, nevertheless it did this in spirit. And I believe that the Church has done that thing which is forbidden in the Writings, namely, making an externally binding creed with regard to the church by council; or that is certainly the effect of the attitude taken, and it seems to me to be a very serious matter.

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Church News 1934

Church News       Various       1934

     COLCHESTER, ENGLAND.

     An especially good celebration of Swedenborg's Birthday was held on Saturday, February 3d, the Pastor presiding and using the program prepared by Mr. Colley Pryke, who was unable to be present to act as toastmaster. The tables were charmingly decorated with pale blue and pink hyacinths, the lights having soft pink shades-the whole effect being artistic and pleasing.

     At the close of the feast of good things, the subject of "Use" was introduced as the theme of the evening, the Pastor speaking on "The Uses of Childhood,"-uses of innocence, he said, affecting all in both worlds who come in contact with little children. "The Uses of Youth" were treated in a paper by Mr. J. S. Pryke, dwelling upon the ideals of that age, and especially commending the chivalry of knighthood, its high aims and purpose. In Mr. Pryke's unavoidable absence, this paper was read by his nephew, Martin Pryke. In the third paper, on "The Uses of Manhood," Mr. John F. Cooper spoke of the New Churchman's attitude toward the world of business and the social life of the world. Mrs. John Cooper was then surprised with the presentation of an engraved picture, as a token of our appreciation of her work as organist of the society.

     "The Uses of Old Age" were dealt with in the next paper by the Rev. A Wynne Acton, not "speaking from experience," as he said, but describing how that period of life afforded time for meditation and reflection, infilling and fulfilling the strenuous life that has passed. The sphere of this paper was mellow and restful. The final paper was by Mr. R. W. Anderson, who spoke on the general subject of "Use,"-a fine summing up of the series. His illustration of the triangle of love, wisdom and use impressed us all. Among the musical numbers interspersed between the toasts, Miss Joan Stebbing sang "Praise ye the Lord," by Bantock; Mrs. Gladish led us in "Thou Prophet and Seer"; and Miss Winnie Everett favored us with a song entitled "Trees."

     On the following day, Sunday, February 4, there was a large congregation. The Rev. Wynne Acton preached the sermon, and the Holy Supper was administered.

     The weekend of meetings, which had the satisfying effect of a minor assembly, was concluded on Sunday evening with an open meeting of the Sons of the Academy. The Rev. Wynne Acton described the work of the Sons in Bryn Athyn, referring to the teaching in the Arcana concerning extension of thought in the spiritual world; Miss Muriel Gill read a short paper on the subject of "Theta Alpha"; and, following the refreshments, other members and visitors addressed the meeting.
     M. W.

     SYDNEY, AUSTRALIA.

     The dahlias in Baringa were poor this Summer, and some fruit trees also; the chief reason being the presence of large forest trees that have been allowed to remain, and which demand most of the soil's nourishment. There is an analogy between this state of the garden and that of the church. The attendance at any outdoor sport, when compared with attendance at church, may be taken as an average of three hundred to one. The vast crowds that patronize sports are not necessarily composed of wilfully evil people, but, like the forest trees, may be regarded as people in whom merely natural good predominates, and may be contrasted with the fruit trees in the garden.

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The lamentable fact that none of the religious institutions, apart from the New Church, gives true teaching from the Word, is not sufficient to account for such aloofness from church attendance; rather is it accounted for by the dead spiritual state to which the first Christian Church has fallen.

     With regard to the work of our society, one event more luminous than others was our celebration of the great seer's birth. At the previous Women's Meeting, Miss Taylor, who presided, suggested that suitable papers be prepared, and read at the fortnightly social tea, which happened on the Sunday following January the 29th. Although very little time for a subject so important was available, the result was very successful. The Pastor's paper was of a general character, opening with this sentence: "We are assembled this evening to celebrate the birth of the most remarkable person known in history, or in the present age." But for intensive research and consequent information, Mr. Ossian Heldon's paper must be regarded as the chief, and it was acclaimed as such.

     The Day School has commenced the New Year with fifteen pupils; eight being new ones in the kindergarten.

     At the fortnightly tea on the first Sunday in March we had the pleasure of hearing Miss Mora White's excellent paper on the subject of "The Sense of Touch," this concluding the series on the Five Senses, of which we spoke in our last report. (March issue, p. 93.)

     Our Sunday School comprises thirty-four children, the average attendance being twenty-six. Their annual picnic was at Como, a pleasant watering place on the George's River. The especially rough weather of some days before had dampened their ardor, for much preparation is necessary the day before, respecting the food and fruit, to say nothing of the watermelons; for it needs to be borne in mind that this is our Summer, and the heat in the verandah of "Baringa" was within half a degree of 90 about the time of the school picnic. But, as is usual with our t school picnics, the day dawned beautifully fine and fresh after the recent rains, and all enjoyed themselves.
     RICHARD MORSE.

     REPORT OF THE VISITING PASTOR.

     Shortly before the time determined for my setting out on a trip in the beginning of March, word came from Middleport, Ohio, the first place to be visited, that it was not advisable to hold meetings, because of bad weather conditions. So, delaying departure a few days, I went directly to CINCINNATI for several days' stay with the Circle there. On Wednesday evening, March 7, on the pastor's invitation, I conducted a doctrinal class on the subject of the Eighth Commandment, following the exposition in the Doctrine of Life under the heading, "So far as anyone shuns false witness of any kind as sins, so far he loves truth." Stress was laid upon the indication as to whether there is a love of truth with a man, this appearing in the teaching that "so far as anyone loves truth, so far he wills to know it, and so far he is affected in heart when he finds it; . . . and so far as he loves to do truth, so far he is sensible of the pleasantness of the light in which truth is." (89.) The class was followed by a delightful social. Thirteen persons were present.

     At DETROIT, a service was held on Sunday, March 11, with an attendance of twelve. And in the evening, with eight present, there was a doctrinal class on the nature of the love of dignity and wealth for their own sakes, and the nature of the love of them for the sake of use; and on how difficult it is for anyone to determine from which of these loves he is acting; and that the only way in which this may in a measure be known is by reflecting whether evils are being shunned as sins against the Lord, in which case uses are performed from Him. (D. P. 215.)-

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On Monday afternoon, at RIVERSIDE, ONT., instruction was given to three children of Mr. and Mrs. Harold Bellinger; and in their home in the evening there was a doctrinal class, attendance five, on the State of Peace in Heaven. (H. H. 284 to 290.)-Another class, with nine present, was held in Detroit on Tuesday evening, at which the distinguishing principles of the General Church were presented.

     On Wednesday evening, March 14, at CLEVELAND, it was my privilege to address the doctrinal class of the Convention Society there on the subject, Why there are Two General Bodies in the New Church. The invitation to do this, extended by the pastor, the Rev. Norman R. Gutry, and the members of the class, had reached me while I was at Cincinnati. Going directly from my train to the church, I was in time for the social supper; and during the interval that followed I had the pleasure of meeting a number of the thirty-four persons present, among them some from the nearby Lakewood Society. When the time for the meeting arrived, the pastor conducted the opening service, and then, in kindly words, introduced me to the audience. The endeavor of the address was to state the views of each body on a number of points in regard to which there is not agreement, and to point out how these differences of view, put into practice, lead to two forms of church life and church uses. All these differences of view are involved in the two principal ones, of which the first is in regard to the nature of the revelation given through the instrumentality of Swedenborg, and the second in regard to the distinctiveness of the New Church.

     When the address was concluded, the pastor complimented me upon the fairness of the presentation, and then asked me several questions, which were answered. These questions and answers might be termed a discussion from differing points of view. There were questions also by others present, and these also were answered. The final question was whether there could not be a hope of unity. The reply given was that there should be unity, and that we should hope for and endeavor towards its coming and its growth. Should it come, it may not be organic unity, which might not be for the best. But our concern is for the present; and what is now needed is that essential unity which is of mutual goodwill and charity, for this unites, that is, makes to be one. The meeting lasted for more than two hours, and apparently was as enjoyable an occasion to the pastor and the class as it was to me.

     On Thursday evening, March 15, at ERIE, PA., a doctrinal class was held, attendance nine, at which the subject was the Eighth Commandment. On Friday evening at another class, attendance eight, we considered the teaching that, if man perceived and felt the operation of Divine Providence, he would not act in freedom according to reason, nor would anything appear to him to be done by himself; and the same result would follow if he had a knowledge of future events. (D. P. 176 to 178.) On Saturday afternoon instruction was given to two children. And in the evening there was still another class, attendance six, on Writings in Heaven. (H. H. 258 to 264.) On Sunday afternoon a service was held, at which fourteen were present, of whom eight partook of the Holy Supper.

     On Monday evening, March 19, a doctrinal class was held in the home of Mr. and Mrs. Norman Bellinger at BUFFALO, N. Y. There were six New Church persons present and ten others, friends of the Bellingers. Our subject was Divine Providence, what it is, what its operation, and the sustaining power of trust in it in times of adversity. After the class there was a social time, greatly enjoyed by all.

     The last place visited was RENOVO, PA., where, in the family circle of Mr. and Mrs. Joseph Kendig, doctrinal classes were held on Tuesday, Wednesday and Thursday evenings, March 20, 21, and 22.

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Our first subject was the Eighth Commandment; the second, Time in Heaven (H. H. 162 to 169), including the teaching as to how there may be some comprehension of "from eternity" (167); and the third; Self-compulsion. On two afternoons instruction was given the two younger children of the family. As ever, it was a great pleasure to be in this earnest, loyal New Church home.
     F. E. WAELCHLI.

     KITCHENER, ONT.

     For some time we have been holding a monthly Friday supper, with a half-hour's discussion of a doctrinal subject, followed by a social evening. I believe the arrangement is proving very satisfactory. On the remaining Fridays of the month the doctrinal class is held at 8 p.m., and is followed by a congregational singing practice. The Young People's Class meets twice a month, and is studying the work on the Divine Providence.

     On his return from the Annual Council Meetings, our Pastor, the Rev. Alan Gill, gave us an account of the proceedings. He also brought with him two of the papers read at the joint sessions of ministers and teachers, and we have had the pleasure of hearing them. One was the Rev. F. E. Waelchli's paper on "The Affection of Truth," which was read to us on a Friday evening in place of the doctrinal class. The other, on "Education for Citizenship," by Miss Angella Bergstrom, was read at a meeting of the Women's Guild.

     On the evening of Good Friday there was a special class in preparation for the administration of the Holy Supper on Easter Sunday. In his address, the Pastor treated the doctrine concerning the Divine Human of the Lord, and dwelt upon the special significance of the Holy Supper at the Easter celebration.

     There was a children's service on Easter Sunday, with appropriate readings from the Word and a talk by the Pastor on "What the Lord's Resurrection Means to Us." The sermon at the adult service was based upon the teaching in A. C. 5249, concerning the use to men and angels when the Scripture accounts of the Lord's resurrection and glorification are read, the angels being in inmost joy at Such times. The Holy Supper was administered to fifty-eight communicants. The delightful sphere at both services was enhanced by the lovely Easter lilies and other Spring flowers which adorned the chancel.     

     A dramatic entertainment was given on April 6, being sponsored by the Women's Guild. A very successful program included two short plays, a horn solo, a vocal solo, a monologue and a dialogue. A basket was placed at the door for voluntary contributions, and a substantial sum was raised toward defraying the expense of the new stage curtains recently purchased.
     C. R.

     PITTSBURGH, PA.

     At the service on Palm Sunday, our Pastor completed a series of four sermons preparatory to Easter, based upon chapters 14 to 18 of the Gospel of John. Miss Elizabeth Lechner sang a solo during the interlude. At the service on the preceding Sunday March 18th, a group of eighteen young ladies, pupils of Miss Emma Steiner, sang three selections a capella from the balcony.

     An evening service was held in the church on Good Friday, the Pastor preaching an extemporaneous sermon on the text from Isaiah 53, "He was numbered among the transgressors." On Easter Sunday the children entered in procession singing and bearing flowers. The Rev. Homer Synnestvedt delivered an interesting and appropriate sermon. The administration of the Holy Supper concluded the service. The attendance was 112.

     Miss Lydia Rhodes, of Greenford, Ohio, who spent the last few months in Pittsburgh, passed into the spiritual world on March 8th in her eighty-third year.

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The Pastor officiated at the service and the burial on March 12th.

     Dr. Iungerich, on March 28th, read a paper entitled "Philoprogenitiveness" to the class that is studying the Four Leading Doctrines. On April 3d, he began a study of the Harmony of the Gospels with the Women's Guild.

     The Pittsburgh Chapter of the Sons of the Academy was reorganized at a meeting held on March 9th in the home of Mr. Gilbert M. Smith. Mr. Smith was elected president; Mr. Julian H. Kendig, Jr., secretary; and Mr. John W. Frazier, treasurer. A supper and meeting was planned for April 7th, and an invitation extended to the members of the Executive Committee of the Sons of the Academy, and to any other members who wished to attend. Accordingly, we were pleased to welcome a goodly number that came from a distance, arriving on the evening of April 6th in time to attend the Friday supper and doctrinal class, and to join in the informal dance which followed. On Saturday afternoon, the ladies of the society, with visiting ladies and ministers, were entertained at tea by Mrs. Charles H. Ebert. On this occasion the Rev. K. R. Alden read a paper on "Swedenborg's Memorabilia," which was followed by a general discussion. On Saturday evening, about forty men sat down to a collation in the auditorium to celebrate the reorganization of the local chapter of the Sons of the Academy. Mr. Gilbert M. Smith was toastmaster, and the Rev. Hugo Lj. Odhner read an exhaustive and stimulating paper on the Moral Virtues in the Light of the New Church. Other speeches and remarks were made by visitors and local members.

     At the Sunday service on April 8th, the Rev. K. R. Alden assisted the Pastor and delivered a practical sermon on the subject of "Self-compulsion," the text being from the words of the 15th Psalm, "He sweareth to afflict himself, and changeth not." Features of the worship were the singing of two a capella selections by ten young ladies, under the direction of Miss Steiner, and a solo by Miss Elizabeth Lechner.

     Mr. Edwin T. Asplundh has come from Bryn Athyn to make his home in Pittsburgh, and will be joined in April by Mrs. Asplundh and the family, who are visiting in California. We are delighted to welcome them. The addition of their four children will make the day school one of the largest we have had for some time. Many guests and returned students enlivened the Easter season in the society.
     E. R. D.

     TORONTO, CANADA.

     Taking up the story of the doings of the Olivet Society where we left off in the February issue of the Life, the first event to be chronicled is the January meeting of the Forward Club-Sons of the Academy. For purposes of continuity we will group the meetings together. On Thursday, January 18, we continued our series of historical subjects. During the "coffee and smoke" period at supper table, Mr. P. J. Barber gave us a short reading on the subject of the Pyramids. Mr. J. A. White then gave us a presentation of conditions before, leading up to, during, and somewhat subsequent to, the Reformation. The speaker dealt with the subject in an interesting and informative way. His main points, together with the subsequent question and answer form of discussion, brought out into clear relief the striking difference in the philosophy of the Christian religion-as influenced by the Reformation-and that of the New Church.

     At the meeting on February 15, the chairman, Mr. F. R. Longstaff, read some choice selections of a humorous nature from Pitkin's More Power to You, portraying his gastronomic peregrinations in search of the "perfect diet," which in spots were in the best Rowlandesque style. Following this came an address by the Pastor, entitled, "The Writings on the Reformation and Luther," citing the predictions of the Reformation from the books of Daniel and Matthew, as revealed in the Heavenly Doctrines.

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Mr. Gyllenhaal made strong play on the major feature of the Reformation,-the separation of faith from charity, and proceeded to show the "why" of the Reformation, i.e., that the Word might be restored to the world, of its being drawn from concealment and sent into "use," also the part it played in freeing continental Europe from the power and dominion of the Papacy, quoting liberally from the late Rev. E. J. E. Schreck in New Church Life, 1883; also from Michael Servetus on the "Failure of the Reformation." This concluded in a fitting way the series that has occupied the meetings of the Club for the past four months.

     Our regular Club meeting night for March was changed to Saturday, the 31st, when we heard a most interesting account from Mr. Pierre van Paasen,-the Toronto Daily Star's correspondent-at-large in Europe and Asia,-of his journalistic experiences traveling hither and yen, observing, analyzing, sifting, and reporting his experiences, interpreting for his widespread public the significance of events as the hour-glass runs its course through near-crisis after near-crisis in the seething cauldron of Machiavellian hodgepodge that is the Europe of today. If the picture presented by Mr. van Paasen even begins to approximate the accuracy with which he forecast events in Europe when he was with us two years ago, then we are in for disquieting times-to put it mildly-within the next few years. That wiser counsels may prevail, and avert the threatened disaster of another great war, is the hope that persists through the days as they pass. We were indeed fortunate in having Mr. van Paasen address us. He has just completed a strenuous lecture tour through the Eastern and some Southern States of the Union, as well as the principal cities and towns of Ontario, and Montreal, P. Q. We thank him for his visit and his illuminating address. On its conclusion, Mr. Gyllenhaal appositely elaborated on the divorcement of religion from life, charity from faith, as a result of Luther's action, or declaration, to which the lecturer referred, i.e., "That the Gospel had nothing to do with the life of the people," thus shattering for them the newly born hope of the liberation of the Word.

     Our Swedenborg's birthday celebration took place on Friday, January 26th. The committee in charge had carefully prepared for the event, and a thoroughly enjoyable and successful evening resulted. We indulged in dancing and games of an almost forgotten past, from 8:30 p.m. until late supper-time, when, under the toast mastership of the Pastor, we had a short program of, not exactly "speeches," but something more in the nature of "talks." The Pastor touched briefly on " Reasons for this Annual Celebration"; Miss Mary Smith gave us a richly humorous "Picture of the Times in which Swedenborg Lived," something just a little different from the usual; Miss Dora Brown a partly humorous, partly serious, dissertation on "Education and Schools, between 1688-1772"; whilst Mr. E. Craigie supplied-we were going to say dessert, but it was a little too substantial for that-in a short address on the "Special Preparation of Swedenborg," treating his subject from the angle of a comparison with the preparation of different leaders in religious movements.

     For several weeks during the period under review, the subject treated of in the doctrinal classes has been "Good and Truth," in which interest has been maintained at a high level. These classes, like their immediate predecessors on "The Relation of Religion to Life," have been productive of inquiries by way of questions on matters that seem to be much in men's minds during what has been aptly termed "this fermentation period," in which men everywhere are seeking to find a solution for the problems of the complex civilization which is ours today. Many of our recent sermons also seem to have had the "bent" towards these problems; or is it perhaps our "states" that give this color to them in their reception with us.

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Certainly there has been in both sermons and classes much that has been helpful and stimulating.

     In the class immediately preceding Palm Sunday we were given instruction on the Resurrection and Glorification, dealing largely with the question, "What became of the Lord's Body?" The thought of various writers in the church was largely drawn upon, particularly the treatment of the subject by the late Bishop W. F. Pendleton in Topics from the Writings, Pages 154-164; also to some extent the dispersal or decreative theory propounded by the late Rev. J. F. Buss.

     At the Palm Sunday service, the children placed flowers at the chancel rail, and these were afterwards distributed amongst the sick. The sermon was on "The Acknowledgment of Divine Truth," the theme being, of course, the sacred story of the Lord's triumphal entry into Jerusalem where He was proclaimed King. At this service Miss Violet Lillian Penhale and Miss Kathleen McClure were received into the Church through the gate of baptism. We welcome them into the fellowship of the Lord's New Church, and wish them many years of happy association with us in the cultivation of that spiritual life which may be ours in a measure according to our desire. We also had service on Good Friday evening, the discourse on this occasion treating of the two thieves crucified with the Lord. Easter Sunday, the "third day" on which "He rose again," symbolical also of the reawakening life of all nature in these northern dimes, whilst not the bright, sunshiny day we would like to associate with it, was still sufficiently indicative of Spring to enable many to attend who, by reason of the continued severity of the weather, have not be able to get to church regularly of late. We had a congregation of well over one hundred. "The Glorification" was the subject of the sermon on this day, revealing to us "How God the Creator descended into the world, putting on the human in order that He might redeem and save men." The sacrament of the Holy Supper was administered to over seventy communicants.

     Our regular quarterly business meeting was held on Wednesday, March 28, reports of society activities being presented, and showing a steady sustenance of its uses in most respects. The financial side, whilst not being just as rosy as we would like, is still, all things considered, as favorable perhaps as could be expected. The local members of the Sons of the Academy are sponsoring a plan for increasing monetary support for the Day School. It is by way of being a "painless plan." You take home a small box, and put in "one cent a meal." The boxes are to be collected each month. Just take a pencil and paper, and figure out how much twenty-five or fifty boxes, consistently "fed" each meal-time, will produce in year. "Mony muckles mak a mickle." In any case it is hoped the plan will help materially in sustaining interest in and support of this very important use.     
     F. W.

     DEATH OF MR. MARTIN.

     At the advanced age of ninety-six, Mr. T. Mower Martin, R.C.A., passed into the spiritual world on March 15th,-a patriarch among the citizens of Toronto, and long identified with the New Church in that city. He was born in London, England, and came to Canada in 1862.

     An artist by profession, a charter member of the Royal Canadian Academy of Arts and other Art Societies, his paintings of Canadian landscapes and animal life adorn many art galleries and homes in America and abroad. But he was an earnest student of the Writings, and felt strongly the urge to impart the truths of the New Church in missionary effort, and this he combined with painting during his extended travels in Canada.

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He was an authorized candidate for the ministry under the General Convention, and contributed occasional doctrinal articles to the periodicals of the New Church.

     WYOMING, OHIO.

     Since our last report, the Wyoming Circle has been carrying on regularly. It is particularly pleasing to observe that, in spite of the fact that several of our members travel extensively, and that an epidemic of measles has kept many of the children away from Sunday School, our attendance has been rather high. In January, following a doctrinal class at the home of Mr. and Mrs. Allen Smith, a "shower" for June Waelchli was held. Richard Waelchli attended in the role of "interested bystander"

     The visit of the Rev. F. E. Waelchli in March provided the opportunity for another social event, which was held at the home of Mr. and Mrs. Charles Merrell. After a most interesting doctrinal class by Mr. Waelchli, the evening was given over to a social time.

     On Palm Sunday a special service for the children was arranged by the Pastor, followed by the regular adult service. The writer cannot give a very comprehensive account of these services, due to the fact that he attended service in Pittsburgh on that Sunday, and spent the balance of the day with Dr. Iungerich, discussing various and sundry subjects, inducting philoprogenitiveness.

     On Good Friday evening a very beautiful Holy Supper service was held. On Easter Morning the children's service and the regular worship were devoted to the celebration of the Lord's Resurrection. The chancel and church room were beautifully decorated by Mrs. Charles Merrell with masses of flowering plants, and the spirit of rejoicing was heightened by a warm, sunny day, which was particularly grateful after an exceptionally long and dreary winter.

     On this occasion our numbers were increased-and incidentally the singing immensely improved-by the presence of five visitors who had come by auto from Bryn Athyn: Mrs. Hobert Smith, Mrs. Daric Acton, Mrs. Richard Kintner, with Mrs. Carpenter and Mary Macy. In the evening the whole group met at the home of Mr. and Mrs. Donald Merrell for a light supper followed by a lot of utterly ridiculous but thoroughly enjoyable games. Our guests will soon be returning to their homes in Bryn Athyn, and so we will have another farewell party after class on Wednesday night, with dinner at the home of Mr. and Mrs. Charles Merrell, followed by an informal party at the Donald Merrell establishment.

     We are already looking forward to and making plans for the 19th of June celebration, which will close our formal activities for the season. Again we wish to extend to visiting New Churchmen a hearty welcome to the Wyoming Circle. Anyone visiting Cincinnati can get in touch with our group by telephoning to the Rev. Norman Reuter at Valley 1913.
     D. M.

     GLENVIEW, ILL.

     As in previous years, our service on Palm Sunday was especially for the children. The pupils of the school were attired in their vestments, and many of the younger children followed them as they bore their offerings of flowers to the chancel, which became a bower of beauty. An attendance of 208 persons taxed the seating capacity of the church. In his address to the children the Pastor spoke of their continued duty after school years in keeping up the spirit of the Church and carrying its burdens. It is our custom, after the Easter celebration, to plant the flowers on the sunny side of the building, where they complete their blooming and make a brave showing the following year.

     On Easter Sunday a chilly rain held the out-of-doors, but the brightness within the church, and the fine spirit and attributes of worship, were undimmed. The first part of the service was for the children, who retired after the address by the pastor on a theme suited to the day.

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After the interlude the choir sang an anthem, which was followed by an Easter Sermon and the concluding portions of the service.

     The Men's Assembly (formerly the General Council) held its regular March meeting at which nominations are made by it for officers of the society, to be voted on at the annual meeting in April. After the business part of the meeting we listened to an interesting paper by Mr. Sidney E. Lee on the general topic presented by the Rev. C. E. Doering in his paper on "Joining the Church," published in New Church Life for December, 1933.

     At the March meeting of the local chapter of the Sons of the Academy, Mr. Harold P. McQueen read a paper entitled, "If we Accept De Hemelsche Leer?" He prefaced the reading with the following remark: "I wish to assure you that it is not my desire or intention to instruct, or to endeavor to make clearer either the new doctrine or the old Academy doctrine. This paper is merely a retrospective survey of the first four fascicles of De Hemelsche Leer and the May, 1933, issue of New Church Life."

     The languishing social season in our society, largely devoid of set entertainments of late, was enlivened by a splendid "Hollywood" party. All were requested to attend in costume as cinema characters, and many of the stars of the screen were therefore found to be present, Garbo and Tugboat Annie, Henry VIII, and the Marx Brothers. A light supper was served at 7 p.m., and a very festive time was enjoyed, including music, specialties, acts by the various characters, and the awarding of prizes.

     A pleasant event recently was the celebration of the forty-ninth wedding anniversary of the first home builders in The Park,-Mr. and Mrs. William H. Junge. The gathering was of an informal nature, and they merely received their many friends and well-wishers in their home. Mr. and Mrs. Junge are young for their years, and we may well hope for them many more years of useful activity in this, their beloved Immanuel Church.
     J. B. S.

     LONDON, ENGLAND.

     Michael Church.

     Palm Sunday, March 25, 1934, will long be remembered as a notable day in our annals. At the morning service, Bishop Tilson delivered a powerful discourse on Mark XI:9, with special reference to the expressions "Hosanna" and the "Name of the Lord," and treating of the doctrine concerning the Divine Human and the Human Divine in its relation to the glorification of the Lord and man's regeneration. The Holy Supper was administered to nineteen communicants.

     In the afternoon at six o'clock an Ordination Service was held for the introduction of the Rev. A. Wynne Acton into the Pastoral Degree of the Priesthood. The congregation numbered well over a hundred, including more than thirty members of the Colchester Society. Bishop Tilson, clothed in full vestments with chasuble, conducted the service according to the 7th Office, and the Rev. Victor J. Gladish read the Lessons from John XXI:15-24 and Coronis 17. At the conclusion of the first portion of the Office, the Candidate took his place at the front of the chancel, facing the Bishop, and the ceremony of ordination proceeded, the preliminary questions being asked and answered, and culminating in the last, "Will you therefore in the presence of the Lord, and before this assembly, declare your faith and make manifest your purpose in entering the pastoral degree of the priestly office," whereupon the Candidate made his declaration in clear and telling tones. The Bishop now raised the stole from the altar, and, placing it upon the shoulders of the waiting figure, completed the ordination and received the newly made Pastor of the General Church, acting "as the representative and by the authority of the Right Rev. N. Dandridge Pendleton, Bishop of that Church."

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Clasping the young man's hand affectionately, Bishop Tilson presented him with a beautifully bound copy of the Bible as a mark of his personal appreciation of his work. The congregation then sang the 48th Psalm, after which the Rev. Victor J. Gladish delivered a sermon appropriate to the occasion on the text of Malachi II:5-7. This was followed by the hymn, "To Jesus Be Praise Without End." The Benediction, the closing of the Word, and the retirement of the priests, brought to a close a memorable service, the spiritual power of which was felt by all present.

     After an interval, during which the hall was rearranged, we assembled again for the social part of the proceedings. Refreshments were served, and Mr. R. W. Anderson took the chair as toastmaster. Bishop Tilson read a cablegram from Bishop de Charms: "Heartiest congratulations and best wishes!" And another: "Congratulations to Wynne from family!" There were also messages of affectionate congratulation from the Rev. T. F. Robinson, the Circle at Kilburn, the friends at Bristol, Bath, and Street, and from Mr. and Mrs. Parker, of South Norwood. A cordial welcome was extended to the friends from Colchester, and followed by the toast to "The Church," duly honored. This brought us to the toast of the evening, "Pastor Wynne Acton," which was received with the greatest enthusiasm. Smiling and happy, he arose and voiced his thanks to all for their support and interest in the ceremony, and added that, ever since the evening of his formal reception in this country, he had felt the friendly and sympathetic attitude of all with whom he had come in contact. He was glad to have been admitted to the pastoral degree for the sake of his use to the Church, and it would be his earnest endeavor at all times to do his best in any way in which he might be called upon to exercise that office. He resumed his seat to the accompaniment of renewed and hearty applause.

     The next toast was to "The General Church," and responses were made by the Rev. Victor J. Gladish, of Colchester, and by Mr. Priest, of Michael Church. A final toast to "The Visitors" brought a very instructive and appropriate reply from the Rev. W. H. Acton, and some kindly and sympathetic remarks by Mr. Colley Pryke in his usual happy vein. A final song concluded one of the most successful gatherings Michael Church has known.

     On Tuesday, April 3d, one of the most enjoyable meetings of the present season of the Social Club was held. Lustre was added to the occasion by the fact that the day was the 77th anniversary of the birth of Bishop Tilson. A musical program had been arranged by Mr. V. R. Tilson, his aim being to "catch the old-time spirit by the singing of old time songs." These proved most acceptable and enjoyable to the audience, which was well above the average in numbers, and included a considerable portion of "old-timers." Mr. Tilson and those who assisted him well deserved the success they achieved. One of the oldest items, sung by two very young singers, was "Many happy returns of the day," in honor of Bishop Tilson, whose reply was a happy blending of serious thought and joyous gratitude that "at eventide there shall be light." Words of appreciation from the Rev. A. Wynne Acton, and the singing of "Auld Lang Syne" and the National Anthem, concluded this delightful evening.
     K. M. D.

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27TH BRITISH ASSEMBLY 1934

27TH BRITISH ASSEMBLY       VICTOR J. GLADISH       1934




     Announcements.



     Members and friends of the General Church of the New Jerusalem are cordially invited to attend the Twenty-seventh British Assembly which will be held at Michael Church, Burton Road, Brixton, London, on Saturday, Sunday and Monday, August 4th to 6th, 1934. Those expecting to be present are requested to notify the undersigned, at 67 Lexden Road, Colchester, England.
     VICTOR J. GLADISH,
          Secretary.

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NOTES ON THE CALENDAR READINGS 1934

NOTES ON THE CALENDAR READINGS       Rev. HUGO LJ. ODHNER       1934


NEW CHURCH LIFE
VOL. LIV          JUNE, 1934           No. 6
     Jacob's wrestling (Genesis 32) is explained in the Arcana as a description of spiritual temptations. The progress into new truths perceived in the state of peace which follows such combats is signified by Jacob's entrance into Canaan and his settlement at Shalem ("peace"), the city of Hamor and Shechem, the Hivites. (Gen. 33:17-20.) The truths now conjoined with good,-that is, made a matter of conscience, of will, and of life,-are "interior truths," such as cannot be received in the midst of disturbance and temptation.

     In the 33d chapter, what is described in the relative sense is the regeneration of man as to his natural, or the manner in which man is made spiritual. (A. C. 4402.) A man is made spiritual by having truths conjoined with good in his natural, and this takes place first of all with exterior truths through the labors of temptation, and afterwards with interior truths by enlightenment which flows in through the internal man into the external, causing the things which are of the light of heaven to be represented in those that are of the light of the world, and making the latter correspond. With the spiritual man, this interior light falls into those things which he "believes to be true." The frequent teaching of the Doctrine is, therefore, that the "spiritual" man is not the interior rational man, but the interior natural. (A. C. 4402:2, 4585, 4286:8; S. D. 5549e; A. C. 5344.)

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     The interior truths which come in states of peace are obviously represented by the friendly and upright colony of Hivites, which are shown to have drawn their origin from the stock of the Most Ancient Church. (A. C. 4447.) The Word Explained traces their actual descent from this "primitive church" through Noah and Shem (there called "Sheth"), although the genealogy given in Genesis, chapter 10, classifies them as Hamites, possibly because they dwelt among the Hamitic Canaanites, although somewhat apart. (W. E. 1563, 1572, 1648.) Their city, Shechem, may have been identical with Shalem or Saiem, over which Melchizedek, "priest of the most high God," ruled in the days of Abraham. (Gen. 14:18. A. C. 4430.)

     This people belonged, we are told, not to the Ancient Church-the spiritual church after the flood-but to the Church with the Ancients, a remnant of the Most Ancient Church, which was celestial in type. (A. C. 4447. In no. 4425 the distinction is not made.) On account of their celestial genius, their ready acceptance of circumcision, and their condescension to the purely external religious life of the sons of Jacob, constituted for the Shechemites an enormous sin, for which they paid by the annihilation of their tribe, as described in Genesis 34. (A. C. 4489, 4493.) On the other hand, the Israelitish race could hardly have survived unless the evil heredity of Jacob's sons had been tempered by intermarriage with the captured women of Shechem. (W. E. 1580.)

     It may seem strange that the Arcana, which consecutively expounds mainly the series of the Lord's glorification, as represented in the lives of the patriarchs, should, in this chapter, devote itself only to the internal historical sense, which displays the character of the Jewish Church. The reason may well be that the iniquity of the sons of Jacob, here described, obscures the mind of the reader and prevents a reverential entrance into the sublime truths concerning the Lord's glorification and man's regeneration. Still, inwardly and remotely, the series is present without interruption. And we conjecture that it treats of the judgment within the Lord's human upon some hidden hereditary states derived from the racial past of the Jewish race.

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PREPARING FOR HEAVEN 1934

PREPARING FOR HEAVEN       Rev. E. E. IUNGERICH       1934

     "Far which of yell, intending to build a tower, sitteth not dawn first, and counteth the cost, whether he have sufficient to finish it? Lest, haply, after he hath laid the foundation, and is not able to finish it, all that behold it begin to mock him, saving, This man began to build, and was not able to finish. Or what King, going to make war against another King, sitteth not down first, and consulteth whether he be able with ten thousand to meet him that cometh against him with twenty thousand? Or else, while the other is yet a great way off he sendeth an ambassage, and desireth conditions of peace." (Luke 14:28-32.)

     "The remaining five also narrated the marvellous occurrences of their ascent into heaven (for which they had not yet been suitably prepared), and compared the changes of the states of their lives to the state of fishes when lifted out of waters into the air, or to the state of birds in the ether. And they said that after these hardships they no longer had any desire for heaven, but only for a life of fellowship with their like, wherever they might be, saying, 'We know that in the world of spirits, where we are, all are first prepared, the good for heaven and the evil for hell, and that after this preparation they see ways open for them to societies of their like, with whom they will remain to eternity, and that they then enter upon these ways with delight, because they are the ways of their love.'" (C. L. 10 6.)

     The passage from Luke, chosen as the first half of our text, embodies the Lord's advice, given in His First Advent, to the effect that no important enterprise, and certainly none so important as man's spiritual salvation, involving his lot to eternity, should be undertaken without the expectation that due reflection and a long period of preparation will be needed. For the context in Luke speaks of bearing one's cross, forsaking all one's kindred of the flesh, and giving up all that one has, which means overcoming oppositions and shunning motives for self, in order that one may be the Lord's disciple.

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And none of these things can be done instantaneously, as at the hour of death, or by an appeal for an immediate act of mercy.

     The passage from Conjugial Love, chosen as the second half of our text, reveals from the Word of our Lord in His Second Advent that the preponderant majority of so-called Christians, unheeding His pertinent advice in Luke, had neglected the means of building upon their slim foundation of an historical faith a sure and steadfast tower, to bridge the gulf between that faith and the heavenly heights above. It is the testimony of five out of nine men chosen from among a mass of Christians in the world of spirits, to set forth how they thought admission into heaven was to be secured. The testimony of the remaining four out of the nine showed that they too had not heeded the Lord's admonition to be suitably prepared.

     It will be noted that the words of the angels, on witnessing their efforts to gain heaven unprepared, were not unlike those in Luke: "Lest all that behold begin to mock him, saying, This man began to build, but was not able to finish."

     The first of the four declared: "I ascended into heaven, and passed by the first guard and the second, but when I came to the third, the chief of the guards addressed me, and said, `Who are you, friend?' And I replied, 'Is this heaven? I have ascended hither from the urge of my desire, admit me please.' And he admitted me, and I saw angels in White garments, and they examined me, and murmured these words: 'Behold, a new guest not dressed in the garment of heaven.' But I heard this, and thought, 'This seems to be similar to the man of whom the Lord makes mention as having entered into the marriage feast without a wedding garment.' And I said, 'Give me such a garment.' But they laughed. Then one ran from the council chamber with the command: 'Strip him naked, throw him out, and his clothes after him.' And so I was thrown out."

     The second said: "I also obtained my desire; but the angels, on seeing me, fled away, saying among themselves, 'What is this monster! How did this bird of night get here?' And I actually felt myself changed from being a man, although I was not changed. But shortly one ran up from the council chamber with the command that two servants should lead me out, and bring me back by the way of ascent even to my house. And when I was at home I appeared to others and to myself as a man."

     The third said: "My constant idea of heaven had been from thought of place, and not from love. I saw some ascending, and followed them, and was admitted, but not beyond a few paces.

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But from the light of heaven, which was brilliant white like snow, the essence of which is said to be wisdom, a numbness invaded my mind, and a thick darkness came before my eyes, and I began to rave. But shortly, from the heat of heaven, whose essence is said to be love corresponding to the brilliance of that light, my heart palpitated, anxiety seized me, and from the torment of an interior pain I cast myself prone upon the ground there. But while I so lay, a guard issued from the council chamber with the command that they should bear me down by easy stages into my own light and heat. On coming into these my spirit and heart returned."

     The fourth said: "As soon as I came into the spiritual world I asked the wise if it was allowed to ascend into heaven. They said all were permitted, but should beware lest they be cast down; at which I laughed. But believing, like the others, that all in the universe could be receptive of its joys in fullness, I ascended. But when I was inside I was actually almost deprived of life; and so, from the pain and ensuing torment in head and body, I threw myself upon the ground and rolled about like a snake that has been put near a fire. I then crept to the precipice and cast myself down. The bystanders below lifted me up and carried me to an inn, where saneness returned to me.

     These accounts, illustrating current Christian indifference to the preparations needed to fit men for admission into heaven, are quoted from the prologue to the work on Conjugial Love. The same are also given after the chapter on the Holy Supper in the True Christian Religion, and just before a chapter descriptive of the spiritual devastation of modern Christianity. For there is a close relation between the marriage of two whose mental union, from the conjunction of love or good with wisdom or truth, bespeaks a heavenly state on earth, and the Holy Supper, in which the two elements, when partaken of worthily, are a sign and seal of introduction into heaven. This account of Christian heedlessness with regard to preparing for heaven, appended to treatises on Marriage and on the Holy Supper, indicates that Christians are equally heedless with regard to the needed preparations for these rites. This is true even in minute detail.

     It had been reported in heaven that no one among Christians knew the nature of heavenly joy and eternal happiness, thus showing the futility of their various religious enterprises. For if Christians were ignorant of that which is the goal of church life,-heaven and a preparation for it,-then the solemnity of their religious efforts has only a social and political value, and is no more than "sounding brass or a tinkling cymbal" in spiritual affairs.

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To appreciate the truth of the report, six groups, representing all the varieties of Christian thought on the subject, were assembled. From their own lips the accuracy of what had been said was then sustained.

     The group of four, whose educative experiences have already been narrated, had contended that heavenly and eternal happiness is nothing else than admission into heaven, and that this is accorded by Divine grace. Five other groups had put forth five notions about the nature of the joys of heaven, declaring them to be pleasant gatherings where there were delightful conversations, or continual feastings with the Old Testament patriarchs and the apostles, or dwelling in paradisiacal gardens, or royal splendor and kingly rule, or a perpetual worship of God with unceasing religious exercises.

     Each of these five groups was then permitted to experience how long it could endure the joy it had depicted as the eternal one of heaven, three days being found to be the limit. In this way all were convinced of the error of ascribing to heaven such fleeting and worldly pleasures, or the continuity of one thing. Ten of this assemblage, after a suitable preparation, were taken to visit an angelic society. In it they strolled through a garden, took dinner in a palace, witnessed a wedding, and attended Divine Worship. In each they received verbal instruction about the busy life of use in this society, of which the functions they had attended were only periodical activities. They thus learned that heavenly joy is a state of mind that has become receptive of good and truth from the Lord, and desirous of continually performing uses of service to God and the neighbor.

     No mind can come to such a state without preparation. For evils and falsities that oppose the entrance of good and truth must first be combated, controlled, and put behind. The six erroneous ideas with regard to heavenly joys may be paralleled by similar ideas with regard to the Holy Supper. Mere admission as being sufficient to procure happiness is like the notion that merely partaking of the sacrament, quite apart from the individual attitude, is beneficial. Pleasant gatherings with delightful conversations is like the notion that the sacrament is but a memorial of the Lord's passion, and that partaking of it is just to bring a group of people together under a common feeling of reverence.

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Continual feasting with the saints is like the notion that the elements are turned into the Lord's physical body and blood, which the faithful are then to eat and drink. A continual dwelling in beautiful gardens is paralleled by the notion that the partaking of the Holy Supper is the all of religion. Heaven as a state of continual exercises of kingly rule is paralleled with those who dictate who shall or shall not come to the sacrament, supported by an ecclesiastical power to excommunicate and exercise dominion over the holy things of the church as a stepping stone to secure their own dominion over men. Advocates of heaven as a state of unceasing religious exercises are like those who legislate about the frequency of taking the sacrament, without reference to the spiritual needs of diverse individuals.

     The real value of the Holy Supper is in confirming a state of resistance to the evil and the false. It confers upon the ultimate substance of the tissue of men's minds the truth and good they have resolved to receive with the aid of the Lord. Going to the Supper is an individual matter, and it should not be taken merely to conform with group practice. Taken worthily, it introduces man's spirit among the angels of heaven.

     Six similar erroneous notions among Christians with regard to conjugial love and married happiness can be cited. Many rush into marriage with the same spirit as that which supposes that admission into heaven of one unprepared for it can procure happiness. Basing married happiness upon agreeable social qualities in both partners is like making heavenly joy consist in delightful social reunions. An imaginary heaven of perpetual feasting is like the notion of happiness from merely physical attractions. Spending one's time idly in paradisiacal gardens is paralleled by those who have no higher purpose in married life than pleasant amusements and conversations with one another. The notion that heavenly joy consists in ruling over others like kings is similar to those who place the happiness of married life in bending the partner to one's will. An imaginary heaven of perpetual worship is tantamount to the notion that married happiness consists in the total absorption of one partner in the other, with no vision of the higher goal of their joint service to others in the Lord's kingdom.

     The real value of marriage is in the adjustment of two regenerating minds, each to the other, with the end in view of sustaining the Lord's purpose in forming a heaven of uses performed by angels.

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The placing of this account of Christian notions about heavenly joys in connection with the teachings about the Holy Supper and Conjugial Love was evidently to warn the New Church not to follow in the wake of so-called Christians, and become immersed in current material notions on these subjects. Holy matters such as these should be treated reverently. And a true reverence recognizes that man in his unworthiness cannot draw nigh to them without a careful and studied preparation.

     Such a reverent approach by suitable preparation is also involved in what is said in Luke about the builder of the tower and the king who would go to war. He who does not know the internal sense of the Word supposes that the Lord spoke here merely by comparison, and that nothing else was meant by building a tower and making war, not knowing that all comparisons in the Word are correspondential, significative, and representative, and that building a tower is to acquire interior or superior truths for one's self, and making war is to fight from them. For it treats of the temptations undergone by those of the church, here called the Lord's disciples. These temptations are meant by the cross they should bear. That this means not conquering from themselves and their own, but from the Lord, is involved in the words, "Whosoever he be of you that forsaketh not all that he hath cannot be my disciple." But if what is said about the tower and the warfare is taken only as a comparison, without any interior sense, they do not cohere. From the internal sense we may see the connection between the tower of interior truth and the warfare of defending that truth in temptation. (A. C. 4599.)

     The entire circle of regeneration, involving many trials and slow, inconspicuous advances, is treated of here. Only the regenerating can receive conjugial love and a lasting happiness in married life, can approach the Lord's table worthily, and can enter heaven alter death.

     The building of a tower refers to the first state of regeneration, in which reformation is effected upon a preliminary repentance. In all the knowledge he is acquiring, a man then seeks to find interior principles of life, in order that he may live according to them. Therefore, "building a tower" meant to acquire for one's self interior truths, such interior truths to be elevated out of the natural degree of the mind, where the memory is, and to be conjoined to good in the interior or rational degree; even as Rebecca was summoned to leave her kindred and marry with Isaac.

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     "Sitting down to count the cost" occurs when the as yet impure will scans the understanding for reasons to decide whether it can make the sacrifices which reformation entails. Can he bear his own cross, limiting the scope of pleasures dear to the love of self and the world, so as to study the Heavenly Doctrines and do his part in the religious life? Can he forsake his near kinsmen,-the demands his proprium loads upon him,-in order to be a disciple of the Lord? If so, he must not rely solely upon past experience, long-standing prejudice, or traditional bias. Will he, of his own accord, review critically what he has done and thought, in order that he may amend his life in the future? If he enters upon reformation, he opens a channel for heavenly influxes to pour their riches into his mind; but if he backslides, he tears down these channels of influx, though without preventing their gifts from flowing down into what is unfit there. Can he risk the prospect of such profanation?

     The king who went to war after the tower was built involves the second state of regeneration. After reformation has enabled truths to be raised as by a tower from the natural degree to the rational degree of the mind, to be conjoined to the life there, an effort is next made to establish a similar heavenly state in the natural degree which extends about the base of that tower. It is from the interior truths raised to the higher plane that the combat is made against the opposing forces.

     Sitting down to count the cost of this warfare is the deliberation of the heavenly will of the king now upon the tower top. He weighs the hazard of advancing his interior truths against a king who has not only as many falsities to set against his ten thousand troops, but just as many acrimonious and sensual loves to sustain these. The reformed man sees that he has no goods of his own to support the truths he could advance. That is why the opposing army appears to be twice the size of his forces, and it seems necessary to seek terms of peace.

     Within each individual the Lord is a king upon the tower, looking down to see how far the interior principles of the army of heaven dare enter the battle with the foes below.

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If we would aid this heavenly cause, we should see to it that each soldier in the ten thousand of heaven's army in our rational mind is sustained by a love that is not from self, but from the Lord. There can then be no question whose the victory will be. Without love from the Lord no victory is possible. "Whosoever he be of you that forsaketh not all that he hath, he cannot be my disciple." But the disciples who give up self in order that they may be led by the Lord are brought to victory over their spiritual foes. Amen.

LESSONS: Luke 14:1-14. Luke 14:15-35. T. C. R. 719, 720.
MUSIC: Liturgy, pages 521, 532, 517.
PRAYERS: Liturgy, nos. 146, 176.
NINETEENTH OF JUNE 1934

NINETEENTH OF JUNE       Rev. GILBERT H. SMITH       1934

     A TALK TO CHILDREN.

     I wonder if you all know why the 19th day of June is a great day for New Church people. Let me tell you why we celebrate the Second Coming of the Lord on that day each year, just as we celebrate His First Coming on Christmas Day.

     You know that the Lord came into the world 1934 years ago, and that when He was in the world He selected twelve disciples. Most of them were fishermen, and He said to them: "Come, and I will make you fishers of men." He taught them, so that they might go forth and teach other people about the Lord after He had gone into heaven. In this way the Lord began the Christian Church. After the disciples died, and went into the other world, other men became ministers and leaders of the Christian Church, and that Church went on and grew bigger and bigger, and spread into many lands. But in course of time some of the leaders of the Church began to teach things that were not true, and some of them were very selfish men, and they led the people away from the Lord and from a life according to His teachings.

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So the people of the Church became worse and worse, and became evil spirits when they went to the other world.

     Now in the year 1757-that means 1757 years after the Lord was in the world-there was a great judgment in the spiritual world, which is called the Last Judgment. That was the time when the Lord had to separate the good spirits from the evil spirits in the spiritual world. The evil spirits were all sent into hell, and the good ones were taken into a New Heaven. The Lord foretold this when He said that He would come to separate the sheep from the goats, placing the sheep on His right hand, and saying to them, "Come, ye blessed of my Father, inherit the kingdom prepared for you from the foundation of the world." That meant that the good spirits would be taken up into the heavenly kingdom when the Lord performed the Last Judgment.

     Now when the Lord made this New Heaven, and the evil spirits were all sent away into hell, the doctrines of the New Church were written by Emanuel Swedenborg, and the Lord told him how to write them. They were called the "Heavenly Doctrines" because they came down from the New Heaven. The Lord told him what to write in all those books which we call "The Writings." Swedenborg wrote them, and had them printed, so that everyone in this world could read them, and know them, and believe them, if they wanted to do so.

     But men were also needed in the other world who could teach the Doctrine of the New Church to all the people in the spiritual world who had not heard about them. And so the Lord gathered together the same twelve disciples who had been with Him in this world. They were living in different places in heaven, and He called them together again, and sent them to all parts of the spiritual world to teach and preach about the Lord's Second Coming and the New Church.

     It was on the 19th day of June in the year 1770 that the Lord called them together again. And on the next day, which was the 20th of June, He sent them out in all directions to teach the Doctrines of the New Church. And they obeyed the Lord very gladly, because they were all good men and were now angels; and they traveled everywhere in the spiritual world, and told others about the Lord and His New Heaven, and how they could come into it.

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     And this is the reason why the 19th and 20th of June are such important days to us, because that was the very first beginning of the New Church, when Peter and James and John, and all the rest of the twelve disciples, were sent by the Lord everywhere in the spiritual world to teach the Doctrine of the New Church, and to tell them that the Lord God Jesus Christ reigns.

     Emanuel Swedenborg was living in this world in the year 1757 and in 1770, and the Lord chose him and caused his spiritual eyes to be opened, so that he could see what was done in the spiritual world. If it had not been for this, no one would have known about the Last Judgment and the calling together of the twelve disciples in the other world.

     Swedenborg saw the Lord's twelve disciples, and saw them sent out to teach in the other world. He saw the New Heaven and the good spirits there who had become angels. And he saw the Lord Himself. And the Lord commanded him to write down the things he had seen, and to have them printed in books, so that everyone might know about them, and might believe in them and come into the New Church. The Lord also told Swedenborg what the Word meant in its spiritual meaning, so that all men in the world might know what heaven is like, and what hell is like, and what they ought to do, that they might come into heaven, and not go into hell.

     Do you know how many books there are in the Writings-how many books Swedenborg wrote, because the Lord told him to? There are forty-five of them altogether. Some of them are long, too, and some of them are short. But they are all very important, and we treasure them very much. And when you grow up, you will read most of them, and then you will know what the angels know. And because these books tell us all about the Lord, they are called "The Second Coming of the Lord."

     When the Lord was in the world He said that He would come again. But He did not mean that He would come again by being born into the world.

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He meant that He would came to men by making known the spiritual meaning of all the things in the Word. When people know the things in the spiritual sense of the Word, then they see the Lord in His glory, because the spiritual sense tells us about the Lord as He is in heaven, about the angels there, and how we are to live that we also may become angels. And the Lord tells us all this in the Writings of the New Church, which explain the spiritual meaning of the Word. When we see and believe these things, then we see and receive the Lord in His Second Coming. For when He was in the world He said that the time would come when men would "see the Son of Man coming in the clouds of heaven with power and great glory. And He shall send His angels with a great sound of a trumpet, and they shall gather together His elect from one end of heaven to the other."

LESSON: Matthew 24:29-35.
MUSIC: Hymnal, pages 178, 194 (118), 199 (128).
PRAYERS: Hymnal, nos. 12, 20.
NEW CHURCH SERMONS 1934

NEW CHURCH SERMONS              1934

     A pamphlet published monthly, from October to June inclusive, by the General Church of the New Jerusalem. Contents: Sermons and other material suitable for individual reading, family worship, and missionary purposes. Reprinted from New Church Life. Sent free of charge on application to Mr. H. Hyatt, Treasurer, Bryn Athyn, Pa.

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AFFECTION OF TRUTH 1934

AFFECTION OF TRUTH       Rev. F. E. WAELCHLI       1934

     (An Address delivered at a joint meeting of the Council of the Clergy and General Faculty, February 1, 1934.)

     Textbooks on pedagogy stress the importance of a teacher's being interested in his subject, in order that interest may be awakened with the pupils. They even speak of inspiration and enthusiasm on the part of the teacher, to the end that pupils may find delight and pleasure in what they are being taught. They give useful suggestions for the application of this principle.

     With these precepts our New Church teachers are familiar. Yet, within their knowledge and practice of them, there is a spirit unknown to the world's educators. This spirit is that which pertains to all who love the Academy and its uses, whether or not they be engaged in its educational work.

     What this spirit is, is told in the tract by Bishop W. F. Pendleton, entitled "Principles of the Academy." After enumerating and treating of twelve principles, he says: "It is clear, however, that what makes the Church is not so much its doctrine as its spirit; for the essential of doctrine, the essential of faith, the essential of law, is the spirit that is within it; and while it may be said that doctrine makes the Church, yet it is not the doctrine itself, but the spirit and life within it, that makes the Church. It is so with the Academy. The most important principle of all, therefore, has not yet been stated,-the principle that is within all, the truth that is within the doctrine of the Academy, the law that is within the law, which is the spirit of the law-this spirit of the Academy, the spirit of its doctrine and law, the spirit of its work from the beginning, is the love of truth for its own sake." (P. 15.)

     It is here said that this spirit is the spirit of the Academy's work from the beginning. It must needs be, therefore, the spirit of its every worker,-the spirit within his interest in his subject, and within his endeavors to awaken interest, pleasure and delight with his pupils.

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     The love of truth for its own sake is defined in the Writings as being the affection of truth, and sometimes as the spiritual affection of truth. It is with the affection of truth that a New Church teacher is to be inspired; and it is this affection that he must seek to call forth in his pupils, so that they, too, may be inspired by it. Affection manifests itself in delight.

     In general, there are two affections: the affection of good, and the affection of truth. A great abundance of teaching is given in the Writings concerning each, their relation to each other, and their conjunction. We find it summarized in these words:

     "The church is from the affection of truth in which is good, and [from affection] of good from which is truth, but not from an affection of truth in which there is not good, nor from an affection of good from which there is not truth." (A. C. 3963.) Again: "In every man . . . there are two kingdoms, one of the will and the other of the understanding; the will reigns through affections of good, and the understanding through affections of truth." (H. H. 95.)

     These general statements must suffice, as it is our purpose to confine our consideration to the affection of truth, with especial reference to it as it should be with educators. Yet this thought may be added, that affection of good is affection of use, and that an educator's affection of good is his affection of his use. We read that in heaven "with everyone affection of truth is conjoined with affection of use, so that they make one." (H. H. 517.)

     In most translations of the Writings, the expression "affection of truth" is rendered "affection for truth." This is a derivative meaning, and can be useful interpretively. But the essential meaning is the affection which is inherent in truth. It is truth's affection. With man it is the spirit of his thought of truth, imparting quality to it. Affection is the state of being affected. The affection of truth is truth affecting. Therefore, in treating of the affection of truth, the Writings often speak also of man's being affected by truth. When anything is in anywise affected, a change is produced in it. So when truth affects, there is produced a change in the state and form of that substance which is essentially man. With each such affecting he becomes to some extent a different man from what he was before-to some extent a new man.

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     But being affected by truth is not something that has its origin in man when truth becomes active in his thought. Its origin is in heaven, yea, with the Lord in heaven. For we read:

     "They who are affected by and delighted with truth itself are affected by and delighted with the light of heaven; and they who are affected by the light of heaven are also affected by Divine Truth, yea, by the Lord Himself; for the light of heaven is Divine Truth, and Divine Truth is the Lord in heaven. This light enters only into the interiors of the mind, for the interiors of the mind are formed to the reception of that light; and as it enters, it also affects and delights; for whatever inflows from heaven, and is received, has delight and pleasure in itself; thence is genuine affection of truth, which is affection of truth for the sake of truth." (H. H. 347.) Also this: "They who love truth for the sake of truth, and who love to do truth for the sake of truth, love the Lord, and receive heaven into themselves; for the reward that is from the Lord is the affection of truth for the sake of truth; and in the affection of truth for the sake of truth there is heaven." (A. C. 10683:2.)

     The affection of truth comes to man from the Lord out of heaven. We are told that "man is led and taught by the Lord from heaven"; but it is added that this leading and teaching is "by the Word." (D. P. 154.) The influx of heat and light from the Lord out of heaven, which are His leading and teaching, come to man by the Word. Thus comes the affection of truth; for this is granted to man in his going to the Word. There that affection can shine forth for him.

     That so it is, we find set forth in Bishop W. F. Pendleton's work, The Science of Exposition, in the chapter on "Affection in the Word." (Pp. 179-193.) It is there taught that affection is the prime essential of the Word, both in its natural and in its spiritual senses, and that a minister, in preparing a sermon, needs to recognize what is the affection of the portion of Scripture which he desires to present. In the latter part of that work, dealing with the religious instruction of children and the young, this subject is again treated, and we read:

     "Affection or love is the prime essential of the Word, as it is of the human mind, just as heat or fire of the sun is the prime essential of nature. . . . Affection is not so easily discovered or brought to view as thought.

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Truth is more readily seen than good. Hence the teacher will frequently find it difficult to determine the ruling affection of any passage; still it can be done when there is time for close scrutiny and reflection. . . . The Writings frequently call attention to the affection expressed in the words of Scripture. . . . It may be remarked that if affection is the prime thing of the Word, it should be taught so as to inspire affection in children. To accomplish this the teacher should be in a state of affection or delight, and thus in a state of inspiration. This will beget a sphere that cannot fail to reach and penetrate the minds of the children." (Pp. 336, 337.)

     But it is not only in religious instruction that a New Church teacher should be in the affection of and delight in truth, and thus in a state of inspiration, so that affection may be inspired in the children. This same applies on all planes of truth, from that which is spiritual even to the most ultimate; the affection of spiritual truths entering into the affection of the more ultimate truths. Unless this be so, a teacher is not a New Church educator.

     Truth on various planes is mentioned in the Writings as follows:

     "Truths of civil and moral life." (A. C. 3863.)

     "Truths civil, moral and spiritual." (H. H. 468; D. P. 36.)

     "Natural, moral and civil truth is a recipient vessel of the truth of faith, and there is a species of conscience in it." (S. D. 4396.)

     "In general, there are celestial truths, spiritual truths, moral truths, civil truths, and even natural truths; and of every kind of truth there are species and varieties innumerable." (A. E. 710:25.)

     "Spiritual, moral, political and scientific things [must be subordinated in this successive order]. The light of heaven from the highest region illumines the things that follow on." (T. C. R. 186.)

     "Spiritual truths can be comprehended equally well as natural truths." (D. Faith 3.)

     "All the laws of order by which the Lord preserves the universe are truths." (T. C. R. 87.)

     "There are two foundations of truth, one from the Word, the other from nature or from truths of nature." (S. D. 5709.)

     "Natural truths, in themselves, are darkness and mists; but when they are illuminated by spiritual truths, which are from the Lord, they then become as it were pellucid, for in spiritual truth is the light of the Lord, and [it] makes natural truths transparent; and not at all the reverse." (S. D. 2634.)

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     In the Writings there is a great volume of teaching concerning scientifics, science, and scientific truth. For the most part this has reference to knowledges from the Word stored up in the memory.

     But there are also a considerable number of passages in which these terms are used in their more ultimate sense. From among them we select only one, which reads: "In order that he may become intelligent and wise, man must learn many things-those which are of heaven from the Word, and those which are of the world from the sciences." (H. H. 531.)

     On the plane of natural truth-meaning thereby all truth beneath the spiritual-there should, in general, be two affections active with a teacher: first, the affection of confirming spiritual truth; second, the affection of the use in life of that which is taught. And the endeavor should be to awaken a response to these affections with the pupils.

     Although we are emphasizing affection, it is unlikely that anyone will conclude that it is sufficient in itself alone. Our subject is the affection of truth. The more truth is acquired, the greater can be the affection thereof. We are taught that "there is no such thing as an affection of what is unknown" (A. C. 10661); also, that "affection . . .produces nothing of itself except through truth; for anything to exist, they must act in conjunction." (D. Faith 15)

     Turning from the teacher to the pupil, the following passages of doctrine may be seen to have application:

     "No one is ever instructed through truths, but through affection of truth." (A. C. 3066.)

     "Whatever is not from affection is from what is not spontaneous, or from what is not free. When the ardor of affection is deficient, what is free ceases." (A. C. 4031. See also D. P. 76.)

     "Truths and goods that are learned, but with which man is not affected, do indeed enter the memory, but stick as lightly there as a feather to a wall." (A. C. 4018. See entire number.)

     "Nothing can enter man's memory, and remain there, unless there is some affection or love that introduces it. If there is no affection, or what is the same, no love, there will be no apperception.

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This affection or love is that with which the thing that enters couples itself, and being coupled, remains; as is evident from the fact that when a like affection or love returns, that thing recurs and is presented to view, together with other things which had before entered from a like affection, and this in a series. . . . In like manner, also, when the thing returns, the affection also with which the thing entered is reproduced." (A. C. 3336:2. See also A. C. 5044.)

     In Divine Love and Wisdom, nos. 404 to 406, teaching is given concerning a series of affections, which are the affection of knowing, the affection of understanding, and the affection of seeing truth. We shall confine consideration to the first of these, of which we read:

     "That in the second state [following the first, which is the ignorance of infancy], which belongs to man in childhood, there is affection of knowing, is known; by this the infant child learns to speak, and learns to read, and afterwards learns successively such things as are of the understanding. That the love which is of the will operates this, cannot be called into doubt; for unless the love or the will operated it, it would not be done. That the affection of knowing belongs to every man after birth, and that by it he learns such things from which the understanding is gradually formed, grows and is perfected, everyone acknowledges when from reason he consults experience. That thence is the affection of truth, is also evident; for when man, from the affection of knowing, is made intelligent, he is led, not so much through the affection to know as through the affection to reason, and to form conclusions such as are of his love, whether economical, or civil, or moral. When this affection is elevated to spiritual things, it becomes the affection of spiritual truth. . . . The affection of truth is an exalted affection of knowing; for to be affected by truths is from affection to will to know them, and, when they are found, to drink them in from delight of affection." (D. L. W. 404.)

     Extensive comment might be made upon this teaching. It must suffice at present to say that a wise teacher will be mindful of the fact that there is with children an inherent affection of knowing which he must call into activity, so doing in great measure by his own state of inspiration, and this in the entire range of subjects taught, from the highest, which is religion, down to the most ultimate of natural truth; all this leading to the great end to be attained, which can begin to manifest itself in youth-the affection of spiritual truth.

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But it should be said that even in early childhood, especially in religious instruction, in whatever connection this may be given, there can be within the affection of knowing a certain primitive affection of spiritual truth, as it were the germination of a seed into a tender plant, thereafter to grow.

     A principle connected with our subject in its application to education is that truth is order; wherefore, also, the affection of truth is the affection of order. This must be with the teacher; and by him it can be called forth with his pupils.

     Thus far we have, for the most part, presented ideals. Some things short of them must also be mentioned: There can be affection of truth which is not love of truth for its own sake, but for the sake of reputation, honor, or gain. (A. C. 3982:2, 8349:2.) This, however, we are told, can have the redeeming quality that it can adjoin itself to the genuine affection of truth, provided there be regard to use, so that truths may thus be introduced and learned. (A. C. 6310.) Such affection of truth is likely to be present in greater or less degree in a teacher's more external ambitions. It will also be with pupils. (A. C. 3089.) And, without doubt, it must to some extent be made use of by teachers,-such as the affection of praise and reward; and also the affection of self-preservation, perhaps at times even to the self-preservation of the surface of the body from possibly inflicted pain. Yet, whatever may be the activity of such affections, with teachers and with pupils, and whatever the use they serve, that which is ideal must be cherished.

     A teacher's ruling affection will impart its quality to all his work. It will be subconsciously present in subordinate affections, tempering those in which something of the love of self and of the world inheres. The quality of a school will be that of the sum total of the ruling affections of its teachers.

     In a New Church school that ruling affection can be none other than that of the love of truth for the sake of truth. It will be present as an inspiration from heaven. For we read:

     "Angels are sent to men, and they inspire good affections, in so far as men receive in freedom." (H. H. 319:2.)

     "Inspiration is insertion into heavenly societies." (T. C. R. 140.)

     Much of importance that might be presented from the Doctrines upon our subject must be omitted.

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Also, we shall have to omit certain practical suggestions; and perhaps it is just as well that time prevents our doing this. So we shall conclude by citing some of the teachings which indicate that with us there can be "the spirit of the Academy's work from the beginning" in the measure in which there is love for the New Church and its Heavenly Doctrines:

     "The Lord, from Divine Love and thence from Divine Zeal, calls and convokes all who are in spiritual affection of truth, and think about heaven, to the New Church, and to conjunction with Himself, thus to eternal life." (A. R. 831.)

     "The Doctrines of the New Church cannot be acknowledged except by those affected by truths." (A. E. 732.)

     "Spiritual affection of truth, which is to love truth because it is truth, can be given only to those who are conjoined with the Lord by the acknowledgment and faith of His Divine in His Human." (A. E. 115.)

     "Spiritual affection of truth is to love truth itself and to estimate it above all the good of the world, because through it man has eternal life." (A. E. 444:10.)
GOOD OF THE WORD 1934

GOOD OF THE WORD              1934

     "The Word is the perfect marriage of good and truth; and because it is from the Lord, and what is from Him is also Himself, it follows that when a man reads the Word, and takes truths therefrom, the Lord adjoins good. For man does not see the goods which affect him, because he reads the Word from the understanding, and the understanding takes from it nothing but its own things, which are truths. That good is adjoined to these by the Lord is felt by the understanding from the delight which inflows when it is enlightened. But this does not take place interiorly with others than those who read with the end of becoming wise; and those have the end of becoming wise who wish to learn genuine truths there, and by means of them to form the church with themselves. Those who read it only for the glory of erudition, and those who had it from an opinion that the mere reading or hearing of it inspires faith and conduces to salvation, do not receive any good from the Lord." (C. L. 128.)

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CHURCH OF THE GENTILES 1934

CHURCH OF THE GENTILES              1934


NEW CHURCH LIFE
Office a Publication, Lancaster, Pa.
Published Monthly By
THE GENERAL CHURCH OF THE NEW JERUSALEM
BRYN ATHYN, PA.
Editor               Rev. W. B. Caldwell, Bryn Athyn, Pa.
Business Manager          Mr. H. Hyatt, Bryn Athyn, Pa.

     All literary contributions should be sent to the Editor. Subscriptions, change of address and business communications should be sent to the Business Manager.

     TERMS OF SUBSCRIPTION
$3.00 a year to any address, payable in advance. Single Copy, 30 cents.
     REPRESENTATION OF LEAH AND RACHEL.

     Many wonderful things pertaining to the revelation given by the Lord at His Second Coming were first imparted to Swedenborg during the period that intervened between his first call in the year 1743 and the publication of the Arcana Celestia, which began in 1747. "When heaven was opened to me," he wrote to Beyer, "I had first to learn the Hebrew language, as well as the correspondences according to which the whole Bible is composed, which led me to read the Word of God over many times; and as God's Word is the source whence all theology must be derived, I was enabled thereby to receive instruction from the Lord, who is the Word." (Documents II, p. 261.) The record of this period is mainly preserved in the Word Explained and the Index Biblicus. Therein we find the first expositions of the Scriptures, chiefly as to their internal historical sense, but also in the light of correspondences and the spiritual and celestial truths of doctrine. There are also many accounts of the revelator's consociation with spirits and angels, and these are continued in the Memorabilia or Spiritual Diary, begun in 1747.

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     An acquaintance with the contents of the three works just mentioned furnishes evidence of the revelator's experience and development during the early years of his task as servant of the Lord in His Second Coming. And the New Churchman will ever find interest and benefit from a study of the material contained in these earlier books, and especially from noting how that material was used in the writing of the later theological works. In the case of the Diary, as is well known, large portions were afterwards transcribed and rewritten for use in the Arcana and other works. For example, we find in the Diary the first accounts of Swedenborg's visits to other planets, recorded from day to day as they occurred. These were rewritten and published in the Arcana, being interspersed between the chapters of Exodus. Still later, these accounts were taken from the volumes of the Arcana and published in a separate work, The Earths in the Universe, which, however, omits the Fourth Earth of the Arcana series,-the one earth to which Swedenborg did not go, the spirits of that planet being brought to him. (A. C. 10585.) We may also note that there are details in the Diary accounts of the planets which were not used in the Arcana, and also things in the Arcana which are not found in the Diary. The same may be said, in general, of the Word Explained and the Index Biblicus, where we find explanations of Scripture, correspondences, truths of doctrine, and memorabilia which we do not find in the Writings. One who is versed in the Writings as a whole will find these things of great value, especially in elucidating many passages of Scripture.

     LEAH AND RACHEL.

     As an example of the way in which the teaching given in the Word Explained was later used in the Arcana Celestia, we would here cite the representation of Leah and Rachel. From the treatment of this subject in the Word Explained we cite the following brief statements:

     "Jacob here represents the Messiah, and his marriages with Leah and Rachel represent the two churches betrothed to the Messiah, Leah that representative or typical church which is called the old church, and Rachel the Christian Church which was signified in the former. . . .The church which Rachel represents is that which is loved by the Messiah. Therefore she is called beautiful of form and beautiful to look upon; while of the former church, or Leah, it is said that her eyes were weak.

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Laban, therefore, represents the parent of both churches, but among the gentiles. Thus, when the subject treated of is Rachel, then by Laban as a shepherd, and by his flock, are meant the gentiles whence came the new church, called the Church of the Gentiles." (W. E. II:543.)

     "'And, behold, Rachel his daughter cometh with the flock.' That Rachel represents the new church, is evident. For since by Jacob, in the inmost sense, is meant the Messiah, it follows that Jacob's wives are churches-churches in the Divine Word being many times called the brides and wives of the Messiah or Christ. . . .There are two churches. The one is a representative church, consisting of mere types. This is called the old church, and it endured from primitive times even to the advent of the Messiah, as may be evident from their sacrifices. The other is the church that was represented in the old, and which, when without types, is called the new church. It did not commence until the effigy itself appeared, that is, the Messiah. In themselves, these churches are not indeed two, but only one, since the new is contained in the old, as essence is contained in its form, and the soul in its body." (W. E. II:552.)

     In the Diary, 3384, Swedenborg records an experience, in the other world whereby he was shown that Leah represented the Jewish Church, and Rachel the new church (Christian), when spirits of the former induced a weakness in his right eye, by which he was given to know why Leah was said to be "weak-eyed." This, indeed, is the meaning of her name; while Rachel means a ewe lamb or a sheep, and she was a shepherdess. Their representations in the Word are involved in their names.

     Turning now to the Arcana, let us note how the representations given in the Word Explained reappear in that work.

     "Leah represented the external church, and Rachel the internal; which churches appear to be two, but nevertheless are one. For the external or representative without the internal is nothing but what is idolatrous or dead; but the internal with the external constitutes a church, and one and the same church." (A.C.409.)

     "The Jewish Church was internal and external. Celestial and spiritual things constituted the internal church, and natural things the external. The internal was represented by Rachel, and the external by Leah. But because Jacob, or his posterity meant by 'Jacob' in the Word, were such that they desired only external things, or a worship in externals, therefore Leah was given to Jacob before Rachel; and by weak-eyed Leah was represented the Jewish Church, and by Rachel the New Church of the Gentiles." (A. C. 422.)

     The expression "Church of the Gentiles," first used in the Word Explained, occurs a number of times in the Arcana Celestia, chiefly referring to the early Christian Church, as in no. 931, where we read:

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"A new church is always raised up by the Lord, as was the Ancient Church at the time of the flood, and the Primitive Church of the Gentiles at the time of the Lord's advent; so also when the Lord shall come in glory, which also is meant by the new heaven and the new earth." (A. C. 9312. See A. C. 2417:3.)

     The early Christian Church is frequently called the "Primitive Church" in the Writings. It was called the "Church of the Gentiles" because it was chiefly formed of those who were Gentiles in the Lord's time, but also because the Christians loved the Gentiles, which the Jews did not, although they were often exhorted to do so. On this we read: "The Church of the Gentiles, or the new church (Christian), was signified by Esau, and the Jewish Church by Jacob. Wherefore it was so often said that the Jews ought to acknowledge the Gentiles as brethren. In the Gentile or Primitive Church, also, they called each other brethren, from charity." (A. C. 3672.)

     But there was a deeper reason for the term "Church of the Gentiles" or "Church of Nations." In the Most Ancient Church, they who were in the good of charity were called "nations," and they who were in the truths of faith therefrom were called "peoples." That Church was organized in the tribal or patriarchal form as houses, families, and nations, which were consanguinities of goods. (A. C. 470.) A nation was a group of families, and a family was a group of houses,-all from a common father. They were consociated as to the good of love, and that is always the signification of "nation" in the Word. "This was represented in the Jewish Church: they were a nation before they had kings; but after they had received kings they became a people." (A. C. 1259:6.) "From this it is manifest what was meant by the Church of Nations (or Church of the Gentiles) in the genuine sense: The Most Ancient Church was the true Church of Nations; and afterwards the Ancient Church." (A. C. 1259:6.) And the Christian Church was so called because in its early days the good of charity prevailed, and they regarded one another as brethren in Christ.

     Now Rachel, the shepherdess, also represented this good of charity and its love of interior truth, from which every new church begins.

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Later in the Arcana, therefore, we find more interior significations of Leah and Rachel given, where it is setting forth the internal sense with respect to the glorification of the Lord and the regeneration of man. We read:

     "Jacob now puts on the representation of natural good, and Rachel the representation of truth. But because all conjunction of truth with good is wrought by affection, it is the affection of truth about to be coupled with good which Rachel represents. . . . Rachel represents the affection of interior truth, and Leah the affection of exterior truth." (A. C. 3793:2.)

     "And Rachel was a shepherdess, or one who tends the sheep, signifies that the affection of interior truth teaches what is in the Word, . . . because she came to the well with the flock, and a `well' denotes the Word. Moreover, it is the affection of interior truth which teaches, and from that affection the church is a church. . . ." (A. C. 3795.)

     It will be seen that these representations of Leah and Rachel were involved in the earlier statements. The two affections of truth, exterior and interior, characterize the external and internal of the church with the regenerating man. Contrasted, the exterior affection was significant of the Jewish Church, and the interior affection was typical of the early Christian Church, and still more of the true Christian Church of the Second Coming, for which the Lord has revealed interior and inmost truths, that they may lead to an interior good of love and charity.
CATHEDRAL BOOKLET 1934

CATHEDRAL BOOKLET              1934

     THE CHURCH OF THE NEW JERUSALEM: What it is, why established, and what it teaches. By a Layman. Bryn Athyn: Cathedral Book Room, 1934. Paper, pocket size, 32 pages, price 10 cents.

     In the light of his long experience in meeting visitors at the Cathedral, Mr. William R. Cooper has here answered in a brief and clear manner the chief questions asked by strangers about the New Church and Swedenborg, and about the doctrines concerning the Lord, the Word, Marriage, Salvation, and the Life After Death. The volume closes with an advertisement of the Writings and a list of the Societies of the General Church, where public worship and doctrinal classes may be attended. A fine picture of the Cathedral adorns the cover.

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Church News 1934

Church News       Various       1934

     DURBAN, NATAL.

     April 2, 1934.

     After the Christmas recess our activities were only slowly resumed, owing to the spread of whooping cough and measles among some of the families. All are better now, we are glad to say, and the children are able to attend school, except the kindergarten pupils, who will return after the Easter holidays. The regular Sunday services were resumed on February 1st, and the various religious classes the middle of March.

     The Kainon School, as well as the society as a whole, feel the loss of their teacher and friend, Miss Jenny Gaskill, who left us just after Christmas. The work done by Miss Gaskill during her stay of three years and a half has been of extreme benefit. In everything connected with the church and school she has been a very willing and capable organizer and helper, and it was with sad hearts that we bade her good-bye. But we trust that she had a pleasant journey to America, and a happy reunion with her family and friends there. Also that she will carry on the good work in a New Church school in America as satisfactorily as she did here.

     The society welcomes a new and tiny member to its midst,-that of Willard Ridgway, infant son of Mr. and Mrs. Robert Mansfield (Doris Ridgway), born March 27, 1934.

     It is a great delight to all to see Mr. and Mrs. George Pemberton among us again. Mrs. Pemberton has recently recovered from a very serious case of poisoning, and we trust that it will not be long before she has fully regained her strength, and will carry on the active life in the society as she has been accustomed to do in the past.

     On March 23d very pleasant social evening was spent at "shower" for Miss Beatrice Forfar, who is to be married to Mr. Billy Schuurman on the 19th of April. A large and jolly crowd was present, and the gifts were both abundant and useful.

     The Easter holidays will commence on Thursday afternoon, March 29th, with an Easter Party at the home of Mrs. Scott Forfar, given for the small children of the school and society by the members of Theta Alpha.

     Mrs. Kenneth Ridgway and children have gone to Alpha to visit Mr. and Mrs. Norman Ridgway. and we trust they will greatly benefit by the change, as they have not been very well of late.
     B. R. F.

     BRAZIL.

     About the middle of April I received a letter from the Rev. Henry Leonardos, and from it I gather the following items of news concerning the activities of the society at Rio de Janeiro:

     During the first three months of the present year, the Rev. Henry Leonardos and the Rev. JoLo de Mendonca Lima have been alternating in conducting the Sunday services. The membership of the society has changed little, as the accession of new members has been counterbalanced by deaths. Among the new members is a young man. Senhor Torres, who is very enthusiastic.

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Donna Rozinha Penaforte, whose marriage to the Rev. J. M. de Lima took place on December 28, 1933, has also joined the church. Her husband officiated at her baptism, and the Rev. Leonardos at the wedding.

     The Rev. J. M. de Lima is still a colonel in the Brazilian Army, but has been transferred from his post as head of the Postal and Telegraph Service to that of head of the Central Railroad of Brazil. The latter post requires his ability as a military engineer, and also as an officer in the army, owing to the many interruptions in the service which are caused by strikes.

     After an interval of several years, A Nova Igreja, the New Church periodical in the Portuguese language issued by our friends at Rio, will resume publication in May.
     E. E. IUNGERICH.

     CHICAGO, ILL.

     It is "many a moon" since the last report from Sharon Church, and your correspondent hopes to be pardoned for harking back several months, even to the Swedenborg's Birthday banquet, which was attended by fifty persons. The program was given over to the young people. Selections were read from the Word Explained and the Spiritual Diary, recounting Swedenborg's notable experiences in the other world shortly after his intromission. And Mr. Richard Gladish read a paper entitled " Observations on the Need of the New Church in the World," presenting many striking comments upon conditions today. After the serious part of the program, a lovely minuet was danced in costume by young ladies under the leadership of Miss Bertha Farrington.

     Easter was celebrated with a beautiful service on Sunday, fifty-five being in attendance. On Good Friday, the pastor gave an address on the Final Temptations of our Lord. Four missionary services were held on Sunday evenings during the Winter, all being well attended, the average being sixty-four, as many as twelve strangers being present on one occasion. That evening was made additionally delightful by special music, our choir being augmented by the chorus and orchestra brought from Glenview by Mr. Jesse Stevens. The pastor gave missionary talks on the subjects of Marriage, the Second Coming, and Divine Providence in the Affairs of Men and Nations.

     At the Friday Suppers the pastor comments upon a chapter of Heaven and Hell each week. The young people's class, meeting every Wednesday, is reading Divine Love and Wisdom. The ladies meet once a month at the different homes, and they are now reading with interest the chapter on the establishment of the Academy in Mrs. Block's book, The New Church in the New World. The social activities of the society include a bridge party each month.

     The Sons of the Academy chapter met in Sharon Church on the evening of the third Sunday in February, with forty-eight at the supper tables. The paper of the evening was given by Mr. George Fiske, and treated of the "Conditions of the Working Man in All Ages." After the discussion of this subject, the Rev. W. L. Gladish gave an account of the Annual Council Meetings in Bryn Athyn.
     E. V. W.

     GLENVIEW, ILL.

     The regular annual meeting of the Immanuel Church was held on the second Friday in April, and was brief and harmonious. The report of the Treasurer was, of course, a reflection of the present depression, but cheerful withal. Our income is about one-third what it was in 1930, and necessarily all expenses are cut to the minimum, including the recompense of the schoolteachers. Messrs. Crebert Burnham and Ralph Synnestvedt were re-elected Trustees, and Mr. Henry S. Maynard Recording Secretary.

     The April meeting of the local chapter of the Sons of the Academy listened to a very thorough paper on "The Rubber Dollar" by Mr. David Gladish.

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It was banker's exposition of the financial situation, and the speaker favored a dollar of fluctuating value. The Sons' meetings are always well attended, and zest is added to them by a preliminary luncheon. Following custom, new officers were elected at the annual meeting just held.

     The Theta Alpha chapter has been busy with the international essay contest in the schools of the General Church, the pupils writing biographies prominent New Churchmen locally the contest has been decided, and the prizes will be awarded at the close of school.

     The men's Spring clean-up of The Park has taken place, and we are now fittingly receiving smiling nature with her countless blossoms and singing birds.
     J. B. S.

     OBITUARY.

     Mrs. William Gill.

     In the life and uses of the General Church in Colchester, covering a period of fifty years, a link with the past was broken by the passing of Mrs. William Gill to the spiritual world on March 29th, in her eighty-ninth year. Her husband preceded her to the other life in 1912.

     It was in the nearby town of Ipswich that I had known Mr. and Mrs. Gill for many years, having been a member of his Baptist Sunday School class. But during this period we acquired some knowledge of the New Church, and attended some meetings of the Conference Society there.

     In the Spring of 1883, I came to Colchester, and in the Autumn of that year was surprised to hear from Mr. Gill that he, too, would be coming to Colchester having rented the Northlight Studio for his notable uses in the field of photography. Having arrived, and severed their connection with the Baptists, Mr. and Mrs. Gill found the New Church very active, owing to the efforts of the Rev. Joseph Deans, and they entered at once into the work of the society. After the secession of Conference members in 1886, owing to the introduction of the Academy doctrines, Mr. and Mrs. Gill gave hearty support to the Rev. T. F. Robinson, and later to the Rev. E. C. Bostock, and also to the Rev. W. H. Acton in church and school uses, which terminated in 1902. In that year they became members of the society organized by Mr. Bostock as a "Congregation of the General Church of the New Jerusalem."

     Through the many vicissitudes of twenty years the Gill Studio was the meeting place of the society for doctrinal classes and socials, and later for the British Assemblies. There Mr. and Mrs. Gill instituted the New Year's Social, which has become a regular event, and there they were presented with a silver bowl as loving cup on their Silver Wedding Anniversary. And we must not omit the series of fairy plays, prepared and presented by Mrs. Gill at our Assemblies and on other occasions, our children taking the parts,-a great pleasure to us all.

     The friends were also entertained at their home, "Maldune," on many occasions. Their garden, too, performed an important use; for here we would gather to meet the friends from a distance or overseas, and to discuss over a cup of tea the current affairs of the Church. Upon this very spot, Mrs. Gill erected her new home, also called "Maldune."

     She will be missed by a large circle of friends in the General Church, who will remember her for her strength of character and her affection for the Church. With the passing of her husband, she felt that her life's work was severely handicapped; yet she has continued alone the work for which they had so unselfishly striven together. A visit to Mrs. Gill was always as refreshing as a breeze from the ocean. And if storm should arise, then woe betide the unhappy wight whose cause was not sure one! But the sunshine was always surely near at hand! The writer's last visit was about three weeks before her passing. She was frail of body, but her mind was as alert as ever.

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As usual, her greeting was, "Well, have you any news?" I would then relate a conversation, or read a letter from one of our old friends. My last visit I shall always hold in grateful memory.
     F. R. C.

     Mr. F. A. Gardiner.

     The New-Church Herald of March 31, 1934, records the passing of Mr. Frederick Ambrose Gardiner on March 9th, at the age of seventy-eight, and gives an account of his career of notable service in the cause of the New Church. He stood high in the councils and activities of the Conference, and will be remembered by his friends of the General Church for his sterling: character and New Churchmanship.

     Mr. Stanley E. Parker.

     From the Herald of April 14th we learn of the death of Mr. Stanley E. Parker, of Deal, England. He passed into the spiritual world at South Norwood on Easter Monday, April 2d, 1934, at the age of sixty-two years. Mr. Parker was a diligent student of the Doctrines, frequently attended General Church meetings in England, and contributed occasional articles to the pages of New Church Life, notably an illustrated account of the Rev. Thomas Hartley, A.M., which appeared in August, 1931.

     Rev. L. G. Jordan.

     Those who were associated with the work of the Academy and the General Church forty years ago will pleasantly recall the active part then taken in our uses by the Rev. Leonard G. Jordan, who passed into the spiritual world at his home in Oakland, Calif., on March 3, 1934, in his eighty-ninth year. He was born in Portland, Maine, in 1845. In 1868 he married Annie Maria Chapman Kingsbury, who preceded him to the other world in 1930, as noted in New Church Life for October of that year. Of their six children, Mrs. Emily K. Good, of Philadelphia, is the only one now residing in the Eastern States.

     Returning from the battlefields of the Civil War in 1865, Mr. Jordan entered the Convention Theological School, and was ordained in 1869, his first ministerial activities being in New England. In 1877, he went to California, and held pastorates in San Francisco and Oakland. Here began a lifelong friendship with Mr. Walter C. Childs, with whom he was in correspondence during recent years. He was called to the pastorate of the Advent Society, Philadelphia, in 1889, and three years later became assistant to Bishop Benade in visiting the societies of the General Church in the United States and Canada. In 1897, he returned to Oakland, where he continued his ministerial labors for about fifteen years.

     Mr. Jordan was a highly educated and accomplished gentleman, being as skilled in the law, in languages, and in accounting, as in theology. He will be affectionately remembered by the many friends of the General Church who knew him so well during the period of his active participation in its uses.

     SWEDENBORG SCIENTIFIC ASSOCIATION.

     The Thirty-seventh Annual Meeting of the Swedenborg Scientific Association was held at Bryn Athyn, Pa., on May 17, 1934, the Rev. Lewis F. Hite presiding. The two sessions were well attended, thirty-eight members and friends being present in the afternoon, and fifty-two in the evening.

     At the afternoon session, President Hite and the Board of Directors were reelected for the coming year, with the exception of Mr. Foster W. Freeman, who asked to be relieved as a member of the Board. Mr. Gideon Boericke, of Philadelphia, Pa., was elected to fill the vacancy.

     Dr. C. E. Doering presented his Treasurer's Report, which showed a balance for the year. The twelve resignations reported were partially offset by a gain of ten new members. Our membership is now 191.

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     Dr. Alfred Acton, as Editor Literary of the Association, reported interested him during the year, and on a number of matters that had gave a brief resume of an article, entitled Swedenborg's Place in the History of Science," which appeared in the New Philosophy for January, 1934.

     The President's Annual Address was delivered by the Rev. Lewis F. Hite, his subject being "Swedenborg's Doctrine of the Soul in the 'Animal Kingdom' Period." This was followed by an interesting discussion of the dual nature of the spirituous fluid. The question of the correctness of the mathematics of Swedenborg's Principia was also considered; and the motions of the solar system, as set forth in the Principia, were contrasted with the views of Descartes.

     At the evening session, Professor Reginald W. Brown delivered an address on the subject of "The Universal Laws of the Creative Process." The paper presented a very thorough study of Swedenborg's doctrine of continuous and discrete degrees, and introduced a vigorous but not too lengthy discussion of the stimulating topic of Evolution.
     WILFRED HOWARD.

     SOUTH AFRICAN MISSION.

     The February, 1934, issue of Tlhahiso (The Expositor), edited by the Rev. F. W. Elphick, and published by the General Church Mission at Alpha, contains twenty-four pages of reading matter in the form of articles in Sesuto, Zulu and English, besides Mission News.

     Among the articles there is a Sesuto translation of Bishop de Charms' Address to Children on "The Planet Mercury." which appeared in New Church Life for February, 1932; a Zulu translation of a paper by the Rev. F. W. Elphick; and an Address in English by the Rev. B. Th. Naiba on "The Progress of the New Church Among the Africans," giving a brief sketch of the beginnings of the movement, and closing with this statement of the main points by means of which good progress can be made in the future: "1. To cultivate with diligence a knowledge of the Word and of the Doctrines of the New Jerusalem; 2. The necessity for us to live the life according to that knowledge. It should be kept in mind, however, that these things are not easy to do. There are too many enemies fighting against New Church progress. In the first place, we have to fight against the falsities of the Old Church, from outside, and then fight those same things inside. This is not easy."

     THE ACADEMY OF THE NEW CHURCH.

     The Annual Joint Meeting of the Corporation and Faculty of the Academy of the New Church, Bryn Athyn, Pa., will be held in the Auditorium of De Charms Hall on Saturday, June 9th, 1934, at 8:00 p.m.

     At this meeting a digest of the Annual Reports of the Officers of the Academy will be read, and the reports discussed; after which Professor William Whitehead will deliver an address on: "The College: Its History and Outlook."

     The public is cordially invited to attend the meeting.
     E. S. KLEIN,
          Secretary.

     SONS OF THE ACADEMY.

     The Annual Meeting of the Sons of the Academy will be held in Kitchener, Ontario, Canada, June 30th to July 2d, 1934. Sons intending to be present are requested to notify Mr. Archie Scott, 16 Princess Street, Waterloo, Ont., Canada.
     FRED J. COOPER,
          Secretary.

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27TH BRITISH ASSEMBLY 1934

27TH BRITISH ASSEMBLY       VICTOR J. GLADISH       1934




     Announcements.



     Members and friends of the General Church of the New Jerusalem are cordially invited to attend the Twenty-seventh British Assembly, which will be held at Michael Church, Burton Road, Brixton, London, on Saturday, Sunday and Monday, August 4th to 6th, 1934. Those expecting to be present are requested to notify the undersigned, at 67 Lexden Road, Colchester, England.
     VICTOR J. GLADISH,
          Secretary.

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WHAT IS THE ESSE OF MAN? 1934

WHAT IS THE ESSE OF MAN?       Rev. GEORGE DE CHARMS       1934


NEW CHURCH LIFE
VOL. LIV          JULY, 1934           No. 7
     It is said in no. 3938 of the Arcana Coelestia that "the Esse of man is nothing else than the receiving of the eternal which proceeds from the Lord; for men, spirits and angels are nothing but recipients or receiving forms of life from the Lord. It is the reception of life of which Existere is predicated."

     This has been interpreted to mean that the Esse of man "is the Existere of the Divine Human"; and on the basis of this interpretation the number has been quoted as a strong "foundation passage" supporting the new doctrine that man is Divine. It appears to us, however, that the plain meaning of the text is altogether contrary to such a conclusion Let us quote the number more fully, and endeavor to understand its intended purport:

     "There are two things which make man, namely, Esse and Existere.* The Esse of man is nothing else than the receiving of the eternal which proceeds from the Lord; for men, spirits, and angels are nothing but recipients or receiving forms of life from the Lord. It is the reception of life of which Existere is predicated. Man believes that he is, and indeed of himself, when yet he is not of himself, but exists, as before said. Esse is only in the Lord, and this is called Jehovah. From the Esse which is Jehovah are all things which appear as if they were.

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But the Esse of the Lord, or Jehovah, can never be communicated to anyone; solely to the Human of the Lord. This has become the Divine Esse, that is, Jehovah. The Lord as to both Essences is Jehovah. Existere is predicated also of the Lord, but only when He was in the world, and there put on the Divine Esse. But since He has become the Divine Esse, Existere can no longer be predicated of Him, except as a certain proceeding from Him. What proceeds from Him is what appears as Existere in Him; but it is not in Him, but it is from Him, and makes that men, spirits, and angels exist, that is, live. Existere with man, spirit, and angel is to live, and his living is eternal felicity." (A. C. 3938:2, 3.)
      *Esse is the Latin word "to be." It is used to express the most abstract idea of being. Existere is the Latin word "to exist," and means a "forthstanding," a "manifestation."

     The words "it is the reception of life of which Existere is predicated" are evidently intended to convey the obvious truth that the Divine Existere can be predicated only of the Infinite in and with the finite. For Existere, as here spoken of, means "forthstanding," and the Infinite cannot "forthstand" except in what is outside of Itself, that is, in the created universe. It is the reception of the Divine by finite forms, therefore, by virtue of which alone the Infinite may be said to Exist, or stand forth. There is nothing in the text which would imply that it is reception by man that is here meant. Yet this is the interpretation which is placed upon it in order to prove that the Esse of man is the Existere of the Lord.

     Further it will be noted that the Divine Existere is the same as the Divine Proceeding; for it is said that, since His Glorification, Existere cannot be predicated of the Lord, "except as a certain proceeding from Him." This is clear from the consideration that to Exist outside of Itself involves to "Proceed." The only difference between the two arises in the mind of man. It arises from the fact that man cannot think apart from ideas of space and time. From ideas of space and time come the concept of "immensity" and "eternity," and concerning these we read: "To the angels in heaven the immensity of God means His Divinity in respect to His Esse, and His eternity His Divinity in respect to His Existere." (T. C. R. 31.) Thus we are told in A. C. 4692 that "the Divine Existere is the Divine Itself proceeding from the Divine Esse."

     That which proceeds from the Lord is Himself. (A. C. 8864.) Even if it proceed to the farthest confines of the universe, and to the lowest ultimates of nature, it remains Divine, infinite, and uncreate.

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It is God "in space without space, and in time without time." (T. C. R. 30.) The Divine Human from eternity is therefore said to be that " which is meant by proceeding." (A. C. 6280.) This was, before the Advent of the Lord, the Divine Existere.

     Now the interesting statement is made in the number we are discussing that "Existere is also predicated of the Lord, but only when He was in the world, and there put on the Divine Esse. But since He has become the Divine Esse, Existere can no longer be predicated of Him, except as a certain proceeding from Him." (A. C. 3938.) This evidently means that, while the Lord was on earth, the term Existere could be used with reference to the human assumed from Mary, because the soul of that human was the Infinite Esse. Thus, even by means of the material body, the Esse of God stood forth on earth among men. But when, by glorification, the Mary human had been wholly put off, and when a Divine Human "born of the Father" had been put on, then this Human became the Infinite Esse which could not be said to exist in creation except by means of "a certain proceeding from Him." This Divine Proceeding from the Glorified Human, we are told again in A. C. 4692, "is in image a Man." It is the Lord Jesus Christ Glorified, the only Existere now of the Divine Human.

     This Lord Jesus Christ exists apart from any man, spirit, or angel; for He is the visible God of all the heavens, to Whom the Lord taught His Disciples to pray, saying, "Our Father Who art in the heavens." Thus we are told that "the Divine Human became an essence per se, which fills the universal heaven." (A. C. 3061.) And again, "Previously (to the Advent of the Lord) the Divine transflux through the heavens had been the Divine Human but this Divine Human ceased when the Lord Himself made the Human in Himself Divine." (A. C. 6371.) For as "in order to save the human race it was necessary to be really and essentially a man, it therefore pleased Him to be born, and thereby actually to assume the human form, in which was Jehovah Himself." (A. C. 10579.) "The result was an influx of the Infinite or Supreme Divine with man which otherwise could not possibly have existed." (A. C. 2034.) Wherefore "all in heaven acknowledge the Lord, because only in Him does the Divine Human exist." (H. 79.) (Literally, "is not given except in Him.")

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     It is clear, therefore, that the Divine Existere now is "a certain proceeding " from the Infinite Divine Human. It is a new Existere such as was impossible before the Glorification of the Lord. Yet, although present in and with the finite, it remains infinite, uncreate, one with the Divine Esse.

     Man, however, is a created being. He is "from the Lord," not by a "proceeding," but as a "production." He is finite. And we are specifically taught that "the finite cannot proceed from the Infinite, and that to suppose this is a contradiction; yet the finite can be produced by the infinite, but this is not to proceed, but to be created." (D. P. 219.) That which proceeds, as we have said, remains Divine, but "every created thing is finite" (T. C. R. 33), and nothing finite can be called Divine. To identify man, therefore, with the Divine Proceeding, is a fundamental error. It is specifically to guard against this error that it is said in A. C. 3938: "The Esse of man is nothing else than the receiving of the eternal which proceeds from the Lord; for men, spirits, and angels are nothing but recipients or receiving forms of life from the Lord." Note especially, it is not said that the Esse of man is the Existere of the Lord, or the Divine Proceeding, but that it is "nothing but a recipient" or a "receiving form," that is, a form or vessel capable of receiving the Proceeding life from the Lord. The Esse of man is not the Existere of the Divine Human, and therefore it is not Divine. (See D. L. W. 59.)

     And finally, since the Esse of man is not Divine, neither is his Existere Divine. The Esse of man is indeed the "reception of the eternal which proceeds from the Lord," but it is reception by a finite vessel, and consequently a finite reception. For all reception is according to the vessel which receives. That which man receives from the Lord is indeed from the Divine Proceeding, but it becomes in him a production, a spiritual creation. Like all things produced or created by the Lord, it is finite, and it is not Divine. The Existere of man is indeed "living and eternal felicity" from the Lord, but it is a Finite living, and a finite felicity, because it is predicated of a finite being. It is from the Lord, indeed; not, however, as a Divine Proceeding, but as a finite creation.

     The confusion between God and man which arises from identifying the Esse of man with the Existere of the Divine Human, is something against which the Writings give repeated warning.

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If this identification be accepted, then are we compelled either to regard the Esse of man as Infinite, since the Existere of the Lord is infinite and one with the Divine Esse, or else we must conceive of the Infinite as being infused into a finite vessel. Of this last we are told that it was the abominable heresy of the Antediluvians. (D. L. W. 130.)

     Man is a finite, created being. His Esse is his ability to receive finitely the Divine Proceeding of the Lord. His Existere is the human living and the human felicity which proceed from that Esse. It is altogether finite and created. This will be found, upon examination, to be the universal teaching of the Writings, and the number here under consideration is no exception.
BOOK OF LIFE 1934

BOOK OF LIFE       Rev. ERIK SANDSTROM       1934

     "And I saw the dead, small and great, stand before God; and the books were opened: and another book was opened, which is the book of life: and the dead were judged out of those things which were written in the books, according to their works." (Revelation 20:12.)

     The vision of John the Revelator as a prophetic description of what was actually to take place when Swedenborg, the servant of the Lord's Second Coming, was engaged in his Divinely appointed mission. It was shown to John to the end that, through his narrative of it in the Word of the Apocalypse, the angels might have knowledge of the great re-ordering of the entire spiritual world that was to take place when the Lord came a second time, through which knowledge they were to be sustained in hope and integrity.

     Some parts of what John saw when he was in the spirit in the Isle of Patmos are retold in the Writings, but in greater detail, whereas the other things related by John are described in the Writings as to their internal sense only. Among the things that appeared also to Swedenborg may be mentioned the great city, Babylon, which was destroyed and overturned before his eyes; the Dragon, which hovered like a dark shadow over the ruins of the city; the place called Armageddon, where the hosts of those riding on red and black horses, and of those riding on white horses, were seen; and the city which is called Sodom and Egypt, where Swedenborg himself lay as it were dead, being mocked during three days and a half, as were the two witnesses in John's vision. (See L. J. 60 and 61; A. R. 839, 531.)

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Indeed, there is every reason to suppose that the entire story of the Apocalypse was enacted anew when the Lord came again to fulfill and establish what He had founded at His First Coming. In any case, it is certain that what was concealed under the prophetic appearances in the vision came true in all particulars, and will come true with individual men in all ages.

     The general subject of the Apocalypse is the judgment upon the Christian Church and the establishment of the New Church. Broadly dividing the book, it may be said that the first twenty chapters treat of the judgment, and the last two of the new era.

     The twentieth chapter, which includes our text, being the last of the former part, gives as it were a resume of the judgment, and is at the same time an introduction to the treatment of the Holy City and the Tree of Life. It speaks of the Dragon, that is, hell, being bound for a thousand years, during which time the newcomers from the earth formed their imaginary heavens, and men their imaginary churches. Then also the good spirits who could not as yet be elevated into heaven were inclosed in the Lower faith, there to be protected from the rage of hell. Only the martyrs, they "who were beheaded for the witness of Jesus, and for the Word of God " (ch. 20:4), could then be raised up into the Lord's Kingdom; and they were represented to John as sitting on thrones, reigning with Christ a thousand years. It tells of the Dragon being loosed after a thousand years; how he then gathered all his followers, whose number was "as the sand of the sea " (v. 8), to battle against the Lord's City and His angels, and how fire came out of heaven and devoured them. It speaks of a great white throne, and Him that sat upon it, before whose face the imaginary heavens and churches fled away. And at last it depicts the gathering before the white throne of all those who had not yet found their final destiny, either in heaven or in hell,-all to be judged there according to what was written in their books, that is, according to their works. "And I saw the dead, small and great, stand before God; and the books were opened; and another book was opened, which is the book of life: and the dead were judged out of those things which were written in the books, according to their works."

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     "The dead," in the text, signify all those who had deceased from the earth and were now awaiting their judgment. Its being said that they were "small and great" means that the multitude consisted of spirits of all qualities and conditions, small and great being the two extremes between which all varieties are included. "To stand before God " means to be present for judgment; for God is here depicted as sitting on a throne, and by a throne, or a king's seat, judgment is signified. "The books" and "the book of life" have a similar representation, as both terms stand for the interiors of the minds of those who were to be judged, but they are here in apposition to one another, since the "books" refer to the evil and the "book of life" to the good. "To open the books and the book of life" is to disclose the interiors by means of heavenly influx; "to be judged according to what was found written therein" is to be judged according to the quality of the interiors; and "to be judged according to works" means the same thing; for "works" are further explained as signifying one's internal life in externals. (See A. R. 866-868.) But let us examine the teaching of the text more closely.

     As writing is the means of preserving ideas for posterity, so, in several places in the Word, the things that remain with men in their minds are said to be "written,"-written in books. These human books are nothing but the memories of men,-those remarkable mental formations wherein are preserved forever all the experiences man has ever had, however trifling they may have appeared; also all that he has willed, all that he has thought, and all that he has done.

     With every man there are two memories, one exterior and the other interior. The former is known to the philosophy of the world, but not the latter. The interior memory scarcely appears while man is living in the world, because it then acts almost as one with the exterior memory, concealing itself in the vessels of the lower memory.

     The exterior memory is a product of worldly sensations; the interior of spiritual sensations. The former is therefore an image of the natural world, whereas the latter mirrors the spiritual world. Consequently, the one pertains to the natural mind, and the other to the rational mind.

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     Both memories are seated in organic substances, in vessels higher and lower. The vessels of the exterior memory communicate with the organs of the senses, and that memory itself can be enlarged only from things from the world, entering the vessels by way of the five senses. Similarly the vessels of the interior memory have contact with the spiritual world through five spiritual senses, corresponding to the natural ones, and this memory can be built up only from things entering through these senses.

     Now, as the exterior memory at death is cut off from the world, it soon becomes dormant, and can be reawakened only when the Lord permits. And so it is preeminently the interior memory that is meant by the "books" which are to be opened in the other life.

     With the evil, these books are usually entirely different from the appearance which in the world was put forth by means of the outer memory. Those books, when opened, reveal a vile order and deformation of the mind, one which, when presented to view, appears like a monster or a beast. Hence the evil fear to have their internals laid bare, and they struggle to remain in the superimposed habits of speaking and acting which they had adopted in the world. But they cannot long conceal their real nature, for by successive devastations all things that do not make one with their life's love are separated. In the other life no one is permitted to manifest one nature, and be essentially of another.

     The books of the good, on the other hand, are called "books of life," because during their life in the world their interiors were conjoined with Him who is Life Itself; that is, they were enabled to receive the inflowing Life of God, His Love and His Wisdom. Yet, even with the good, many things remain which are not of their real nature, and there must be a judgment in their case also. But, unlike the evil, the good are judged to life. With them the judgment consists in a purification from whatever evils may have been adjoined to their life's love while they mixed with evil men in the world.

     The unveiling of the interiors with both the good and the evil is effected in general by the shedding of spiritual light and spiritual heat, that is, of truth and good from the Lord, into the secret chambers of the heart. The light discloses the very inmost thoughts which are of man's own understanding and of his faith; the heat reveals the nature of the affections which are of his will and life's love; and the light and heat together, being a conatus to use when united, make manifest what man has intended and endeavored. (See A. R. 867.)

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     Before the time of the Last Judgment, this process of unfolding: the interiors of men's minds had been advancing but slowly. Evil had so prevailed on earth, and therefore also in the world of spirits, that the normal development was checked. The evil had made for themselves imaginary heavens, and thought themselves angels of light; and the good, when not dragged along by the dominant evil sphere, were closed up in the so-called "Lower Earth," where the evil could infest them only when it was permitted for the sake of a useful end. Yet the interior states of all, good and evil alike, remained unchanged, and the entire world of spirits was being prepared for the ripening of the ages, when the crowning Revelation from the Lord could be given to mankind, and truth and order again manifest their power and their glory.

     It is not possible for a man to maintain forever a dual nature; for the evil in the external and the good in the internal, or the good in the external and the evil in the internal, clash and disagree, and combat each other. Moreover, that which is internal always strives to break through to the very outmosts, and to gather all things of inferior degrees under its complete and unchallenged dominion. When the evil endeavor to preserve an appearance of goodness, it is therefore to their own harm. They are less torn, and more at peace, when they are fully in their own evils. But they may for a while be captivated by a false persuasion, caused by some remnant of a spurious conscience; and then it takes truth-the reasoning, fighting, and judging truth-to bring about the separation of the superimposed external from the appropriated internal. The evil must themselves be convinced; they must see their own state, and see it in the light of heaven; for then first do they submit, and then they seek their places in hell. Thus it is truth that opens their books,-truth moderated by mercy, but at the same time militant.

     We may now ask how a thing is caused to be written in our mental books? This may appear from a consideration of the intercourse between the two memories and their mutual uses.

     Before regeneration, the all-dominant memory is the exterior one. Scientifics are being poured into it from the outer world, especially through the senses of sight and hearing.

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An affection for knowing is flowing in from within, and the mind is reaching out for scientifics in all fields, almost without discrimination. During this period the truths of faith are also instilled, though they are not called truths as yet, but scientifics of truths, because man is said to have truths only when they are in his will. This period is a preparatory one.

     Unknown to man, however, good has been continually flowing in from heaven. This good, in its descent, passed through those unformed organs which are to become the interior memory. Indeed, the affection for knowing was from no other source; for good alone is what attracts truths to itself, especially the truths of faith. Truths are vessels for good, and good cannot exist, that is, take form and act, apart from these vessels; wherefore it continually as it were longs for them. The first mission of the inflowing good, therefore, is to introduce the scientifics into the memory. Then it successively arranges and coordinates these scientifics into harmonious groups, or unities, by which arise what we call reasoning, thought, conclusion, and knowledge. It is now that faith is formed for the first time (cf. A. C. 10225:5), that is, the individual faith which is formed from the Word by one's own rational conviction. This is the birth of the new understanding.

     Finally the scientifics which became truths of the understanding may be elevated even into the will. Then first are they appropriated by and made one with the inflowing good, and the truth of the understanding enters into a marriage with the new will that is now born. And, as soon as truth has reached the will, there is a conatus to go forth into act; for whatever man wills, that he desires to do. And when it proceeds to action, it uses the thought as a means.

     Thus there is an alternate process of elevation and ultimation. First, truths are introduced into the outer memory as scientifics; then they are brought into the rational thought; and finally they are embraced by the will. Thence they return through the thought into the action of the body. This is what is called "the circle of influx" (A. C. 4247), and this circle is produced by good alone. For good is continually the soul in the entire process. It is the force of attraction, as well as the force of ultimation.

     Now, what we have said of a regenerating man applies in a corresponding way to the degenerating man.

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For just as good continually flows in from heaven, so evil flows in from hell; and man may choose. If he prefers evil, then the scientifics gathered in the memory are raised by it into perverse thinking and into a falsified faith, and finally they are conjoined to the evil and become of the will, returning thence into evil or hypocritical acts and speech.

     In either case, the scientifics become of the interior memory when they enter into the will, and begin to return into action or into speech. And therefore it is also said in the text that all were judged "according to their works." It is in the works, or in action and speech, that understanding and will become united; and thus it is in and through works that the interior memory, or the book of the mind,-that is, the man himself,-is formed and regenerated, or perverted and degenerated.

     It should be noted here that there are works of the body and works of the mind. The former are works which have reached full ultimation; the latter look to ultimation, and consist in an endeavor and intention to go forth into actual external works; but if some circumstance hinders this, they are still called "works," and they serve to conjoin will and understanding, and thus to add to the interior memory. Both works of the body and works of the mind proceed from man's internal life, which is his will or his love. (See A. R. 868.) If it is good that inmostly actuates these works, then man's will is love to the Lord; but if evil is the soul of them, then the will is the love of self. From one or the other of these two loves is derived everything whatsoever that is done in the body, or intended to be done through it.

     The purpose of the earthly life, therefore, is that the interior memory may be formed,-that is, that the book of our mind may be written. This book is written either by the Lord or by the devil. And just as that which the Lord writes in man is heaven (E. 199), so what the devil writes is hell. It is the Lord who writes if His Word is permitted to enter our will, that is, if the truths of the Word, are not found in the exterior memory only, but are also written in the interior memory-on the very heart of man.

     Men will forever be judged according to their works, but it is now of order that this judgment should take place while man is still on earth.

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For the heavenly arcana which before could be secretly insinuated into the interior memories of men only by virtue of correspondences, are now openly revealed; and man's sacred duty to heed the Word of the Lord in understanding, will, and act, is now increased, even as the revealed truth itself is increased in beauty, perfection, and power.

     To the men of old a Word was given, the truths of which were representative, and they received them as scientifics in their memories, obeyed them from fear, and were saved through the mercy of the Lord. But now, when the representatives are abolished, and the truths revealed are interior and heavenly in their very ultimate form, it is not enough to receive them as scientifics, and to live an external life in obedience to them. They must now become of the under- standing and the will, even while man is still on earth; for as the truths of heaven have come down to the earth, so also must the life of heaven.

     This is the new covenant, concerning which Jeremiah prophesied: "Behold, the days come, saith the Lord, that I will make a new covenant with the house of Israel, and with the house of Judah: Not according to the covenant that I made with their fathers in the day that I took them by the hand to bring them out of the land of Egypt; which my covenant they brake, although I was an Husband unto them, saith the Lord: But this shall be the covenant that I will make with the house of Israel: After those days, saith the Lord, I will put my law in their inward parts, and write it in their hearts; and will be their God, and they shall be my people." (Jeremiah 31:33.) Amen.

LESSONS: Deuteronomy 6:1-15. Revelation 20. A. E. 199 or H. H. 463.
MUSIC: Liturgy, pages 531, 545, 517.
PRAYERS: Liturgy, nos. 22, 96.

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USES OF YOUTH 1934

USES OF YOUTH       J. S. PRYKE       1934

     It has been said that once a man has turned the corner of fifty, the greater part of his future lies behind him,-a waggism that will pass muster upon its own plane, as a reminder against neglecting the things of today, since if the spoken word can never be recalled, it is equally certain that the lost opportunity can seldom be recaptured. But when we ascend to the realm of spiritual thought, the idea of lost opportunities is presented in a newer light, and progress is known to be more a matter of stepping stones of one's dead self, that is, of repeated failures and persistent effort. Perhaps it would be more exact to say repeated apparent failures, because no genuine endeavor is ever entirely lost.

     Nevertheless, use-which is opportunity mated to desire-is, after all, the most important of life's considerations, either natural or spiritual. To be deprived entirely of use would be equivalent to a sentence of death, of which we might say, "You take my house when you do take the prop which doth sustain my house." As the Lord is the center and source of use, He has created every individual being and thing to be a vessel of use. Man, if he so wills, can, and in point of fact often does, turn by his reception the beneficent into the maleficent; but the truth still holds, that there can exist nothing divorced from use. For "where uses rule, the Lord rules," and He can neither abdicate nor be dethroned.

     It follows, then, that since man is himself a vessel of use, so also the different states of his life have their distinct uses, as do the states of humanity at large. Let it be remembered, too, that all such states are needed to bring about the perfect whole, and should any fail, imperfection is the result. In most ancient times men dwelt together in complete families containing persons of all ages. And so in the family today, as indeed in the civil state, every age must have its own representative; otherwise continuity fails. The dislocation caused by the Great War, both as regards actual deaths, and the interruption caused to the normal birth rate, is a striking commentary upon this for those who are interested in such matters.

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But, what is of no less importance, is that there should never be any deliberate endeavor, either to precipitate or to retard the individual state. The most valuable product of either the animal, the vegetable, or the mineral kingdom, is that one which has passed through all its orderly sequences unhurried and unhampered. The old simile of the strength of the chain matching the strength of its individual links applies with great force here.

     This clears the way to our consideration of the specific uses belonging to the State of Youth. For our present purpose it is not needful to place any time fixity upon this state, although the years between the ages of twelve and twenty may be assumed to mark its boundaries. So that of youth we may say that it is just about to close the door upon actual tutelage, and pass on to the opening of the door, upon the other side of which lies manhood, with all its thrills of new freedom and possibilities. This state of youth is one of eagerness and impetuosity, which qualities, and others similar to them, can be made to serve those who have progressed beyond the actual state itself. Youth can beckon on those who are still in the state of childhood; can inspire and re-invigorate those who, though marching along the same highway, may be doing so with laggard footsteps. The very impatience of youth may provide a reminder for the need of tolerance,-for the cherishing of ideals which age would fain experience afresh.

     But if age should resist the mental mortmain of outworn concepts and habits, and should shun placing a taboo upon this or that thing, because it was not done in its own day, no less should youth combat the natural impulse to ride over everything which seems to stand in its way. If youth has the priceless possession of unchilled enthusiasm, the possibility of enthusiasm being misdirected should not be overlooked. If age is often the repository of wisdom which has been proved by the fires of experience, it may, on the other hand, be accompanied by an aggregation of knowledge and habits which were better cast out. In these matters, as in all others, the New Churchman must seek the guidance of his doctrines. There he will learn to chime in with all states of life, to cherish sympathy with all rightful endeavor, to respect freedom even though the action projected may appear to be mistaken.

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He should ever be ready with encouragement for the first appearance of the young plant, foreseeing the time when this shall have grown into a sturdy tree with wide-spreading branches, in whose shade youth itself may gratefully rest.

     The state of youth is one of high resolve, rather than of actual endeavor and achievement, which come later. It is one of learning to look out upon a world in conflict with what was manifestly intended. It is one of a growing consciousness of wrong to be set right. Youth conjures up all the knowledge of truth which it has accumulated. It recalls its yearnings, its promises of better conditions, and determines to press forward as to a new Crusade with a shout of "Dieu le vult." Lovely, glowing youth! Surge forward in that conviction! Rightly understood, there is invincibility in it, Found a new order of knighthood, recapture the Holy Places of the New Jerusalem, and, as you are meant to do, bring back the age of Gold!

     May not the organization of The Sons of the Academy be regarded as a first step in this direction? That is what is meant by assisting in the establishment of the New Church, although only secondarily will the conquest be of this world. But here again success may come. For we are taught that man may employ his powers fully in mundane affairs, provided he regards himself as the agent, and maintains a pure disposition to charitable use,-a devotion to his Maker and to his neighbor, while shunning the perils of flattery as a lethal chamber of the soul.

     Towards this end it might be well for youth to adopt some personal motto, to act as a mental bannerette of youthful vows. A study of the Dedication to the "Idylls of the King" would explain more fully what is in mind, and it is capable of immense spiritual enrichment. This adoption of a guiding motto,-as, for instance, "To love truth for its own sake," or "Ecclesiam servive,"-might be considered in connection with the naming of children. And in this connection it may be permissible to recall a few words of Bishop Swedberg, who said, as a recent biographer reminds us: "I am fully convinced that children should be called such names as will awaken in and remind them of the fear of God, as of everything that is orderly and righteous. The name of my son, Emanuel, signifies `God With us,' that he may always remember God's presence."

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     The illustrious Servant of the Lord deeply appreciated the worth of discipline associated with the states leading up to early manhood, as witness the dedicatory epistle to his father attached to the thesis which admitted him to the degree of Doctor of Philosophy at the age of twenty-one years. He then wrote, in part: "To my most beloved parent, Jesper Swedberg, with the feelings of the utmost veneration and love: As there is nothing more sacred and delightful than to follow the steps of our ancestors and parents, and especially those which we may imitate, as well as honor their example, I experience no small pleasure in dedicating these first fruits of my studies and labor to that beloved parent, through whose paternal kindness and guidance my mind was first trained in piety, knowledge and virtue."

     The foregoing is adequate, not indeed to describe, but to indicate the opportunities and uses of Youth, as also its responsibilities, for there is a duty commensurate to each state. But let two further additions be made. One is an extract from the work on the Last Judgment, Post., no. 226: "The angels have joy when an infant or boy learns truths and acquires them from affection; they have greater joy when they become truths of understanding; still greater when they become of the will; and the greatest joy when they become of the act. They then love him because truths have taught him and led him to God." This is what induced me to say that it is competent for New Church Youth to found an order of spiritual chivalry. And this may be done in the assurance that our comrades now upon the other side will be very real sponsors.

     The second consideration and final observation is, that in reality eternal youth is the heritage of all of us. It is innermost in the very idea of immortality, which, after all, is another word for perpetual creation. Apart from constantly renewed youth, whether in the individual or racial aspect, humanity must become effete, must sicken soon and die. We are assured of this in Revelation, and we confirm it in our daily experience. Each tender green thing pushing upwards through its hard environment, each new birth of human or animal, each new idea, proclaims it. Who that has inhaled the first breath of a summer dawn, or heard the gentle fluttering of the wings of the morning, can be so insensate as to doubt the fact of eternal youth! The uses of youth, then, are as wide as creation, and they are untrammelled by time.

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For this reason is the Lord's New Church pictured as a "Bride adorned for Her Husband,"-the invitation into a state of perpetual renewal. For this cause, also, is that thrice precious promise made, " He shall renew thy youth like the eagle's." In eternity the states of age come back to those of youth.
NOTES ON THE CALENDAR READINGS 1934

NOTES ON THE CALENDAR READINGS       Rev. HUGO LJ. ODHNER       1934

     The State of the Christian World.

     Throughout the portion of the Arcana Coelestia that has been covered in our Daily Readings since February, 1933, there appears, prefaced to the chapters, a series of articles which unfold the internal sense of the 24th chapter of Matthew, concerning the signs of the consummation of the age and the second coming of the Lord. 'The volumes containing the treatment were published in 1751 and 1752, thus five or more years before the actual Judgment of 1757. yet even in the first volume of the Arcana, published in 1749, the idea of the "end of the world" was clearly excluded from the idea of the last judgment (no. 9312). In no. 1850, the last judgments on former churches are recounted, and the teaching given that "now a New Church will be raised up in some quarter of the globe, the present one remaining in its external worship, as the Jews do in theirs, in whose worship, it is well known, there is nothing of charity and faith, that is, nothing of the church."

     In the Arcana period, however, Swedenborg did not claim to know beforehand the exact date of the promised judgment. "Of that day and hour knoweth no one, not even the angels of the heavens, but my Father only," the Lord had said, meaning that even the heavens knew not the state of the church as to particulars, thus not when the state of judgment would come. (A. C. 4334.) But very many pious Christian souls-like Bishop Jesper Swedberg-interpreted the signs of the times to portend the approach of the "Last Day" for a world whose tale of iniquity was full. And in certain societies of the world of spirits, occasional tumults occurred which appeared to Swedenborg and to many spirits as the beginnings of the last judgment. (S. D. 1316, 2122, noted in the spring of 1748.)

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In 1749, he concedes that man is now perverted, and that very little intellectual good, namely, charity and faith, remains. (S. D. 4371.) And in A. C. 2121-2126 the terrible conditions prevailing in the other life are described, and these, it is said, make evident "that the last judgment is at hand."

     The present series, expounding the omens of judgment mentioned in Matthew xxiv, defines the last judgment as "nothing else than the end of the church with one nation and its beginning with another," or "its transference to others." (A. C. 3353.) The state of perversion and vastation within the Christian Church is then variously described. It is noted that the internal quality of Christians is disguised by externals of sanctity and civic friendship, so that their contempt for the goods and truths of faith is not apparent. But this state Swedenborg saw in the other life, where external restraints were removed, and their brutality and lack of conscience became revealed. "Such, as regards their interiors, are Christians at this day [A.D. 1751], except a few whom they do not know . . . " (3489). "Such are almost all within a vastated church, for they have externals, but no internals " (4424).

     In Providence, the vastation of a church naturally causes "the removal of those who are of the church from interior goods and truths to exterior, so that those may still be saved who are in a life of good and truth," and that others may not profane (3755). For similar reasons, "internal truths are not revealed until the church has been vastated" (3757). But this vastation had now so far advanced that "although men know and understand, still they do not acknowledge, and much less believe (see nos. 3398, 3399), except a few who are in the life of good, and are called the 'elect,' who can now be instructed, and with whom a New Church can be instituted. But where these are, the Lord alone knows; there will be few within the church; it has been among the gentiles that previous new churches have been set up. (See no. 2986.)" (A. C. 3898.)

     The "rejection of the old church" is described as an imperceptible inundation by evils and falsities (4334). The church "perishes principally as to the states of its interiors, and thus as to its states in the other life. Heaven then removes itself from them, and consequently the Lord, and transfers itself to others who are adopted in their stead; for without a church somewhere on earth there is no communication of heaven with man . . . " (4423).

259





     The Vain Hope of "Permeation."

     The teachings cited above from the present series in the Arcana should suffice to show up the folly of those who believe that the Christian churches will unconsciously receive new regenerative power, and, without making any acknowledgment of the Lord Jesus Christ as the one God of heaven and earth, become converted into a New Jerusalem! Yet the "Permeation theory" has been so advertised in various bodies of the New Church that it is apparently quite generally assumed that this theory "originates with Swedenborg himself."

     We would admit that there is an appearance that Swedenborg personally was more optimistic about the reception of his doctrines than some of us are at this day; as when he suggests that "the universities in Christendom are now first being instructed, whence will come new ministers; for the new heaven [which was in process of formation] has no influence over the old [clergy], who deem themselves too learned in the doctrine of justification by faith alone." (Letter to Beyer, 1767, Documents, vol. 2, p. 261.) Perhaps he was thinking in terms of the spiritual world; or perhaps we should admit that whatever acceptance the New Church has gained owed much to the freedom which at that time began to make itself felt in the universities. On the other hand, there is not the slightest evidence that his thought ever went counter to the laws of redemption which he had been the means of revealing, or that he ever discounted the force of his utterance that the angels "have slender hope of the men of the Christian world," despite the fact that the man of the church " now, from restored liberty, can better perceive internal truths, if he wills to perceive them." (L. J. 74.)

     No man is born who cannot be saved. But a church once vastated has no means within it for its own internal improvement or regeneration. Did the Christian religion, throughout its seventeen centuries, in the least penetrate or permeate the Jewish Church with Christian doctrine! No. A small remnant of Jews has been entering the fold of Christianity, but the Jewish religion remains now, as ever, the worship of the "invisible God." Indeed, the permeation has been the other way, in that the faith in the Lord Jesus Christ is actually being engulfed in Jewish unbelief through the services of Unitarians and Universalists.

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In the consummation of a church it is as the Doctrine indicates: "If they do not go to the Lord, and live according to His precepts, they are left by the Lord; and being left by the Lord, they become as pagans who have no religion; and then the Lord is only with those who will be of His New Church." (A. R. 750.)

     The fact that even in the pagan world each individual can be saved by living from sincerity and justice, and from a desire to retain something of a simple faith in the general truths of revealed religion, has therefore little to do with the opposite fact, that the old Christian Church has lost its pristine power for spiritual restoration. Such a regeneration can take place only by a repentant reception of the Lord in His Second Advent, by a vital acknowledgment of the fundamental doctrines of the spiritual sense of the Word, as they cohere in their ordered complex in the Writings. Just as even evil men, from childhood onwards, shun the worst evils and the most ludicrous falsities-and this so far as their rational judgment has grown by experience-so we may also expect the men of the vastated church to discard the dogmatic absurdities of their ancient creeds. But the internal roots of these falsities will remain, and will shoot forth in new forms ever more persuasive, more poisonous, and more frankly pagan.

     Recently a Universalist minister, writing about the New Church, notes that the General Convention maintains an "efficient standing committee to measure the extent of permeation of New Church doctrines throughout Christendom under the many names and forms that these doctrines take. According to the idea of permeation, which originated with Swedenborg [sic!], the world will gradually come to a recognition of the New Church regardless of the influence of specific organizations." (NEW-CHURCH MESSENGER, May 16, 1934.) Such a committee may be useful and harmless, until it becomes so "efficient" that it sees only the natural good against which the Writings warn us. (T. C. R. 754.) Tiny fragments of the broken mirror of truth are scattered everywhere in the world amongst sherds of the contorting mirrors of falsity! Such isolated truths merely give credibility to various falsities, and scarcely indicate any tendency on the part of the world to accept the saving faith of the New Church.

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The Christian world is in a black cloud. "The light of heaven, on entering that cloud, suffers instant perversion." (T. C. R. 484; A. C. 4423.) Only the acknowledgment of the Heavenly Doctrine as a whole-in its organic complex of truths--can restore regenerative power.

     The truth is, that "falsities and evils grow continually in a church once perverted and extinct." (A. C. 4503.) The accumulated evil of parents, imbibed by frequent use, and inrooted in their nature, "is transferred hereditarily into their offspring, and, unless they are reformed or regenerated, this evil is continued into successive generations, and then always increases. Hence the will becomes more prone to evils and falsities. But when the church is consummated and perishes, then the Lord always raises up a new church somewhere, but rarely, if ever, from the men of the former church, but from the gentiles who were in ignorance." (A. C. 2910.) Therefore, by the Holy Jerusalem descending from heaven is meant "a New Church with the gentiles, after the present one which is in our European world has been vastated." (A. C. 9407.)

     Perhaps, in the Lord's mercy, the growing paganism of the "civilized" world will, in the course of centuries, engender a gentile disposition among increasing multitudes, and thus provide a new field for the implantation of the Heavenly Doctrine. But in the meantime let us not forget that the only chance of salvation for men of such heredities as we possess lies in the maintenance of the uses of a distinctive New Church. The watchmen on the walls of Jerusalem must continue to sound their warning: "The morning cometh, and also the night!"
ANGELIC FELICITY 1934

ANGELIC FELICITY              1934

     "The angelic life consists in use, and in the goods of charity. For the angels perceive nothing more delightful than to inform and teach spirits arriving from the world, and to be of service to men, ruling the evil spirits that are with them, lest they go beyond limits, and inspiring the men with good; also to raise up the dead into the life of eternity, and afterwards, if their souls be such that it is possible, to introduce them into heaven. In performing these uses they perceive more happiness than can ever be described. Thus they are images of the Lord; they love the neighbor more than themselves; this, therefore, is heaven. Wherefore, angelic felicity is in use, and from use, and according to use, that is, according to the goods of love and charity." (A. C. 454.)

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CALENDAR READINGS 1934

CALENDAR READINGS              1934

     PSALMS.

     From June to November the Daily Readings in the Word are from the PSALMS. As an aid to those who wish to give further study to the meaning of specific verses, we list below the Sermons on texts from the PSALMS which have been published in New Church Life and New Church Sermons.

Text.     N. C. L.           N. C. S.           Text.      N. C. L.      N. C. S.
1:1      1895, p. 18      1923, Apl.           24:7                    1930, Apl.
1:1, 2     1885, p. 146                    24:7                    1931, June
1:2      1895, p. 34                         24:7-10      1919, p. 564
1:3      1895, p. 66      1925, Oct.      25:7                         1925, June
1:3      1896, p. 33                         31:15                    1921, Jan.
1:3      1899, p. 3                         31:18      1931, p. 270
1:3      1907, p.398                         32:2           1899, p.51
1:6                    1931, Jan.           32:2           1905, p.658
2:-      1897, p. 68                         33:17                    1931, June
2:3-5 1897, p. 83                         34:7           1910, p. 724
2:6,7 1896, p.2                         37:1           1924, p.393
2:9      1897, p. 114                         37:3           1890, p. 194
2:10-12 1897, p.132                         37:7                    1921, Dec.
4:8      1894, p. 146                         37:23      1929, p. 150
8:1, 2                    1928, May           31:37      1928, p. 16
12:1                    1922, Dec.           41:4           1927, p. 76
14:1                    1921, Oct.           41:13                    1928, Apl.
15:1      1918, p. 411                         45:-           1889, p. 170
15:1      1896, p. 163                         48:12, 13      1889, p.138
15:2      1896, p. 180                         48:12-14      1929, p.653
15:3      1897, p. 3                         50:14                    1923, Nov.
15:4      1897, p. 19                         51:4           1927, p. 76
15:5      1897, p. 34                         51:10      1888, p. 98
15:5      1897, p. 52                         68:27                    1929, Nov.
18:25                    1927, Oct.           84:11                    1924, Jan.
19:1      1921, p.326      1927, Nov.           86:15      1924, p. 519
19:14                    1925, Jan.           90:4                    1920, May
20:1, 2                    1931, Jan.           90:4                    1927, May
23:1                    1929, Mar.           90:7                    1924, May
23:1-3 1902, p. 116                         90:12      1917, p. 336
24:1,2 1900, p. 635                         91:5, 6      1930, p. 339
24:3, 4 1925, p. 9                    91:11,12      1912, p. 348

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92:1      1890, p. 109                         121:1,2      1904, p. 584
92:12-15 1919, p.438                    121:3, 4      1903, p. 347
95:6                    1931, Dec.           121:8      1911, p. 566
99:9                    1924, Oct.           126:5, 6      1902, p. 564
100:1,2 1883, p.19                         126:5,6      1922, p.236
103:1,2 1925, p.519                         127:3-5                    1929, June
103:12                    1920, No. 19      130:3, 4                    1928, Feb.
103:14 1926, p. 360                         132:6, 7      1892, p. 182
103:17 1921, p. 534                         133:-                    1927, Feb.
104:34 1931, p. 4                         133: -                    1931, Apl.
107:1-3                    1931, Nov.           135:7                    1926, May
116:12-14 1895, p.114                    136:1                    1921, Nov.
116:12-14 1901, p.135                    139: 7                    1922, Apl.
118:22 1892, p. 130                         139:8      1896, p. 130
119:18 1927, p. 262                         145:9                    1923, May
HOLINESS OF IGNORANCE 1934

HOLINESS OF IGNORANCE              1934

     "A childlike state is holy, because it is innocent. Ignorance never takes away holiness, when there is innocence in it; for holiness dwells in the ignorance which is innocent. With all men, otherwise than with the Lord, holiness can dwell only in ignorance; unless it be in ignorance, it is not holiness. With the angels themselves, who are in the highest light of intelligence and wisdom, holiness also dwells in ignorance; for they know and acknowledge that they know nothing from themselves, but that whatever they know is from the Lord. They also know and acknowledge that all their science, intelligence and wisdom is as nothing in comparison with the infinite knowledge, intelligence and wisdom of the Lord; thus that it is ignorance. He who does not acknowledge that there are infinite things which he does not know, beyond those which he does know, cannot be in the holiness of ignorance in which the angels are. The holiness of ignorance does not consist in being more ignorant than others, but in the acknowledgment that of himself a man knows nothing, and that the things he does not know are infinite in comparison with those he does know; and especially in his regarding scientific and intellectual things as of little moment in comparison with celestial things; that is, the things of the understanding in comparison with the things of life." (A. C. 1557.)

264



NOTES AND REVIEWS. 1934

NOTES AND REVIEWS.              1934


NEW CHURCH LIFE
Office a Publication, Lancaster, Pa.
Published Monthly By
THE GENERAL CHURCH OF THE NEW JERUSALEM
BRYN ATHYN, PA.
Editor               Rev. W. B. Caldwell, Bryn Athyn, Pa.
Business Manager          Mr. H. Hyatt, Bryn Athyn, Pa.

     All literary contributions should be sent to the Editor. Subscriptions, change of address and business communications should be sent to the Business Manager.

     TERMS OF SUBSCRIPTION
$3.00 a year to any address, payable in advance. Single Copy, 30 cents.
     FOR SUNDAY SCHOOLS.

     MANUAL OF LESSONS. New Church Sunday School Union. Edited by the Rev. H. Gordon Drummond. Publisher: Rev. H. Barnes, 111 Grove Place, Huddersfield, England. Paper; 60 pages; one shilling.

     As stated in the Foreword, "the object of these Lessons is to present distinctive New Church teaching in an interesting manner, by means of doctrine drawn from the Letter of the Word and by correspondences." The Syllabus of Lessons assigns a general subject for each Sunday in the period of April 1st to June 30th, 1934, as follows: 1. Easter; 2. The Word; 3. The Creator; 4. The Redeemer; 5. Providence; 6. Commandments; 7. Lord's Prayer; 8. Whit-Sunday; 9. Canaan- Report of the Spies; 10. A Good Land; 11. Hills and Valleys; 12. Lake of Galilee; 13. River Jordan. The work takes up each topic in order, and provides a Golden Text for the day, with introductory comment upon its general meaning. Then follow Notes on the Text in particular, and Deeper Instruction (For Teachers and Senior Scholars), where the Doctrine is given, with citations from the Writings. Instruction is then furnished as to the presentation of the Lesson, its Application and Conclusion; and Suggestions are made for Readings from the Word, Prayers, and Hymns.

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A line sketch of the Land of Canaan is provided at the end.

     As a guide to Sunday School teachers, the general plan of this Manual is an advance beyond anything we have seen, the light of the New Church pervading the detailed comment upon the Scripture story of each Lesson, and being made definite in the doctrine which follows. The method of treatment indicates the need for a thorough and systematic preparation of each Lesson, and also shows how essential is a "background" from the Heavenly Doctrines in teaching the Letter of the Word to the young. From no other source can the instructor gain the "genuine sense of the letter," or derive that inspiration from the Lord which comes only through the internal of the Word. The sphere of this is imparted to the pupils, exciting their interest and affection, and preparing them for the later opening of the mind to the spiritual sense in understanding and life. It is then, after the rational has been opened, that the law of correspondence can be grasped,-the living relation between the abstract ideas of the spiritual sense and the concrete terms of the natural sense,-and this law employed in the light of doctrine to unfold the internal sense of the Word. In childhood, a few correspondences can be learned as knowledges or scientifics, especially from the many comparisons that are found in the Scriptures, as where the Lord said to His disciples, "Behold, I send you forth as sheep in the midst of wolves; be ye therefore prudent as serpents, and simple as doves." (Matthew 10:16.) Of course, this vital work in the church is more effectively performed where religious instruction is given twice or three times a week in the classes of a New Church day school, but when this is not possible it can be accomplished in a satisfying measure by zealous effort in the home and in the Sunday School.

     The Manual before us points the way to a comprehensive work of the kind covering all the leading stories of Scripture, and enriched by material from the Memorabilia,-objective accounts of things heard and seen in the spiritual world, which so delight the eager minds of children, and are so powerful a means of impressing them with the reality of the other life,-the heavenly life which is the internal of the Word.

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     In connection with the subject of the River Jordan, for example the Manual might well have referred the teacher to the Spiritual Diary, nos. 2289, 2290, where he would find a description of the crossing of the Jordan as enacted by spirits with such innocent delight. And in a work whose avowed object is "to present distinctive New Church teaching," the treatment of "Whit-Sunday" (Pentecost), and of "The Lake of Galilee," featuring the call of the disciples by the Lord, and assigned as the Lesson for Sunday, June 17th, should have included an account of the commissioning of the twelve apostles in the spiritual world on the 19th of June, 1770,-the Pentecost of the New Church.
FOR THE CHILDREN'S WORSHIP 1934

FOR THE CHILDREN'S WORSHIP              1934

BOOK OF WORSHIP FOR SCHOOL AND HOME. Edited by the Rev. H. Gordon Drummond. Manchester: New Church Sunday School Union, 1934. Limp Cloth; 16mo, 59 pages; price one shilling.

     This little volume was "issued with the hope that it will help toward improvement of the sphere of worship" in the Sunday Schools of the General Conference. A suggested Order of Service is given, together with Sentences and Recitations, and these are followed by a collection of seventy-three Prayers suitable for children's services and family worship in the New Church. This department of the book furnishes material that may be used by the ministers and parents of the General Church in connection with our Hymnal.
NEW BIOGRAPHY OF SWEDENBORG 1934

NEW BIOGRAPHY OF SWEDENBORG              1934

     As we learn from THE HELPER of June 6, Mrs. Marguerite Beck Block, author of The New Church in the New World, has been awarded a fellowship by the American Scandinavian Foundation, enabling her to study the Eighteenth Century background for use in a new biography of Emanuel Swedenborg. She has been studying the Swedish language, and expects to be in Sweden throughout the summer. The writing of the biography will probably be completed in two years.

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Church News 1934

Church News       Various       1934

     SYDNEY, AUSTRALIA.

     The burning question with us at present is: "Who will take Miss Mora White's place as teacher in our Day School?" For the time is not far distant when she will be obliged to relinquish a work which has been brought to a definite stage of development, and which we hope will be continued by another. It is the only New Church Day School in Australia, and is situated on the eastern shore of this great continent, which fact calls to mind the inquiry of the Wise Men from the East who came to worship the Lord. Certainly the prime object of the school is the true worship of the Lord by means of a useful life for others.

     Recently a surprise card party surprised one of our members of standing, and it was found that Mrs. Heldon preferred to have her birthday celebrated in this manner. There were many players, and on the whole the affair was a success. But, as often happens with cards, when two play two, an expert is hampered by a partner who is not expert, and at the finish has to join in the applause which greets the pair of mediocre players to whom the prize is awarded! Such a conclusion is not possible in a game of chess, in which one plays one; but the objection to this great game at such a function is its very possible longevity. However, the concluding supper caused all such small grievances to be forgotten.

     Our Social Tea on April 15th was especially interesting. Mr. Ossian Heldon's paper on the subject of the Planet Mercury was a very worthy one, and gave evidence of considerable research in the Writings. It was Mr. Heldon's birthday anniversary, which was acknowledged with good wishes by all present, as also was Norma Radford's coming into the church by baptism, on March 25th. A birthday book was presented to Norma, and all present subscribed their names therein.
     RICHARD MORSE.

     BRITISH ASSEMBLY PROGRAM.

     At the Opening Session of the British Assembly, to be held in Michael Church, London, on Saturday, August 4th, at 7:30 p.m., Bishop de Charms will deliver the Presidential Address.

     On Sunday, August 5th, at 11:00 a.m., there will be a Service of Divine Worship, with Sermon by Bishop Tilson, followed by the administration of the Holy Supper. At 7:00 p.m., the Second Session will be held, the Rev. A. Wynne Acton delivering an Address.

     The Third Session of the Assembly will be held on Monday, August 6th, at 11:00 a.m., when the Rev. Victor J. Gladish will deliver an Address. On Monday afternoon at 3 o'clock, there will be an open meeting of the British Chapter of the Sons of the Academy. The Assembly will close with the customary Social at 7:30 p.m.

     On the day preceding the opening of the Assembly,-Friday, August 3d, at 1:00 p.m.,-a meeting of the New Church Club will be held at The Old Bell Restaurant, Holborn, London, E. C. 1. The Address on this occasion will be delivered by Mr. J. S. Pryke.
     V. J. G.

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     OBITUARY.

     Knud Knudsen.

     The Writings tell us that the perfection and joy of the angels increases with the advent of a new character from the earth. Such was our thought when the news came from Odense, Denmark, that on April 16, 1934, our old friend, Knud Knudsen, in his eighty-second year, had left us for another shore. Perhaps his outstanding characteristic was the original thought he expressed when discussing matters of the Church, business ethics, or politics.

     He came to the United States from his native Denmark when a young man, and landed here with little equipment besides a knowledge of shoemaking. He often spoke of the great handicaps of a stranger in a foreign land, with language, customs and traditions so new. But our friend, although small of stature, was not lacking in determination, enthusiasm, and stick-to-it-iveness (a word he was fond of using), and it was not long before he acquired a shoe store at 10th and Callowhill Streets, Philadelphia. It was here that his son Charles was born. After the death of his first wife, he moved to a larger store and home at 2202 Ridge Avenue, which was destined to become one of the headquarters for Advent Church activities.

     When he first heard of the New Church, he believed that he was not worthy to join until he overcame the smoking habit, only to find later many "fallen brothers" in the Church. However, he stuck to his guns, and eloquently explained that the tobacco plant was so vile that the mountain goat would not eat it!

     On October 11, 1899, Mr. Knudsen was married to Miss Ella Aitken, who joined him most earnestly in the uses of the Advent Church. For twenty years he was Treasurer of the Society, and later was a member of the Finance Board, always inspiring the faithful band to maintain the local church in Philadelphia. After he returned to Denmark he kept in touch with his friends in America by letters in his own style and spirit. His Knudsenian philosophy was unanswerable, and we know that when the "Great Dane" (as he was affectionately called) is asked, "What news from the Earth?" he will deliver the s message with enthusiasm and distinction.     
     FRED J. COOPER.

     GLENVIEW, ILLINOIS.

     The annual banquet of the local chapter of the Sons of the Academy, to which all the adults were invited, was one of the most enjoyable and notable functions of the season. Mr. Harold P. McQueen presided as toastmaster, and also installed the newly elected officers, calling them before him and addressing words of counsel and advice, both serious and witty, to each. Mr. Donald Merrell, of Cincinnati, was the speaker of the evening, and gave a splendid paper on the subject of "Uses as Performed by New Churchmen."

     The regular bimonthly meeting of the Men's Assembly (General Council) was held in May. After a short business session, the Rev. Gilbert H. Smith read a paper on the subject of "Celestial Marriage and Conjugial Love." It was generally agreed that we had never heard a better presentation of this subject, and it is hoped that the paper can be made available to others. It took us older men back to the times when men's meetings were more frequent, and nearly always considered some phase of the doctrine of conjugial love.     

     Incidentally, at this meeting the Assembly adopted a set of by-laws for the more orderly conduct of its affairs. These by-laws provide that any member may place upon the docket for consideration "any subject," such subject thereafter, on vote, to be taken from the docket for discussion. Certainly this is freedom.

     Memorial Day was observed in The Park by a cafeteria luncheon under the trees, followed by games, after which a playlet was given indoors by local talent.

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     Owing to the unprecedented heat at the time of the last Friday class, the chairs were taken from the tables after supper, and all present moved out to the grass on the plaza in front of the buildings. The Pastor then gave us a paper on the subject of "The External and Internal Memories," showing how every act and thought and affection of a man is recorded in his "book of life." As the all-time record dry-spell has forestalled the mosquitoes, it was very pleasant and intimate thus to gather together in the open to hear and discuss this interesting paper.

     Mrs. E. J. E. Schreck, accompanied by Miss Ellen Wallenberg, has gone for a visit to friends in England.     
     J. B. S.

     PITTSBURGH, PA.

     Following the Friday Supper on April 20th, the semiannual meeting of the society listened to reports by the pastor, secretary, treasurer, school teacher, organist, and statistician. All present were very much interested in these reports, and this brought an atmosphere of earnestness to the meeting. Dr. Iungerich, after summarizing the events of the last half-year, discussed the subject of "Spirit in our Worship." The chief purpose in our Sunday service is the worship of the Lord. It is the sincerity in our worship and the fraternity in our social gatherings that will impress others, and make them feel that we really have the truth among us. The pastor concluded his remarks with the thought that the Writings should be to us what the Ten Commandments are to most men. They teach us how to think and how to live, and for that reason we should be constantly reading them.

     A special meeting of the society was called for June 1st, and our financial conditions were thoroughly discussed. It is hoped that all will come forward 100 per cent strong and make up the monthly deficit, creating a surplus for the mortgage fund.

     The Rev. F. E. Waelchli addressed the society after the supper on June 4th, his subject being "The Shunning of Evils as Sins." He suggested that we were familiar with this topic, and then proceeded to present it from an entirely different angle. We always enjoy the visits of Mr. Waelchli, and feel instructed by his classes.

     We regret that the Edwin T. Asplundh family have departed from our midst. We also feel the absence of Miss Nadezhda Iungerich but duty and a career called her to New York, and we wish her all success. Mr. and Mrs. S. S. Lindsay, Jr., are being congratulated upon the birth of a daughter,-Martha Stuart.
     E. R. D.

     JONKOPING, SWEDEN.

     The little group in Jonkoping is steadily increasing in numbers, and is also progressing, it would seem, in internal strength.

     On February 8th of this year, "Nykyrkliga Foreningen i Jonkoping" (The New Church Club in Jonkoping) was formed, anyone interested in the Heavenly Doctrine being eligible for membership. There are now 34 members, of whom 27 are above 16 years of age, and 12 above the age of 30. There are 7 children. New Church baptism is not required for membership, and the Club is intended to be an "outer court," as it were, of the General Church Society in Stockholm.

     Mr. Ryno Sigstedt, who is the driving force in the little group, writes: "The feeling of being enrolled members brought many of those who had usually paid only occasional visits more regularly to our meetings. While our services of worship were formerly attended by 20 persons, of late this has been increased to about 30 persons. Our Reading Evenings have also been well attended (about 20 persons), and the interest has been great. It is uplifting and sometimes moving to see so many young people with us."     
     ERIK SANDSTROM.

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     WASHINGTON, D. C.

     The Washington Society has just closed its nine months of activity with a picnic at Hains Point following the service on June third.

     Our Pastor, Dr. Alfred Acton, has been with us seven times. Candidates Erik Sandstrom and W. Cairns Henderson officiated on the other two occasions. It was a pleasure to have these visiting ministers, and we hope they enjoyed being with us as much as we enjoyed having them.

     The Society has been able to hold but four suppers during the season, but these were unusually enjoyable, one of them being held at the home of Mr. and Mrs. Richard de Charms, who, with their two children, joined us in January of this year, making very valuable additions to the society.

     We have had one home dedication,-that of Dr. and Mrs. Philip Stebbing. The service, which was simple but most impressive, was conducted by Dr. Acton.

     The Secretary is glad to report the birth of a new baby,-a daughter born to Mr. and Mrs. Rowland Trimble. This makes the children in our society number seven; so we feel that we have a growing New Church Society.
     E. G. C.

     BRYN ATHYN.

     With the approach of the vacation period, the society looks back upon an active season in the various departments of its uses, which have been well maintained under some adverse circumstances,-the economic restrictions of the times and a winter of abnormal cold and heavy snows, followed by an epidemic of sickness chiefly affecting the children. After the celebration of the Easter Festival at the beginning of April, the Sunday children's services were discontinued, owing to quarantine regulations made necessary by a visitation of mumps, which also seriously affected school attendance. There was little interference, however, with other society activities.

     On Friday evenings, after the supper and singing practice, a series of instructive classes on the subject of "Burnt Offerings and Sacrifices" was conducted by Bishop de Charms, beginning in February. This was followed by a notable series of classes in which the doctrine of "Repentance" was presented by Bishop Pendleton. After the concluding supper on May 18th, the Spring Meeting of the Bryn Athyn Church gave consideration to various church and school matters. Plans are being made for the entertainment of the General Assembly in Bryn Athyn next June. We hear that a feature of the program will be a Pageant by the students of the Academy Schools, to be prepared during the coming school year.

     The Sunday morning services in the cathedral, and the evening service once a month, have been attended by good-sized congregations, including in their numbers many visiting members of the General Church, as well as strangers. During recent months there have been many notable sermons by the pastors of the church and other ministers, and the worship has often been enhanced by special music, both choral and instrumental.

     Important lectures on a variety of topics have been given at meetings of the Women's Guild, the Younger Generation, the local chapter of the Sons of the Academy, and under the auspices of the Civic and Social Club. Among the subjects treated were: "The Cathedral," by Mr. Raymond Pitcairn; "Morals," by the Rev. Hugo Lj. Odhner; "The Air Mail," by Mr. Harold Pitcairn; "Patent Law," by Mr. Edward Davis; and "Death Duties," by Mr. Paul Synnestvedt.

     In the field of entertainment, the Civic and Social Club has given a number of dances, and on April 14th lived up to its high reputation in dramatics by its staging of "The Royal Family." Two fine Chamber Music Concerts were offered by the String Quartet,-Adolfo Betti, Raymond Pitcairn, Frank Bostock, and Bertrand Austin,-one being held in the Choir Hall in February, with Karen and Michael Pitcairn assisting, the other at Cairncrest in April, the programs on both occasions presenting the classic masterpieces in superb style.

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     During the latter days of May there were further dramatic treats on the stage of the auditorium when the students of the higher schools of the Academy gave two splendid performances of "Pinafore," and the pupils of the Elementary School delighted two audiences with charming performances of the operetta, "Cinderella." The Theta Alpha Charity Ball on May 29th was a fine affair, and profitable to the scholarship fund of that organization.

     Elementary School Closing.

     The closing exercises of the Bryn Athyn Elementary School were held in the Assembly Hall on Thursday, June 14, at 11.00 a.m., Bishop de Charms conducting the opening worship, which included the reading of Psalm 86 and Heaven and Hell 512. Mr. Winfred Hyatt then addressed the school. We summarize his address:

     For fifty-eight years the Academy has stood firm for the recognition of the authority of the Writings, and for distinctive New Church education. These have been years of progress, and we are now in the third generation of students of its schools. Many battles were fought by the Academy. We enjoy the fruits of the victories won, and we owe the Academy a debt of gratitude. There is danger that we may take for granted the things for which the Academy has fought; we must find in them a source of inspiration. This is no ordinary school. It is an arm of a Church that is unique in the world today,- I Church whose doctrines are received by few. Only the shadow of the truths it presents has been discerned by the richest scholarship of the world. The student of the Academy Schools enters into a rich heritage that may become for him a complete philosophy of life. This means greater responsibility. As we grow older, we must read the Writings for ourselves, and so be prepared, in freedom, for life. Independence of thought is to be attained through the development of the rational mind, that mind which it is the aim of our education to open in the years that immediately follow the elementary school. In a word, New Church education aims at the cultivation of spiritual intelligence.

     In thanking Mr. Hyatt for his ad dress, Principal Heilman spoke in a laudatory manner of the work of the graduating class, and presented certificates to the fifteen members of the class.

     ACADEMY SCHOOLS.

     Graduations.

GIRLS' SEMINARY      13
BOYS' ACADEMY      10

     JUNIOR COLLEGE: Catherine Emilie Aye, Bertha Evangeline Bergstrom, Elizabeth Guthrie Cronlund, Martha Jane Heilman, Benjamin L. Powell.

     BACHELOR OF ARTS: Morley Dyckman Rich.

     BACHELOR OF SCIENCE IN EDUCATION: Louise Gladish.

     BACHELOR OF THEOLOGY: William Cairns Henderson, Erik Sandstrom.

     Honors.

     Oratorical Prize (Silver Cup): Charles Snowden Cole, Jr.

     Alpha Kappa Mu Merit Par: Elizabeth Childs.

     Deka Medal: Marion Cranch.

     Sons of the Academy Gold Medal: Charles Snowden Cole, Jr.

     Honorable Mention for leadership and whole-hearted support of the school: Frank William Ingersoll.

     Theta Alpha Scholarship Awards: Barbara Gyllenhaal, Phyllis Bellinger, (both partial); Marion Cranch (tuition).

     A further report of June events in Bryn Athyn will appear in the next issue of New Church Life.

272



ORDINATIONS 1934

ORDINATIONS              1934




     Announcements.



     BISHOP PENDLETON has officiated at the following Ordinations:

     Henderson.-At Bryn Athyn, Pa., June 10, 1934, Mr. William Cairns Henderson, into the First Degree of the Priesthood.

     Odhner.-At Bryn Athyn Pa., June 17, 1934, Rev. Philip Nathaniel Odhner, into the Second Degree of the Priesthood.

     Sandstrom.-At Bryn Athyn, Pa., June 10, 1934, Mr. Erik Sandstrom, into the First Degree of the Priesthood.
27TH BRITISH ASSEMBLY 1934

27TH BRITISH ASSEMBLY       VICTOR J. GLADISH       1934

     Members and friends of the General Church of the New Jerusalem are cordially invited to attend the Twenty-seventh British Assembly, which will be held at Michael Church, Burton Road, Brixton, London, on Saturday, Sunday and Monday, August 4th to 6th, 1934. Those expecting to be present are requested to notify the undersigned, at 61 Lexden Road, Colchester, England.
     VICTOR J. GLADISH,
          Secretary.

     The PROGRAM of the British Assembly will be found on page 267.

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SUCCESS 1934

SUCCESS       DONALD F. ROSE       1934


NEW CHURCH LIFE
VOL. LIV          AUGUST, 1934          No. 8
     ACADEMY COMMENCEMENT ADDRESS, 1934.

     Bishop Pendleton, Members of the Board and Faculty, Ladies and Gentlemen, and those among you who may be termed 'unfinished business':

     May I confess, in preliminary apology, that it is a pleasing but alarming privilege to be permitted to make an address on this momentous occasion. It is a delightful distinction, for the roll-call of oratory at the commencement exercises of the Academy Schools includes many names of credit and renown, and I shall be proud some day to tell my great-grandchildren, if any, that I was once among them.

     But the assignment is alarming because it announces that a great gap already lies between my own school days and the occasion when my son, with shining morning face, presents himself to be certificated as a survivor of twelve years of assorted experiences within these walls. I am assuming, for the sake of argument, that a document to that effect awaits him on yonder table.

     My astonishment under the circumstances will only be appreciated by my fellow parents. They will also agree that it is difficult to think of anything suitable and instructive to say to seniors, since some parents have been endeavoring to do so for the past six months or so. There is a difficult abyss to be crossed between our meditative middle age and their impatient and optimistic youth.

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A commencement speaker knows it, for nobody is invited to make a baccalaureate address until he is definitely antique, if not actually decrepit.

     Day-by-day association with youngsters, however, is a means of postponing the hardening of the intellectual and emotional arteries. I should like to assure my academic audience that neither their teachers nor their parents are as old and crabby as they sometimes seem. On these annual occasions our own school days are but yesterdays, not distant and dusty memories. We have been through all this before, not very long ago, and listened like yourselves to post-mortem and prophetic discourses on commencement day. And to me, as probably to you, it is a thrilling thing that three generations have done so. Three generations have kept the faith of the Academy, and renewed it in the ceremonies and festivities of graduation day. Their three lifetimes, including your own, will span a century.

     In respect to my son and his senior associates I would like to point out that they have arrived at graduation by essentially the same process as that whereby I have reached what some call middle age and others consider the prime of life. They have grown up to it, which is not much to their credit, nor entirely the achievement of their teachers. I hope they don't think, therefore, that a sheet of paper tied with red-and-white ribbon is suddenly going to make them educated. If some boys were required to wait for education they would graduate at last in long white whiskers. It would be much more accurate to say that on commencement day they are considered fit and ready for real education. And that, you see, establishes a bond of sympathy among us all, for the chief and cheerful certainty of life is that it is always just beginning. This is commencement day for the graduates, but the best wish we may make for them is that their lives may be full of commencement days.

     This fitness and readiness doesn't mean that maturity is something which can be put on like a full-dress suit when a boy is big enough to wear one. But the trials and tribulations of the senior year are far removed from the little troubles of the freshmen and sophomores, as the seniors will enthusiastically agree. Some of you may think that the grim purpose of the Faculty is to make the last semester of school as tough as possible. I don't think so; for whatever is tough for the scholastic goose is tough for the pedagogic gander.

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It is simply that studies begin to come to grips with realities in the senior year. It is then that boys find out, or should find out, that school is not merely a nice place to send an infant when you can't imagine what else to do with him, and that teachers have serious intentions when they drag a boy, gently but firmly, through four years of instruction and discipline.

     The vital value of these years you may not learn until later and maybe not then. Nothing lasts a lifetime except the things of the spirit, and it is none too easy to discover the spiritual values of a stiff course in second year Latin or applied geometry. But we have no right to discredit them on that account. All of us have heard grumblings against the kind of subjects that are taught in schools, and some of the gentlemen in the front rows have done some of the grumbling. May I suggest that some of your pet annoyances can be accurately compared to the troublesome but not dangerous diseases of infancy. You know that modern science thinks they serve a double purpose. They confer a kind of immunity against more serious illness in later life. If you have successfully taken a mild case of algebra, for instance, you are not likely to take it again. But the medicine men also claim that infantile ailments may protect you from much more dangerous diseases in later life. So, if you have survived senior civics, you may some day escape a debilitating attack of communism or fascism.

     While considering the enduring values of your intellectual exercises, let us glance briefly at history, together with its sister studies. I can assure you from painful experience that you won't remember many of the facts and figures which stood by you so faithfully in your final examinations. It doesn't matter, because you can still find them in the books where you found them in the first place. But you have learned much, nevertheless, from history and your teachers of history. You have found out, for example, that the world was an old story before you were born into it. That is a tremendously important discovery, and man is the only living creature that can make it. And you must make it, if you intend to live reasonably and usefully in a present world which is the product of all the past. That is truer today than ever in human experience. This thing we call civilization doesn't make sense, unless you know something of its past and can foresee something of its future.

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     And the study of history has also taught you that the world isn't finished, even though the class of 1934 is about to graduate. Nor does any evidence indicate that civilization can be expected to settle down within this century, or the next, or for a long time to come. Old folks like myself are sometimes tempted to think that we have seen everything, or nearly everything. We like the world the way it is, more or less, because we are used to it that way. So, then, we easily believe that it ought to be that way, and that change and unrest are wrong, dangerous and demoralizing.

     On that score the younger generation mustn't take us too seriously. Don't be too much worried when we urge a turning back to the good old days, to times and conditions in which we used to feel at home. For the place where we used to be isn't there any more.

     But what lies ahead, behind the blind fog of the future I'm sure I haven't the slightest idea. Yet I honestly congratulate those of you who will live long enough to find out. It is for that exciting uncertainty that you have been trained, and better trained than most of your contemporaries.

     It is pleasant to be able to congratulate you, moreover, because you didn't graduate during the past three or four years, but have wisely waited until today. Possibly this is the most adventurous moment in modern times, with giants at large in the land, and a wilderness of new ideas and tangled problems to tempt the pioneer spirit.

     There may be some small difficulty in finding a job, but nobody need be bored nowadays for lack of something to think about. There are ample opportunities, though they don't look like the opportunities which gave your grandfather his start in life. Let us remember that opportunities never look familiar, or else everybody would grab them at once. But a changing world is bound to be full of them, if we have wit and courage to see and seize them.

     This is a swell time to be making the world your oyster, if that is your modest intention. You must find your own oyster knife, for the old ones are blunted and rusted. Nobody can offer much advice as to how to go about it, as you may judge for yourself from the exciting disagreement of the best brains in the country on matters political, social and economic,-a kind of disagreement not entirely unknown in the harmonious councils of the Academy Faculty.

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     I think I should warn my son, like a thoughtful father, to be careful about taking plugged nickels from strangers or too much advice from his friends. Giving advice, in most cases, is like reading horoscopes. If a fortune teller could really read the future, he wouldn't need to charge two dollars for reading somebody else's horoscope. He could make a million dollars in two weeks on the stock exchange,-if there is still a million dollars left in Wall Street. And those who give advice most confidently are usually those who can't take it.

     But a commencement address without advice in it somewhere would break all the rules. So I would like to say a word or two about success, and how to attain it. The advice will be academic and philosophic, rather than a product of personal experience, but school boys and girls are used to that sort of thing. Teachers are always telling them what to do, which doesn't necessarily mean that the teacher himself knows how to do it. I remember that I once coached a basketball team, though I was one of the worst fumblers of a basketball who ever wore short pants in the Academy gymnasium. It didn't matter. I told the team what to do, and the team did it.

     Young men and women want to be successful, and it's a good thing they do. Otherwise there would be little progress, and the young folks would hang around the house until their fond parents got pretty tired of seeing them there. But it is rather important to determine what is meant by success. It is more than a goal of energetic ambition, for ambition is very likely to lead a man into a one-way street, which ends in a blind alley. Success of a sort may be found there. But somebody has said that such success is last year's nest, from which the bird has flown.

     What is success? In terms of temporal accomplishment, of jobs and salaries, of responsibilities and their rewards, it is no longer possible to tell you. You may read the reason for that between the lines of your newspaper. All the strange doctrines you may find there, all the stress and conflict of theory and policy, all the experiments of statesmen and economists, are part of civilization's effort to set new standards of success. The standards have changed repeatedly since the world began. Success has been measured in physical strength, in power over the lives of men, in money and possessions.

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It has been measured in terms of leadership and fame, of profit making or the opportunities of self-indulgence. Sometimes it has been measured in terms of honesty and morality, though none too often.

     And good government, all over the world, tries to alter and amend and improve the standards of success, as the world regards them. It does so by laws and prohibitions, by the force of fashion and custom, even by codes and treaties. If you care to give credit to the good and forgive the bad in the so-called New Deal, you may say that it is trying, against serious odds, to set new standards in the social and industrial life of the United States, for the very good reason that the old ones have been tried and found wanting.

     But these matters do not much concern us here and now. The success we care about is of another character. And may I offer the suggestion that your best repayment of your debt to the Academy is to follow her example in recognizing what is most worth while, and pledging there your love and loyalty. Give your best service and sincerity, not to the squabbles of politics or the quibbles of economics, but to the truth for which the Academy stands. Render unto Caesar the things that are Caesar's, for Caesar is master of the world in which we must live and play the part of useful citizens. But the rest of the text is that we must render to God the things that are God's. And these are the affections of the heart, the thoughts of our innermost mind, the faith and courage and dedication of our lives. These are God's; they are not Caesar's.

     That is successful living for the son and daughter of the Academy. And those who know it and believe it will never be too much overwrought about problems in politics, issues in economics, and all the quarrelsome questions which trouble the world today. They are important in their place, but not as important as the matters of life and death which you have studied here.

     So let us not fritter away our faith upon doctrines which won't endure. Nor spend our best strength for achievements of no lasting worth. And in the name of good sense and good citizenship let us regard with intelligent disrespect the passionate loyalties and antipathies of politics, the service to queer cults and quack theories, and all the persuasions and prejudices which keep so many Americans in an unpleasant state of mind toward their neighbors. These things are not worth so much loyalty.

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But there are things which are, and you know what they are. Render unto Caesar the things that are Caesar's, but with no more reverence or enthusiasm than Caesar deserves. But render unto God the things that are God's, "with all thy heart, and with all thy soul, and with all thy mind, and with all thy strength," for this is the "first and great commandment."

     If one thing, above all others, has been taught by the Academy to her sons and daughters, it is this spiritual sense of proportion. The studies of the Academy Schools are laid out by its measure and rule. The success which is the goal of New Church education, therefore, is of a special and spiritual character.

     Nor is it a narrow-minded opinion which believes that this is one of the rare educational institutions in all the world which knows where it is going. Very many others stumble as best they can toward the veiled future, doing the best they can for boys and girls, young men and women, who are certain to find out at last that much of their youth was wasted. It is bound to be wasted, because nobody nowadays knows what tomorrow may bring forth. The depression has proved that much, if no more. So that the schools must train their students for an undiscovered world, for unknown needs and emergencies.

     But the Academy knows where it is going, because the Academy knows where we are going. In the Academy's fundamental philosophy is faith in the life after death, as the only important goal of human existence. May I assure you that you will find out some day how much this matters, in every problem and perplexity of life upon this earth.

     You will meet in your travels the scientific Sadducees who say there is no resurrection. But you will meet many more who do not know, who are afraid either to believe or deny. Doubt of eternal life is the great uncertainty which troubles and discredits many hard-boiled doctrines. It is the chink in the armor of the world's self-sufficiency.

     Hold fast to your faith, therefore, though it is easier said than done. And take example from your Alma Mater. For generations the Academy has made a valiant stand against the seething, grasping world about her, for the truth's sake and for our sake. Something of that perilous isolation we must carry with us into the world when we leave school, if what we have learned is to do us lasting good.

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     There are some points on which I hope I shall not be misunderstood. I do not want you to think there is anything essentially wrong with financial success, except that it is sometimes hard to take hold of. I feel sure that the Academy would be well pleased if some of you would become extremely prosperous, provided you do not forget to be generous. But by the law of averages, some of you won't make your fortunes in the next few years. And that doesn't matter much, either. There is none of us so poor that he cannot contribute his share to the invisible assets,-the spiritual endowment of the Academy,-the sincere and devoted loyalty of the sons and daughters of the Academy.

     And I hope the seniors won't misunderstand my remarks, as they have sometimes misunderstood their teachers, and be annoyed because too much is asked or expected of them. The reason we expect so much is because we hope for the best and wish you the best, both in this world and in the other, when you are ripe and ready for it.

     As a matter of fact, between you and me, I often feel that our sons are living proof and evidence of the doctrine that improvement in the qualities conducive to regeneration, from one generation to the next, is very slow and sometimes imperceptible. I don't really expect much; I just hope for the best. I have simply taken an attractive opportunity to give a bit of advice, at a time and place where the victim can't walk out on me, and daren't go to sleep on me. And I hope he won't hold it against me, when he's old enough, though he may not be wise enough, to give commencement counsel to another younger generation of the Academy.

     The only dangerous gulf between teacher and pupil, between parent and son, between commencement speakers and their patient audiences, is that of misunderstanding. And on this score I am sensitive. Lately I was misunderstood in a manner somewhat prophetic of the present occasion. I was about to take my modest midday meal in a downtown restaurant, and was attended by a young and charming waitress. She handed me a menu, and I surveyed it for something to eat. "How's the chicken today?" I asked her. "Feeling fine," she said. "How's the old pelican himself this morning?"

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PLACE OF WOMAN IN THE CHANGING CONDITIONS OF THE WORLD 1934

PLACE OF WOMAN IN THE CHANGING CONDITIONS OF THE WORLD       Rev. C. E. DOERING       1934

     (Delivered at the Theta Alpha Service, June 9, 1934.)

Ladies of Theta Alpha:

     When your president invited me to address you, she at the same time suggested a number of topics which she thought would be of interest to you, and among the subjects suggested, "The Place of Woman in the Changing Conditions of the World" rather intrigued me; but the more I thought about it, the more I realized that I knew very little about this subject. However, I am convinced of this, that the way for New Churchmen to approach the subject is to go to the Writings to find out what are the ends of Providence, with the desire that those ends may be accomplished.

     The Writings tell us that the ends of Providence regarding man and woman are the same now as at the beginning, that they are eternal, and that the ends of Providence regarding woman are not separated from those regarding man, seeing that both together are created to perform a use in the Gorand Man of heaven, to which use each is a contributing factor; the man and the woman each furnish an essential element in the formation of that complete Man.

     The conditions in which we find ourselves in a changing world are various, but the principles by which the Providence of the Lord accomplishes His ends are eternal. And these principles a merciful Providence has always revealed to mankind, so that if there is a looking to Him in His Revelation for the principles by which we are to guide our lives, then there will be light to see. Then the problems arising from new conditions will be seen in light, whereas if we allow our thinking to be guided by the conditions of the world and its philosophy of life, we shall remain in obscurity. The one is a thinking from within, from the truths of Revelation, into which the light of heaven flows; the other is a thinking from without, from the world, and will not lead to any clear thinking, but rather to the finding of reasons for doing that which our natural affections prompt us to do, and to which we all incline.

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     The purpose of the Creator respecting man (home) is expressed in the first chapter of Genesis, where we read that "God created man (homo) in His own image; in the image of God created He Him; male and female created He them." (Genesis 1:27.) He created man (homo) a form recipient of the life of his Creator, to manifest the life of love and wisdom in uses, which manifestation constitutes the image and likeness of the Creator with him. Then we are told that this form, which receives life and love and wisdom, is dual, that is, male and female; and the Writings tell us what are the inmost characteristics of each, and what each must contribute to make one man, one angel of heaven. For in heaven two consorts are not called two, but one angel.

     A picture of this man, or this angel, is given us in the Memorable Relation (C. L. 75) which describes Swedenborg's visit to the heaven of the Golden Age, where two consorts are said to be inmostly united into one, both as to souls and minds; and the husband, talking to Swedenborg, said that they were one angel, united as heart and lungs, the wife being the heart, and the husband the lungs. Although they are two as to organisms, yet they are one in regard to life and the activities of life, which are uses.

     Here we have a picture of the fulfillment of the ends of creation. But that happy state changed; and Swedenborg tells us in the succeeding relations how that state of spiritual oneness was gradually lost because of a loss of religion, and how women then became subject to men. In fact, history tells us that in certain countries wives were often considered the property of their husbands, to do with as the husband pleased. And we are told in the Writings that the spiritual correspondential reason underlying this was the doctrine of faith alone,-that man is saved by faith without the works of charity. In such a state, however, it is not the understanding of truth that rules, but the understanding simply serves to confirm and supply reasons for whatever the emotions desire. And this, it would seem, is the state of society described by Swedenborg in one of his philosophical works, where we read:

     "The genius of the age consists in our excelling in the power of imagination, and in our rational mind being merely passive and reactive in respect to objects that come in through the external senses.

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On the other hand, the activity of the rational mind, and its resistance to the affections of the animus, that is to say, its exercise of a dominating power, is not esteemed at this day as a token of character, and scarcely as a token of judgment. This is the reason why men cannot fail to be subject to women, for this is favored by the majority, which is the voice of the age." (A. K. III; Gen. 290e.)

     In disorder, either men rule, and undisciplined imagination runs riot, or, on the other hand, women rule, and affections uncontrolled by rational truths dominate. The unregenerated will of all wants its own way. Because men have lost their rationality, women rule. Because rational truths have not been drawn from the Word by men, which truths alone can purify the affections of the will, then the affections of the race go forth unrestrained; even as in an individual the natural affections, unrestrained by rational truths, break out in all kinds of dire disorders.

     But although the state today is such as is described, nevertheless, as we are told, the angels rejoiced that a new Revelation was being given, whereby a New Church would be established and religion restored. And a prediction was made that conjugial love, such as it was with the Ancients, will be raised up again, because a new and true religion will be established. The true relation of man and woman will be restored; for the place of man and of woman in society, and their proper relation to each other, is determined by the state of their religion; and the converse is produced by the lack of it.

     With the greater freedom brought about by the Last Judgment and the Second Coming, there has come the reaction of women against the legal and social barriers by which they had formerly been restricted, and we find many women breaking off one restraint after another, and entering into competition with men on every plane of human activity. Perhaps the reason for this is contained in the statement from the Animal Kingdom, quoted above. Because men have lost their rationality, women will rule.

     The men of the vastated Christian Church are not searching after or deducing rational truths, and so, in the world outside the New Church there is little of rational truth, but much of a natural and materialistic science, which furnishes that upon which woman's native love,-the love of wisdom,-builds her uses; for it is ever the conatus of her soul to descend and use the materials that are at hand, according to the well-known law that influx is according to reception; and since no rational truths of doctrine are available, but only those of science and a materialistic philosophy, these are the materials with which she must build.

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     They whose philosophy of life is based, not upon the truths of Revelation, but only upon expediency, and at best upon a natural morality, and whose ideas of the difference between man and woman are founded upon a science which holds that those differences are only accidental, cannot know or realize the essential differences between man and woman, cannot know that Providence has created them to be two mutually interdependent parts of one complete home. And so we see in the world today a tendency to break down all distinctions between the sexes and their uses.

     Yet the greater freedom and opportunities for women are of Providence, which, we are told, is most particular in regard to marriages and most universal in regard to conjugial love. With the greater freedom that woman now has, she is not so dependent upon man for her livelihood, and so is in a better position to preserve with herself her freedom and the ideal of the conjugial of which she is the custodian. I can conceive of nothing more destructive of that love than for a woman to be obliged to marry for a livelihood without love,-without being able to look to those forms of truth with which her form of love may be a one. Necessity may compel a woman to enter fields of use which are contrary to her nature, in order that she may preserve the conjugial with herself.

     In the Writings in general, and in the work on Conjugial Love in particular, much is said of the nature of man and of woman, but there is not time to enter into it here. Our Revelation explains how the two together are to be one complete human form. To this form the Lord imparts the rational truths of wisdom through the masculine, whose inmost soul is the love of growing wise, and He gives the affection of truth to produce uses through the feminine, whose inmost soul is the love of wisdom; that the two may be conjoined as the wisdom of love and the love of wisdom.

     Man has the ability to see truths rationally, and thus to see the truths of wisdom. But he cannot have wisdom, which is the love of truth, unless he receives it from woman, who is a form of wisdom which prompts to the reception and love of truths, that they may be forms of use.

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For wisdom itself is nothing more than to receive truths and to return them to the Lord as uses. The inmost receptacle of the life or soul of woman is a substantial organism so formed that the life received therein from the Lord becomes wisdom, which in itself is the very form of the love of truth and the love of the church. This wisdom from her soul then produces and clothes itself with a feminine brain and body, which is formed, not to go forth and acquire as man's love does, but to love the things acquired, to cherish. them, and to return them to the Lord in forms which are of use and beauty. And so we read in the Index to the missing work on Marriage: "As woman is beautiful, so she is tender; and as she is tender, so she has the ability to perceive the delights of conjugial love; and as she is able to perceive those delights, so she is a faithful custodian of the common good; and as she is a custodian of the common good, and the man is wise, so she provides for the prosperity and happiness of the home."

     Does not this statement enlarge our idea of what is said elsewhere in the Writings, that woman's duties are domestic? Through her, all the graces, all the amenities, all the beautiful things of life, are given the human race; for the love of wisdom is the spiritual origin of all beauty. All the sympathetic considerations for the well-being of others come through her; all the delights of conjugial love, of which she is the form, endowed with the faculties for its protection and preservation, come through her. The common good of society, of which she is the faithful custodian, comes through her; and finally through her, if man is wise, is furnished that which makes for the prosperity and happiness of the home.

     And, spiritually considered, the home is the church,-the dwelling place of the Lord with man. Thus through woman is furnished that which makes for the prosperity and establishment of the church. The church is not established by man alone, by his drawing forth doctrine from the Word, no matter how true and pure that doctrine is. Something more is needed, and that the Lord supplies through woman,-that love of the church which inspires, cherishes, nourishes, and encourages man and woman together to look to the Lord, to use the truths of the doctrines drawn from the Word, that the Lord may establish the church with them.

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ANCIENT CORRESPONDENTIAL BOOKS 1934

ANCIENT CORRESPONDENTIAL BOOKS              1934


NEW CHURCH LIFE
Office a Publication, Lancaster, Pa.
Published Monthly By
THE GENERAL CHURCH OF THE NEW JERUSALEM
BRYN ATHYN, PA.
Editor                    Rev. W. B. Caldwell, Bryn Athyn, Pa.
Business Manager          Mr. H. Hyatt, Bryn Athyn, Pa.

     All literary contributions should be sent to the Editor. Subscriptions, change of address and business communications should be sent to the Business Manager.

     TERMS OF SUBSCRIPTION
$3.00 a year to any address, payable in advance. Single Copy, 30 cents.
     THE INTERNAL SENSE OF JUDE, VERSE 9.

     It is well known to New Churchmen that the Writings reveal the internal sense of many passages of the Book of Job, but it is perhaps not as well known that they also explain the meaning of a passage quoted in the Epistle of Jude from other "ancient books written by correspondences," and we believe it will be of interest to call the attention of our readers to it. Of the Book of Job it is said:

     "That the Book of Job is a book of the Ancient Church, is evident from its representative and significative style. But it is not of those books which are called the Law and the Prophets, because it has not an internal sense which treats solely of the Lord and His kingdom; for this alone is what makes a book of the genuine Word." (A. C. 3540e.)

     "The most ancient books, among which is Job, were written by mere correspondences; for a knowledge of correspondences was then the knowledge of knowledges; and those writers were held in the highest esteem who were able to compose books abounding in the most numerous and significant correspondences. Such is the Book of Job; but the spiritual sense therein collected from correspondences does not treat of the holy things of heaven and the church, as the spiritual sense in the Prophets does; consequently that book is not among the books of the Word; but still, passages are adduced from it on account of the correspondences, of which it is full." (A. E. 543e.)

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     "The Book of Job is a book of the Ancient Church, full of correspondences, according to the mode of writing of that time; but still it is an excellent and useful book." (A. E. 740:14.)

     In the Apocalypse Explained, where it is treating of the words of the 12th chapter, "Michael and his angels fought with the dragon, and the dragon fought and his angels," it is noted that Michael is mentioned in the Epistle of Jude the Apostle, as follows:

     "'Michael the archangel, when contending with the devil he disputed about the body of Moses, durst not pronounce a sentence of reproach, but said, The Lord rebuke thee (Verse 9.)

     "This the Apostle Jude quoted from ancient books which were written by correspondences; and by 'Moses' in those books the Word was meant, and by 'his body' the sense of the letter of the Word. And because by 'the devil' are meant the same persons as are here meant in the Apocalypse by 'the dragon,' who also is called 'Satan' and 'the devil,' it is evident what is signified by 'Michael, contending with the devil, disputed about the body of Moses' namely, that such falsified the sense of the letter of the Word. And because the Word in the letter is such that it can be distorted from its genuine sense by the evil, and yet can be received by the good according to its right meaning, therefore it was said by the ancient people, from whom those words of Jude were quoted, that 'Michael durst not pronounce a sentence of reproach.'" (A. E. 735e.) See also 74016.)

     The brief Epistle of Jude, supposedly written about the middle of the first century, was an exhortation to his Christian brethren that they "should earnestly contend for the faith which was once delivered unto the saints," resisting the perversions which had "crept unawares" into the early Church. Hence his citation of the ancient saying concerning Michael the archangel and his contention with the falsifiers of the Word in the other life.

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In heaven, however, there are no archangels, but by Michael is meant a function of the angels which is "the defense of that part of the doctrine of the Word which teaches that the Human of the Lord is Divine, and also that man is to live the life of love to the Lord and charity towards the neighbor, if he is to receive salvation from the Lord; consequently it is of that angelic function to fight against those who separate the Divine from the Human of the Lord, and who separate faith from the life of love and charity, and who even have charity in the mouth, but not in the life." (A. E. 740:2.)

     Thus the burden of the ancient saying was, that the defenders of the faith against those who have done violence to the Word should not, in their zeal, invalidate or denounce the literal Word itself, which is to be preserved for the sake of those who will understand it aright and live according to it, as can now be the case in the New Church, and was in a measure the case with Christians. In other words, the abuse of the Word does not take away its use, except with those who violate and profane it by falsifications of doctrine and evils of life. The Lord Himself will deal with them in the judgment. "Michael durst not pronounce a sentence of reproach, but said, The Lord rebuke thee!"

     THE BODY OF MOSES.

     As to the source of Jude's reference to the contest of Michael and the devil "about the body of Moses," it was supposed by Origen to have been founded on a Jewish work called The Assumption of Moses. Others have sought to identify the book with The Demise of Moses, but this has been proved to be a modern composition. "There is, on the whole, little question that Jude is here making use of a Jewish tradition, based on Deuteronomy 34:6." (McClintock & Strong.) That account of the death of Moses reads: "So Moses the servant of the Lord died there in the land of Moab, according to the word of the Lord. And He buried him in a valley in the land of Moab, over against Beth-peor; but no man knoweth of his sepulchre unto this day." (Deut. 34:5, 6.)

     Adam Clarke holds it probable that "the reason why Moses was buried thus privately was, lest the Israelites, prone to idolatry, should pay him Divine honors; for almost all the gods of antiquity were deified men."

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And in this surmise he was correct. For Swedenborg says of one meeting with Moses in the other life: "I perceived that he was delivered from the company of those with whom he then was, in order, as he himself declared, that thus there might be an agreement with the words written in Deuteronomy, chapter xxxiv, understood in the inmost sense, namely, that Jehovah buried him, that is, hid him away; and with the words that follow in verse 6, namely, that he was taken away from the company of those who wished in a forbidden manner to elevate him as their Messiah." (W. E. Latin II: 1865.) And again: "They wished to elevate him above God Messiah Himself, and so to occupy heaven." (Ibid. II:1603.)

     But we have seen that the "body of Moses," in the ancient saying quoted by Jude, represented the letter of the Word. What, then, may be the spiritual significance of the fact that "the Lord buried" Moses, that is, "hid him away"? It is notable that a like thing is said of several in the Scriptures who represented the Word.

     Of Enoch, who compiled the first written Word, it is said, "And Enoch walked with God; and he was no more, because God took him." (Genesis 5:24. See A. C. 464, 521; S. S. 21. We may note, in passing, that Enoch is also quoted in the Epistle of Jude, vs. 14, 15.)

     Of Elijah, who represented the Prophetical Word, as Moses the Historical, it is said that he "went up by a whirlwind into heaven." And when they sought him, "lest peradventure the Spirit of the Lord had taken him up, and cast him upon some mountain, or into some valley, they found him not." (II Kings 2:11, 16, 17. See A. C. 2762.)

     And of the "man child" in the Apocalypse, representing the Doctrine of the New Church, it is said that he was " caught up unto God and His throne." (Rev. 12:5. A. R. 543, 545; A. E. 728.)

     In the saying from the ancient book, Michael contended with the devil about the body of Moses; in the Apocalypse, Michael and his angels were fighting against the dragon which sought to devour the man child.

     The same spiritual significance attaches to each of the cases we have noted.

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A new Revelation of the Word, given in the world at the end of a church, is hidden away by the Lord from the evil of that generation, and thus protected from violence and profanation, that it may be preserved for the use of the new church then to be established.

     In the spiritual world, the hells endeavored to destroy the New Revelation of the Second Coming. And while the Heavenly Doctrines were being written, the Dragonists stood round about the revelator, and strove with all their fury to devour, that is, to extinguish them. But the Doctrine was protected by the Lord, and guarded by the angels of heaven. (A. R. 543, 545.)
FAMILY WORSHIP 1934

FAMILY WORSHIP       F. E. WAELCHLI       1934

Editor of NEW CHURCH LIFE:
     It is recognized that in family worship there can be variety, both in the manner of conducting it and in the selection of the reading. There are those who accommodate to the states of children and their ability to comprehend. Accordingly, they may have worship separately for the children, especially for the younger ones; or, while having it for the entire family, may, as nearly as possible, select for the reading what can be understood by the children. There are others who do not consider such accommodation important. A case of this kind I would relate.

     On a recent visiting pastoral trip I was the guest of a family consisting of husband and wife and a four-year-old son. They have worship every evening, and if at any time the parents might be inclined to omit it, the boy will make a plea for it. One evening we returned home very late from a visit. But the boy insisted upon having the worship before going to bed. I was invited to conduct it, and read from their continuous series, which was from Ezekiel and from the True Christian Religion. Probably there was very little, if anything, that the boy understood. Yet his affection and delight were in the worship. He could not miss it.

     It is likely there are those in the General Church who remember that in their childhood, thirty or more years ago, they found just such affection and delight in the family worship, even though it was the Arcana that was read.

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And the writer remembers children who, like that boy, saw to it that the parents were not negligent.

     These things are mentioned in order to suggest that where the only doctrinal reading parents have an opportunity to do is at the family worship, it does not seem necessary that, for the sake of the children, this should be confined to what is elementary, wherein there is little progress into interior things. The worship is not only for the sake of the children, but also for the sake of the parents, who should derive from it the fullest possible benefit. This is said, recognizing that in worship what is affectional, rather than what is intellectual, is the predominating quality. And the affectional is by no means lost to the children if the reading be beyond their intellectual grasp.

     Yet, what we wish to stress, as evident from the incident mentioned above, is the fact that children find delight in worship, whatever may be read, provided it be not too long. This is because of the angelic association. It rests with parents, as a duty before the Lord, to provide that there may be an activity of this delight. "Thou shalt teach these words diligently to thy children, and shalt talk of them when thou sittest in thine house." (Deut. 6:7.) Remains for salvation are implanted. Add to this that for husband and wife there is thereby the strengthening of the bonds of conjugial love, and the lifting up of the mind above the cares and anxieties of the world to the realities of spiritual life, thus the implanting of the remains of life eternal with them.

     So, whatever may be the plan considered best in each case, the vital thing is that there be the worship, regularly, day by day, so that the home may truly be "a house of the Lord."
     F. E. WAELCHLI.
          Bryn Athyn, June 15, 1934.

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Church News 1934

Church News       Various       1934

     INDIA.

     Evidence of a spread of the knowledge of the Heavenly Doctrines in southern India is contained in printed REPORT of D. Gopaul Chetty, dated at Madras April 1, 1934, a copy of which we have received from the London Swedenborg Society, which assists Mr. Chetty in his work on behalf of the New Church in India. During the year he sold 267 copies of the Writings in the Tamil language, including Divine Love and Wisdom, Doctrine of Life, and Divine Providence. He also distributed 1200 booklets free of cost. At his own cost he published 1000 copies of a booklet entitled New Light upon the Problem of Reincarnation, and has given away 300 copies. "This booklet," he states, "contradicts the views held by the Hindus for centuries. Hitherto no
Christian mission or anybody else ever published in this country a book containing such views; on the other hand, many books advocating the Theory of Reincarnation have been published by the Theosophical Society. So this booklet attracted a good deal of attention. While many do not accept the views it presents, I came across many who accepted them after reading it."

     Mr. Chetty gives the names of a number of learned Indian gentlemen who are "all prominent Swedenborgians," and says that "many others are evincing enormous interest in the work I do in this country."

     During the last ten years the public attitude toward the teachings of the New Church has changed from hostility to friendliness, as indicated by the following accounts:

     "In 1925, when I went on a missionary tour lecturing on 'Swedenborg and his Teachings' in southern India, I met with a good deal of opposition. In one place it even became impossible to deliver a lecture on Swedenborg. The leading man of the place, President of the Tamil Sangam there, gave me a very cold reception, and thought that the people had nothing to learn from a Christian Swedenborg. But last year the same gentleman, of his own accord, purchased a copy of Divine Love and Wisdom, being unable to bear the pressure of the popularity of Swedenborg's teachings. This is like the return of the prodigal son to his father's house!

     "In 1923, I was selected to deliver a lecture on Swedenborg's Teachings at the Universal Religious Congress held in Madras. When I came out after the lecture, I was beset with some orthodox Hindus and nearly insulted for speaking so highly of Swedenborg's teachings.

     "But now the conditions have become entirely changed. People now appreciate the greatness of Swedenborg and his teachings. His name has become a household word, and is now uttered with great reverence. Hindu scholars are most heartily appreciative. The orthodox Hindu center, the Tirupanandal Mutt, has purchased a copy of the work on Divine Providence. All this is the result of my ten years' hard work at a considerable self-sacrifice, after giving up my profession of lawyer.

     "Ten years ago, when the people did not know Swedenborg, it was necessary to speak only of his philosophy. But, seeing that they have now become quite awakened, I have been preaching his religion also during the last three years."

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     REPORT OF THE VISITING PASTOR.

     A visit to MIDDLEPORT, OHIO, opened with a doctrinal class on Friday evening, May 11, at which the subject was the Lord's glorification of His human, and His regeneration of man by similar successive steps. Twelve persons were present. On Saturday afternoon, instruction was given to nine young people and children. At the service on Sunday, the sacrament of baptism was administered for Mr. Charles F. Davis, a young man who has become a receiver of the Heavenly Doctrines during the past two years. The attendance was nineteen, including children, and at the Holy Supper there were twelve communicants. After the service all went to the farm of Mr. and Mrs. John Boatman for a picnic dinner and a social afternoon. A part of the time was given to a business meeting of the Society. We were favored with delightful weather, and all had a happy time. On Monday evening, another class was held, attendance fifteen. For the first time some of the young people, who have hitherto attended only the children's class, were with us, and words of welcome to them were expressed. The subject presented was the shunning of evil.

     On Wednesday evening, May 16, at CINCINNATI, on the pastor's invitation, I conducted the doctrinal class, attendance nine, having as the subject the teaching that "no one can shun evils as sins, even so as interiorly to hold them in aversion, except by combats against them." (Dec. Life 92 to 100.) Following the class there was an enjoyable social time.

     A service was held at DETROIT on Sunday afternoon, May 20. Ten persons were present, seven of whom partook of the Holy Supper. In the evening there was a class, attendance nine, at which we considered the doctrine that honor and wealth can be blessings or can be curses; that when they are blessings they are spiritual and eternal, but when they are curses they are temporal and transitory. (D. P. 211.) At the service we had with us Mr. and Mrs. Geoffrey Childs, of Bryn Athyn, and soon to be of Bay City, Mich., so near that they and their family can participate in the life of the Detroit circle. Mrs. Childs left for home after the service, but Mr. Childs was also at the evening class. Another class was held on Tuesday evening, with eight present, when the subject was temptation combats as necessary to salvation.

     At ERIE, PA., doctrinal classes were held on three successive evenings,-Thursday, Friday and Saturday, May 24, 25, 26. At the first there was presented the teaching that if man clearly saw the operation of Divine Providence, he would interfere with its order and sequence, and would pervert and destroy it. (D. P. 180, 181.) The illustration of this doctrine by examples taken from various parts of the human body is most interesting. The second class was missionary presentation of the doctrine concerning the Word, and though this was done because of the presence of a visitor, it was, as is usual in the case of missionary discourses, of interest and benefit to our own members. The third class was concerning combat in the shunning of evil. The attendance was, respectively, seven, ten, and seven. At the service on Sunday there was the delightful event of an infant baptism, the son of Mr. and Mrs. Francis Woodworth. The sermon, chosen as appropriate to the occasion, was on Bringing Children to the Lord. (Mark 10:13 to 16.) Eleven persons were present, of whom five partook of the Holy Supper. (Of interest in connection with the baptism was the fact that the baby's dress was that worn by the mother, Wyneth Cranch, at her baptism, and before that by the grandfather, C. Edro Cranch, at his.)

     A doctrinal class was held at the home of Mr. and Mrs. Franklin Norman in CLEVELAND on Monday evening, May 28, on the doctrine that by means of the sense of the letter of the Word there is conjunction with the Lord and consociation with the angels. (S. S. 62 to 69.)

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There were many questions and answers, these continuing after the close of the class. The nine persons present all expressed pleasure in the teachings presented. On Tuesday afternoon a call was made on Mrs. Rouette Cranch and her daughter Edith. Mrs. Cranch is the great-grandmother of the baby baptized at Erie. That evening Mr. and Mrs. Norman took me to call on Mr. and Mrs. William Zeppenfeld, who live quite a distance away in the country, and were not able to come to the meeting the previous evening. And the next day (Decoration Day) the Normans took me all the way to Niles, Ohio, where, together with Mr. and Mrs. Herbert Williamson, we passed a most enjoyable time.

     A class was held at NILES, OHIO, on Thursday evening, May 31. Members from Youngstown, ten miles distant, were with us, and there was an attendance of eight. The subject was the shunning of evil and spiritual combat. In the afternoon of the next day instruction was given the young daughter of Mr. and Mrs. Williamson.

     At YOUNGSTOWN, OHIO, on Friday evening, June 1, there was an attendance of eleven at a doctrinal class. At this and the following meetings the members present were from Youngstown, Niles, and Columbiana. Teaching was given concerning Divine Providence and its operation every moment of life, even though it is not granted man to perceive and feel that operation. At the service on Sunday twelve were present, eleven of whom partook of the Holy Supper. In the evening we again had a class, attendance thirteen, at which we considered the chapter in Heaven and Hell on Space in Heaven. After both of the doctrinal classes we had pleasant social times. Not only the excellent attendance, but also the earnest interest shown by this circle, is most encouraging.

     On Monday evening, June 4, at PITTSBURGH, on the pastor's invitation, I conducted a doctrinal class, and the next morning addressed the school.

     Tuesday evening, June 5, a service was held in the family circle of Mr. and Mrs. J. J. Kintner, at JOHNSTOWN, PA.; and the following evening we had a doctrinal class on the subject of conjunction with the Lord and consociation with the angels by means of the sense of the letter of the Word.

     On this trip, at the seven places visited, not including Cincinnati and Pittsburgh, the ministrations of the church were brought to seventy-three persons, including children.
     F. E. WAELCHLI.

     ACADEMY SCHOOLS.

     Joint Meeting.

     The annual joint meeting of the Corporation and Faculty of the Academy of the New Church was held in the auditorium of De Charms Hall on June 9th at 8.00 p.m., the President, Bishop N. D. Pendleton, presiding. The large number present gave encouragement to the plan, inaugurated last year, of holding this meeting in the evening.

     An excellent account of the activities of the Academy during the past year was presented by the Secretary, Mr. Eldric S. Klein, in the form of a summary of the annual reports of the officers, and this afforded opportunity for some questions and a brief discussion.

     The Address of the evening was given by Professor William Whitehead, who dealt in a most interesting way with the subject of "The College; Its History and Outlook." In the course of an historical review, he noted that the number of graduates from the Theological School and College of the Academy had been approximately 450,-259 men, and 191 women. In the beginning, the effort of the Academy looked to the immediate need of providing for the collegiate requirements of theological students and prospective teachers, but there was always present the idea of a future college that would furnish a higher education for the young men and women of the church after the high-school period.

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This he confirmed by statements of the early leaders of the Academy, who even forecast a college curriculum of studies in the sciences and philosophy, with a central feature of "a philosophy of the mind and of life."

     The speaker then described the development of the college department of the Academy in recent years, and closed with an inspiring expression of the proper purpose of a New Church College, the central aim of which should be "spiritual instruction, confirmed by a true philosophy and science." This ideal, he believed, is not inconsistent with that academic freedom of thought which is essential to the growth of the rational, and which allows for varieties of view and interpretation within the general scope of our Revelation.

     The address was warmly received, and several speakers voiced the wish that a means of publication might be found.

     Commencement.

     An audience that filled every seat in the assembly hall gathered for the Academy Commencement Exercises on the morning of Friday, June 15th. Singing a processional hymn, the students entered in marching order, followed by the members of the Faculty and Board of Directors, who took their places upon the stage. Bishop Pendleton led in the opening worship, and Bishop de Charms read the Lessons from the Word and the Writings. Dean Doering then introduced Mr. Donald F. Rose as a graduate of the class of 1911 who had won distinction in the literary world, who delivered the Commencement Address. This turned upon the general subject of "Success," and brought to the graduates a message of good counsel spiced with an engaging humor that proved infectious to all present.

     Bishop Pendleton then announced the honors, and presented diplomas to the graduates from the different departments of the Schools, and a valedictorian of each class made a suitable acknowledgment. (See list in the July issue, p. 211. Fourteen graduated from the Girls' Seminary, not thirteen as there stated.)

     The day closed with the Reception in the evening, with its mingled atmosphere of parting and rejoicing marking the end of another school year and the beginning of another vacation season.

     BRYN ATHYN, PA.

     Among the events of the busy dosing days of the season in Bryn Athyn, two weddings were solemnized in the cathedral, Bishop Pendleton officiating on both occasions.

     At the marriage of Mr. Charles Schoenberger Brown to Miss Helena Coffin, on May 29th, a feature was the predominance of white in the floral decorations, and in the attire of the bridal party, even the bride-groom foregoing the "conventional black" for a white panama suit. Miss Stella Coffin, sister of the bride, and Miss Alice Henderson, of Glenview, Ill., were bridesmaids. The flower girls were Gerda Synnestvedt and Margaret Brown. Following a private reception at the home of the bride's parents, Mr. and Mrs. James P. Coffin, the newly married couple attended the Theta Alpha Ball, where a large wedding cake was presented to the bride.

     Mr. and Mrs. Raymond Pitcairn had made elaborate preparations for the marriage of their daughter, Gabriele, to the Rev. Willard Dandridge Pendleton on Friday evening, June 8th. For this event, which was attended by a congregation of 755, the cathedral was marvelously lighted with candles and beautifully decorated with red and white roses, bay trees and evergreens. Preceding the ceremony there was a fine prelude of Brahms symphonic music, and an the bride groom walked down the aisle the lights of the nave came on, one by one. The bride was attired in a white satin gown with lace stand-up collar and train, and wore a cap of rhinestone crossed bands. She was attended by her sisters, Karen and Bethel, gowned in citron yellow and peach chiffon.

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The flower girl and boy were little Vera Pitcairn and "Jamie" Pendleton. Mr. Stanley Ebert was best man. For the reception which followed, the Assembly Hall was surrounded with potted plants and trees and illuminated with festoons of Chinese lanterns. The hall within had been converted into a magnificent formal garden, becoming a bower of loveliness with its floral and evergreen decorations and symbolic features in stained glass and carved stone, which deserve a special description as novel accompaniments of a New Church wedding. After the congratulations, Dr. Acton responded to a toast to the happy couple, Mr. Randolph Childs accompanied the songs with his guitar, as "Uncle Walter" had done at the wedding of the bride's parents, and an excellent orchestra provided music for the dancing which concluded this delightful evening.

     At two services in the cathedral during the month of June, ordinations were performed by Bishop Pendleton. Candidates William Cairns Henderson and Erik Sandstrom were inaugurated into the First Degree of the Priesthood on June 10th. They will begin their active ministerial uses under the auspices of the General Church in Europe, Mr. Henderson in Great Britain, and Mr. Sandstrom in Sweden. During the past year they have preached and addressed the children a number of times in the cathedral, and both have visited the Washington Society. They have also taught religion and languages in the Academy Schools.

     On June 17th, the Rev. Philip Nathaniel Odhner, of Bryn Athyn, was ordained into the Second Degree of the Priesthood. Mr. Odhner has been ministering to several General Church groups, conducting services in Northern New Jersey, and holding doctrinal classes in Camden, N. J., and West Philadelphia. He has given several courses in the Academy Schools during the past year.

     In the celebration of New Church Day there was a return to some of the customs of the early days of the Academy. A general holiday was observed by the members of the society, "New Year's" greetings were exchanged, presents were given (chiefly copies of the Writings), and there were family reunions. A general effort was made to impress the significance of the day upon the children.

     A special service, with appropriate music, was held in the cathedral on the morning of June 19th. Bishop Pendleton delivered the sermon, which was from the text of Matthew 24:29-31, on the "coming of the Son of Man in the clouds of heaven, and the sending forth of His angels with a great sound of a trumpet," prophetic of the Second Advent and the commissioning of the Twelve Apostles on the 19th of June, 1770.

     Owing to heavy rains during the day, the supper planned for the cathedral lawn was served in the Assembly Hall. There was an attendance of 340, including children, and Dr. Acton's address on themes appropriate to the day appealed to old and young alike. A pleasant surprise came when the Rev. Hugo Lj. Odhner, on behalf of Mr. and Mrs. Emil F. Stroh, of Ontario, California, announced the engagement of their daughter, Bernice, to the Rev. Erik Sandstrom. At 8 o'clock there was an adjournment to the cathedral, where the program of the day came to a close with a Service of Praise.

     During May, the Rev. and Mrs. Enoch S. Price returned to their home in Bryn Athyn after a sojourn of ten months in Mexico. The Rev. and Mrs. Theodore Pitcairn and their family sailed on June 20th for Holland. The Rev. and Mrs. Albert Bjorck sailed for England on June 29th. As a result of the serious operation which he underwent several months ago, Mr. Bjorck enjoys improved health.

     Bishop Pendleton has gone to his summer home at Indian Lake, N. Y., and on July 6th Bishop de Charms sailed for England, where he will preside at the forthcoming British Assembly in London. Many of the members have departed for their summer homes and camps in the mountains or at the seashore the forty or more who attended the Sons' meeting in Kitchener have returned to give us an account of that interesting gathering; the Fourth has been fittingly celebrated; and Bryn Athyn has settled down to its midsummer quiet.

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     WYOMING, OHIO.

     A series of quarantines for measles, scarlet fever, etc., imposed by the health authorities, have interfered to some extent with the activities of the Wyoming Circle, but a sufficient number of our members were at liberty to make it possible to hold services and doctrinal classes without interruption.

     The principal event of interest since our last report was the celebration of the Nineteenth of June, which began on Sunday the 17th with a special service in commemoration of the Second Advent, closing with the administration of the Holy Supper. The sermon on "The Church in the Wilderness" was particularly appropriate, and provoked considerable thought concerning the state of the church with us today, and the part se may play in the development of the New Church of the future.

     In the evening we held the banquet under the spreading branches of the maples at the home of Mr. and Mrs. Charles G. Merrell. There were short speeches by Messrs. Richard Waelchli, Leander Smith, and Donald Merrell, followed by an excellent paper by Mr. Charles G. Merrell. It is particularly encouraging to see the growth of interest in the things of the church among our younger members. There need be no concern about the future of the church so long as our young men show such an active interest in the Doctrines. Following the series of speeches, the pastor read a portion of an address by Bishop N. D. Pendleton on the subject of "Emerging from the Wilderness" (New Church Life, December, 1925.)

     A picnic for the children of the society was held on Thursday of the same week, and, judging from the quantity of sandwiches, ice cream and refreshing drinks they consumed, the picnic was a complete success from any child's standpoint. To cap the climax, our pastor confirmed our fondest hopes by announcing his engagement to marry Miss Elisabeth Fuller, of Glenview. (And all along we thought these trips to Glenview were for the purpose of seeing his family!)

     We recently enjoyed another visit from our "Pastor Emeritus," the Rev. F. E. Waelchli, and hope it will be possible for him to come soon again. During the year we have had several visitors: Mrs. Besse E. Smith, of Bryn Athyn; Mrs. Adolph Reuter, of Glenview, our pastor's mother; and Mrs. Coulston Bolton, of Syracuse, N. Y., sister of Mrs. Allen Smith. We regret to say, however, that Mr. and Mrs. Price Coffin, Jr., have returned with their family to reside in the East.
     D. M.

     GLENVIEW, ILL.

     Our celebration of the Second Advent this year began with a special service on Sunday, June 17, which included the administration of the sacrament of the Holy Supper.

     On Monday evening there was a "Service of Music," conducted by our pastor, who interspersed the musical numbers with Scriptural readings. The music was in charge of Mr. Jesse V. Stevens, and the program included the following: Psalm 48, sung from the Psalmody by the congregation; vocal duet, "Blessed Savior," Rubenstein; choir anthem. "How Beautiful upon the Mountains," Gounod; horn solo, Andante by Schumann; contralto solo, "O Rest in the Lord," Mendelssohn; Psalm 150, Cesar Franck, sung by the choir; violin solo, Romance from 2d Concerto, Wieniawski; "O Heavenly Father," by Moderati, sung by a women's choir; choir anthem, Sanctus and Benedictus, Von Weber; vocal quartet, "And the city had no need of the sun," Whittington; Psalm 24, sung from the Psalmody by the congregation.

     Late in the afternoon of Tuesday, June 19th, a Pageant was given on the plaza in front of our church buildings.

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It was prepared by our pastor, and combined Biblical events with scenes connected with the Second Advent. Among those represented were John the Baptist, Emanuel Swedenborg, Prince Michael, and John the Apostle with the rest of the Disciples. A trumpet announced the changes of the scenes, and much incidental music gave feeling to this gorgeous and impressive representation. The entire school, the choir, and many from the congregation participated in this splendid undertaking.

     The Banquet which followed was greatly enjoyed by the large number who attended. Mr. William H. Junge was toastmaster, and presided with friendly dignity. The speeches were especially good, the subjects being as follows: "Love to the Lord," Rev. W. L. Gladish; "Love Towards the Neighbor," Mr. E. Crebert Burnham "Conjugial Love," Mr. David Cole "Love of the Church," Mr. Cedric King (a splendid and original paper by this new B. A. graduate); and "The Priestly Love," Rev. Gilbert H. Smith. A few remarks by others, interspersed with songs, completed this well-rounded program. Our capable ladies provided a choice menu with wine for the moderate charge of thirty-five cents.

     The closing exercises of our school were held on Saturday afternoon, June 16. In addressing the children, the pastor spoke of our gratitude in being able to complete another year's work, and thanked all who had helped to make this possible, referring especially to Miss Lois Nelson, who taught the sixth grade, Miss Marjory Lee, who assisted the primary teacher for an hour every day, and Miss Helen Maynard, who kept the library open for the children. He bade good-bye to the pupils of the ninth grade, and presented certificates of graduation to the eight pupils of the eighth grade. These were: Marian Gyllenhaal, Betty Jane Headsten, Ruth Henderson, John King, Harold Lee, Robert Pollock, Edmund Smith, and John Henry Wille. Then followed papers by the graduates, and musical selections by classes and individuals. The parents were then conducted through the school by the pupils, and shown an exhibition of work done during the year.

     The Sons of the Academy held their usual jolly chapter meeting in July, and listened to an interesting paper by Mr. G. A. McQueen. In addition, there was a long and fruitless discussion of the standing and raison d'etre of the organization. About a dozen of the Sons went in three autos to attend the annual meeting in Kitchener, and came back declaring that they had enjoyed a splendid meeting. The 500 miles was but a day's ride each way.

     A Home-Coming Dance was held on the evening of July 3d, and we celebrated Independence Day in our usual manner in the Park, with a decorated parade, flag raising, games, and a big cafeteria lunch.
     J. B. S.

     PITTSBURGH, PA.

     The closing exercises of our Day School were held on June 9th, when two boys,-George Brown and Daniel Horigan, graduated from the eighth grade, and each read a graduation paper. In addition, George Brown was awarded a silver medal for the best paper in his age-group in the Theta Alpha Essay Contest. The children of the school then presented a puppet show, a four-act play, and a group of twelve dances, and for this excellent performance both teachers and pupils are to be congratulated. The program for the day was concluded with a school banquet, Betty Jean Horigan being toast mistress.

     A New Church Day Banquet was held on June 19th. Mr. Samuel S. Lindsay, Jr., presiding as toastmaster. The chief feature of the program was the most interesting paper read by the Rev. Erik Sandstrom, his subject being "Swedenborg's Mission in the Other World."

     We are glad to welcome Mr. Sandstrom to Pittsburgh again.

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He will be with us for about four weeks. before his departure for Sweden, assisting the pastor in the Sunday services, and giving a series of four doctrinal classes on the "Three Essentials of the Godhead 1. The Father; 2. The Son; 3. The Holy Spirit; and 4. A Summary showing that this Trinity; is one in the Lord God the Savior, Jesus Christ.

     A meeting of the Pittsburgh Chapter of the Sons of the Academy was held at the home of Mr. A. P. Lindsay on June 21st. After a brief business session, Mr. Stanley F. Ebert presented an interesting paper on "Some Fundamental Aspects of New Church Education."

     The annual society picnic on June 23d was different, unusual and better than ever. Mr. Homer Schoenberger is to be congratulated upon his splendid planning of games and sports, and Mrs. George P. Brown for her successful arrangement of the delightful meal.

     At the Sunday service on June 24th, the sermon was delivered by the Rev. Erik Sandstrom, and the Pastor administered the sacrament of the Holy Supper. On Sunday, July 1st, the Rev. C. E. Doering preached the sermon and officiated at the baptism of his granddaughter, Martha Stewart Lindsay, daughter of Mr. and Mrs. Samuel S. Lindsay, Jr. Mr. and Mrs. Gilbert M. Smith are receiving congratulations upon the birth of a son.

     We have welcomed a number of visitors during the past month, and our students attending the Academy Schools and other educational institutions have returned home for the summer. But with the discontinuance of the doctrinal classes and other meetings of the society for the vacation season, many of the congregation have gone to summer homes at Geneva-on-the-Lake, Ohio, and other places, far and near.

     At Youngstown, Ohio, on Sunday, August 5th, a service of worship in the morning will be followed by the annual picnic, which will be held at Mill Creek Park,-an event to which we all look forward.

     Mr. and Mrs. J. J. Kintner, of Johnstown, Pa., have announced the engagement of their daughter, Florence, to the Rev. E. E. Iungerich.

     The engagement of Miss Freda Schoenberg to Mr. Bert Paul Nemitz was recently announced at a supper given in their honor at the residence of the pastor.
     E. R. D.

     GENERAL CONVENTION.

     The New-Church Messenger, in its issues of May 30 to June 21, gives an account of the 113th Convention, held at Washington, D. C., May 12th to 15th, with an enrollment of 45 ministers and 104 delegates.

     These issues of the Messenger also furnish the text of numerous addresses delivered during the meetings, the general theme chosen for the occasion being, "The Lord Jesus Christ reigns."

     Present as an official visitor, the Rev. Joseph G. Dufty, President of the British Conference, delivered the Sermon on Sunday morning, and spoke on other occasions.

     "For the first time in years, in spite of contests, only one ballot was necessary" for the election of the officers of the Convention, the present incumbents being re-elected for the coming year: Rev. Fred Sidney Mayer, President; Mr. Ezra Hyde Alden, Vice President; Mr. B. A. Whittemore, Secretary; Mr. J. Woodruff Saul, Assistant Secretary; Mr. Albert P. Carter, Treasurer; Rev. Arthur Wilde, Editor of the Messenger.

     The Treasurer reported that, owing to the receipt of two large bequests, together totaling nearly $500,000, the Convention was in a much better condition financially than it had been the previous year.

     By formal resolution, the Convention recognized a new Southeastern Association, under the leadership of the Rev. Frank A. Gustafson, the seventy-one members residing in the Atlantic and Gulf States, Tennessee and Arkansas.

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Mr. Gustafson, by personal visits and by mail, ministers to a considerable number of persons in this region.

     At one of the luncheons, the Right Rev. James E. Freeman, D.D., a Bishop of the Episcopal Church, delivered a forceful and tactful address along broad lines, his subject being, "The Church in a New Age." At one point in his address, citing his own experience with large church properties, he said: "When I came from Minnesota to Washington in 1921, I was fifty-four years of age, and the only reason I left a great church in the midwest to come here was because I wanted to change my course. I had become an expert mechanic. I knew more about handling multiform mechanisms than about theology itself. I felt that my pastoral, prophetic and priestly office was being seriously impaired. Today I am thinking of the new opportunities of the Kingdom." He dwelt upon a striking utterance of Henry Fairfield Osborn, the scientist, "What modern education needs is a reaffirmation of the elemental imperatives of religion," and said in closing: "So I come to you, differing with you in some ways, yet knowing that the things which separate us are not of great significance, but feeling that the things which unite us are vital. They are what Osborn calls the 'elemental imperatives of religion,'-belief in the sovereignty, Savior ship and Lordship of Christ, belief in the Fatherhood of God and the universal brotherhood of man."

     Treating of the "Aims and Purposes of Urbana University," the Rev. Russell Eaton noted the existence of three groups in the Convention: "There is a small but active minority in the Church that is absolutely not interested in the number of pupils enrolled at Urbana, but wholly absorbed in the ideal of a New Church school. The roll may go down, as it did once, to three or four, which seems like a perilously small number, yet this fact is not held to be of any importance. There is another small group, of which I am one, that would like to see the school filled to capacity with pupils enrolled from any and all Churches, or brought in from the highways and byways. Between these two groups it is hard to describe the difference. The first says, 'We have an ideal to uphold at Urbana, that there shall be taught in all their glory the heavenly doctrines of the Lord's New Church.' The other group says, 'Amen,' to that. Is it true, then, that the difference between these two groups is not one of principle, but entirely one of method, or of approach, the problem of each being the same? There is yet a third group in the Church, very much larger than the two I have mentioned, that is not interested in and is ignorant of our school. Could we at Urbana achieve worldly success in large money and great reputation, we should then have satisfied and should then receive the patronage of this third group."

     The policy thus advocated by the President of Urbana, and the one that prevails there, has made of the school a missionary project, with the children from New Church homes constituting about ten per cent of the total enrollment. This, indeed, is consistent with the long-standing policy of Convention itself, which looks to Christian converts as the chief source of increase for the New Church. Meanwhile, the "idealists" crave a distinctive New Church education for their children, and desire a distinctive New Church school, believing earnestly that this is the primary duty of the Church, and the primary means of promoting its increase.

     DURBAN, NATAL.

     June 12. Three very lovely weddings have contributed much to our social life during the past month. The Rev. Elmo C. Acton officiated at all three ceremonies.

     The first took place on April 14th, when Mr. Douglas McFarlane and Miss Miriam Bretherton were united in marriage, the service at the church being followed by a reception in the "Hall."

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Here they received the congratulations of their many friends, who also greatly admire their splendid enterprise in building a very pretty home for themselves at "Cowerys Hill," about eleven miles from Durban.

     The second wedding was that of Miss Beatrice Forfar to Mr. William Schuurman, on April 19th at 2:30 p.m. The bride was given away by her father, James Forfar, Esq. Miss Sylvia Pemberton was maid of honor, Miss Isobel Cooper and Miss Diana Cowley bridesmaids, and Mr. Basil Braby best man. The two little flower girls, Jane Forfar and Joy Schuurman, were very sweet in pink georgette reaching to their silver slippers. They carried silver baskets containing pink sweet peas. This especially beautiful wedding was carried out in a color scheme of white and black. The bride was charming in ivory satin with a tulle veil bordered with silver lace, and carried shell pink gladioluses as her bouquet. The bridesmaids were in white with a large black bow on the side of the skirt. Two very suitable songs by Mrs. Garth Pemberton enchanted the congregation. She has an exceptionally beautiful voice, and we are very fortunate to have her as one of our members. A reception followed the ceremony in the garden of the home of Mr. and Mrs. Forfar, where many guests were welcomed. Mr. and Mrs. Schuurman spent a few days at Victoria Falls on their wedding trip, and have now taken up their residence at 464 Currie Road, Durban.

     The third wedding, celebrated on May 17th at 3 p.m., was that of Mr. Ivan Ridgway and Miss Muriel Taylor. The church was very prettily decorated. Miss Taylor, looking very charming in satin and lace, with a lace veil, was given away by her father. The bride's sister was maid of honor, and looked very striking in pink lace with a touch of green in the sash. The other bridesmaid was Mrs. Shanley, in green lace. The children in attendance were Joy Lowe in pink net, and Brian Vaughn in a green crepe de Chine suit. Mr. Cecil Royston was the best man. The guests were later welcomed at the home of Mr. and Mrs. Taylor, where good wishes were extended to the happy couple. Mr. and Mrs. Ridgway are taking a motor trip of several weeks, and will then make their home at "Kloof," about twenty miles from Durban.

     Two adult baptisms have added to our member roll: Miss Muriel Taylor and Mr. Frank Bamford.

     In the early part of May, the Rev. and Mrs. F. W. Elphick spent several days in Durban. Mr. and Mrs. Ted Waters and family, of "Alpha," are spending a month here, and we are happy to have them join us in our church and social functions.

     Mr. and Mrs. D'Arcy Cockerell and family have moved out of town. We are sorry to have them so far away, but trust that when they are settled they will once again join us in all our activities.

     The Annual Meeting of the Durban Society took place on May 28th at 8 p.m. There was a good attendance, and many changes were made, younger members taking the places of some who have filled the executive offices for many years. It is thought that this will stimulate the younger members, and aid them in carrying on the uses which have been so ably maintained in the past. If the younger people can be stirred with an enthusiasm and love for the uses and growth of the church such as their parents have always shown, our society will have nothing to fear.
     B. R. F.

     TORONTO, CANADA.

     Our news report in the May issue of the Life brought the record of events to the end of March.

     The April meeting of the Forward Club-Sons of the Academy, held on the 19th, brought forth at the supper tables an amusing collection of idiosyncrasies from Mr. R. S. Anderson on "This and That," which provided the requisite aid to good digestion "waiting upon appetite."

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Following this was a demonstration of the art of self-defense as exemplified in the Japanese cult of jiujitsu. Its efficiency was accepted without question by the spectators, and no one seemed anxious to try it out. Followed something in the nature of a mental jiujitsu from Mr. Arnold Thompson,-a paper on "Original Thought," dealt with in his original way.

     At our May meeting, Mr. Alec Craigie read a Swedenborg write-up by Ian Coster, one of a series on "What Shall Man Believe?" appearing in newspapers in England and other parts of the world. Mr. John A. White read another published article on "Reading from the Bible Becoming a Lost Art." The full-dress paper of the evening was on "Man's Morality in Respect to Marriage," by the Rev. Hugo Lj. Odhner. This was read to us by Mr. R. S. Anderson, and proved to be thought-provoking thesis which raised, amongst other questions: "Is chivalry possible from man to woman in this age of their competition in the forensic uses which we are told are peculiar to man?" We much appreciated the opportunity of hearing this paper. The officers elected for the ensuing year were: T. P. Bellinger, President; R. M. Brown, Vice President; A. Craigie, Secretary; H. P. Izzard, Treasurer; these, with the Pastor ex officio, F. R. Longstaff and T. Rothermel, forming the Executive Committee.

     For the meeting on June 6th the Rev. F. E. Gyllenhaal read from The Landmark, vol. 16, no. 6, on "America's Gifts to England," and followed this with a second much appreciated paper by the Rev. Hugo Lj. Odhner on "The Second Moral Problem,-Human Rights and Human Duties."

     The Theta Alpha Chapter, on April 27th, sponsored a card party social in aid of the Day School Fund, which realized a substantial and welcome contribution to that use.

     On Saturday afternoon, May 5th, we enjoyed one of those exceptional occasions,-a wedding, when Mr. Thomas J. Fountain and Miss Kathleen McClure were married in the presence of a large congregation. Miss Audrey Speirs was bridesmaid, Mr. H. E. Gillham best man, and Messrs. Alan G. Longstaff and Arthur Fountain assistant groomsmen. The bridal party, as they assembled at the prettily decorated chancel, presented a pleasing picture. The spiritual concept of the conjugial, begotten or revived by such occasions, induced a strong and happy sphere. Miss Mary Smith presided at the organ, and Mrs. F. R. Longstaff sang the Forty-fifth Psalm during the signing of the register. At the reception which followed in the assembly hall, toasts of felicitation were honored, letters of congratulation were read, and our good wishes were extended to the happy couple. Among the guests were Mr. and Mrs. Frank Norman, who came from Cleveland for the event.

     New Church Day was celebrated by us on June 20th. A committee of our always dependable ladies provided an enjoyable collation. The setting of the tables with a wealth of the flowers "that bloom in lovely June" brought a festive tone and sphere, and not less attractive was the mental and spiritual fare provided for the seventy persons who were present. Our genial Pastor was toastmaster, and youth furnished two-thirds of the forensic menu. Mr. Desmond McMaster spoke on "The Meaning of New Church Day." The toast to "The Memory of our Forefathers" provided Mr. R. M. Brown with an opportunity of telling of "Our Inheritance, and How We Are Using It." Finally, the Pastor gave a helpful talk on "Progress and Encouragement," pointing out that "real progress depends upon both doctrine and life, the two involving work and warfare; the former in learning and application to life, the latter in fighting evils. Happiness is the reward that is bound up with work, running concurrently with the way of life. We are too near our work to measure our progress. Reasons for encouragement are:

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(1) In the Divine Word there is no uncertainty as to the cardinal doctrines of the church; (2) The inheritance from our forefathers is both spiritual and material; (3) In our ends and purposes lie concealed. 911 progression." Other toasts were, "Our Absent Friends," and "The Schools," with a response to the latter by Lawrence Izzard, whom we were all glad to welcome home after his first year in the college at Bryn Athyn.

     It was the writer's privilege to be present at the Annual Meeting of the Sons of the Academy at Kitchener. About twenty-six went from Toronto. If, without impinging upon the prerogatives of The Bulletin, I might venture a few words of comment, I would say that by common agreement the meetings were the most inspiring the Sons have ever held. Two things were primarily responsible for this: (1) The good organization work done by President Daric Acton and the Executive Committee; and (2) The excellent arrangements and the proverbial hospitality of our Kitchener hosts. The sessions were held in the church building, and the addresses were up to the high standard of excellence which we have come to associate with these annual gatherings of the Sons. The selection of Dr. Alfred Acton as this year's representative of the Academy was indeed a happy one, and the contributions to the discussions by Bishop de Charms were always a source of keen delight. A subject that occupied a prominent place in the sessions was that of the sustenance and welfare of the local schools. There appears to be developing with the Sons' chapters a growing sense of the vital importance of this use and a fuller recognition of our responsibility thereto. We shall hope to see in The Bulletin a full report of the views expressed on this topic, as well as an account of the other features of the program. It was good to be there, and we believe that the momentum born of the enthusiasm for the great use of New Church education, so abundantly manifest, will react to the benefit of all concerned.

     At Toronto, on the evening of July 4th, a party at the home of Mr. Frank Wilson in honor of a former Pastor, the Rev. Karl R. Alden, resolved itself by common consent into an "Echo Meeting" of the Sons' gathering, and those of our members who were unable to go to Kitchener were regaled with a full and intimate account of all that transpired. We were thirty-two strong at this party, and were happy in having with us, in addition to Mr. Alden, the Rev. Philip N. Odhner, of Bryn Athyn, Mr. Charles G. Merrell, of Cincinnati, Ohio, and Mr. Jean Roschman.

     It is with deep regret and sorrow that we have to record the deaths of Miss Dora Brown, our Day School teacher, Mrs. Richard Hickman, and Mrs. Eva Stewart, daughter of Dr. and Mrs. W. A. McFall. A more adequate mention of these departed friends must be deferred until our next report.
     F. W.

     THE BULLETIN.

     The printed issue of The Bulletin of the Sons of the Academy for June, 1934, came as a welcome sign of "recovery," and we trust it betokens a return of this useful periodical to regular publication in printed form.

     The Bulletin is edited by the Rev. Vincent C. Odhner, and the contents of this eight-page number are of general interest to members of the Church, comprising News of the Sons' activities, Editorial Comment, Academy Notes, and Messages from the Principals of the Boys' Academy and Girls' Seminary.

     DEATH OF MR. CHILDS.

     Early in the morning of July 18th, Mr. Walter C. Childs passed into the spiritual world at his residence in Bryn Athyn. And thus our revered friend, only surviving Founder of the Academy, and patriarch of the General Church, has made what he regarded as his "long deferred journey to the other shore."

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ADVANCE NOTICES 1934

ADVANCE NOTICES              1934




     Announcements.


     Fall District Assemblies.

     The Pittsburgh District Assembly will be held at the Church of the Pittsburgh Society, 299 Le Roi Road, September 28-30, 1934.

     The Ontario District Assembly will be held at the Carmel Church, Kitchener, October 6-8, 1934.

     The Chicago District Assembly will be held at the Immanuel Church, Glenview, Ill., October 12-14, 1934.
Fifteenth General Assembly 1934

Fifteenth General Assembly       HUGO LJ. ODHNER       1934

     The Fifteenth General Assembly of the General Church of the New Jerusalem will meet at Bryn Athyn, Pa., June 13-19, 1935. According to the preliminary plans, the program will open with a combined Commencement and Assembly Reception on the evening of Thursday, June 13th, and close on Wednesday, June 19th.
     HUGO LJ. ODHNER,
          Secretary.

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FREEDOM AND ORDER 1934

FREEDOM AND ORDER       Rev. F. W. ELPHICK       1934


NEW CHURCH LIFE
VOL. LIV          SEPTEMBER, 1934          No. 9
     (Presidential Address at the Third South African Assembly, 1934.)

     As a part of the subject of this address, attention will first be directed to the origin and need of Assembly. For it is in view of the principle that there shall be freedom and order in the church among men that this institution came into being.

     I.

     There are three essential elements of the organized church on earth. These are Freedom, Council and Assembly. To ultimate these essentials, men have labored, and we enter into their labors. It was the need for Freedom, the call for Council, and the requirement of Assembly, which brought into existence the organization in the New Church called "The General Church of the New Jerusalem." This happened thirty-seven years ago.

     It is Freedom-freedom of thought; freedom of speech; freedom of writing; freedom to compel one's self, that others may be free; freedom to apply the doctrines of the New Church to life; freedom to apply those doctrines to education; freedom to seek for and establish a dignified and distinctive ritual; and freedom to develop derived doctrine;-it is such freedom, we hope, that has made for the spiritual progress of the church on earth.

     It is Council,-the "free, rational co-operation of men who are working together for the advancement of the things of doctrine and life, and who compose the church,"-that has helped to build this organization as we see it to-day. (NEW CHURCH LIFE, 1897, p. 49.)

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     It is Assembly that has been instrumental in bringing unity, strength and affection in the upbuilding of the manifold uses of the church. Just prior to the First Assembly of the General Church in 1897, a writer gave a definition of this institution in these words: "'Assembly,' as applied to the Church, means the coming together at stated times of the membership thereof, as fully as may be. This principle of practice is believed to be essential to the vitality of a church. The brethren of the church need the strength of the common sphere, the contact of a variety of states of affection and thought, harmonized by a common holy purpose and vivified by personal communication. Without this it is hard to conceive of a real homogeneity and concert of feeling and action. Without it the Church will be 'general' in name only, and will gradually come to be composed of confederated but practically independent centers, each absorbed in its own local interests and liable to a consequent contraction of views and sympathies." (Ibid.)

     Such was the forecast. Since the above words were written, many Assemblies-General, District and Local-have come and gone. Those who have had experience, and possess memory for history, know full well that "Assembly" has certainly been one of the great means of preserving the life, vitality and unity of the church.

     But the generation that instituted "Assembly" is passing-quickly passing to the other side. The generation following is one of two parts The one part is composed of those who have the traditions of the Church. The other part, in the very nature of things, is composed of those who have only entered the Church in recent years, and therefore have not a background of its traditions. Yet the growth of the Church is such-and please note this distinction-that the emphasis does not fall upon tradition, but upon the whole-hearted acceptance of the Doctrines of the New Church as revealed by the Lord in His Second Coming. Thus the Assembly idea and ideal is not an end in itself, but a means to an end. The end is ever present, so that whenever, wherever and among whomsoever an Assembly is held, it means the assembling of many minds. Though receiving the influx of good and of truth variously, these rejoice and accept together the two great universal doctrines of the Church,-"The acknowledgment of the Lord, and a life according to the precepts of the Decalogue." (A. R. 491.)

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     It is with the recognition of these two universal doctrines, as manifested by the Lord Jesus Christ in His Second Coming, combined with the cultivation of the affection of truth for the sake of truth, that the Assembly principle has taken the form it has. Formal business, the passing of this or that resolution, the amendment of this or that rule of constitution, and such like matters, take an entirely second place in the proceedings. The first place is given to discourses, and to the exchange of thought on subjects of spiritual importance. For doctrine, in the New Church, is not a dry, uninteresting mass of theological abstractions; it is a never ceasing fountain of truth, and of wonderful application to all the interests, states and uses of natural and spiritual life. Indeed, the Doctrines of the New Jerusalem, as revealed by the Lord, are in themselves of such a nature as to uplift, broaden and deepen the thought of all men. There is no room for narrowmindedness. Essentially, as the New Church grows in love and wisdom, there is no reason for the existence of extreme views and obstinate attachment thereto. For if the Doctrine of the New Jerusalem, which is a doctrine composed of an infinite number of doctrines, of many truths,-the many precious stones of the Holy City seen by John;-if this Doctrine be accepted as of Divine Authority, and if there be with men a continual state of affirmation respecting that authority, there will also be among them a continual, patient and forebearing desire to view one doctrine in the light of another. One truth can never stand alone. One statement of truth can never stand alone. There is always and forever the law of "two or three witnesses."

     In every development of truth, therefore, in every unfolding of the truth, in every endeavor to grapple with appearances of truth and to find genuine truth, there is ever the need for doctrinal qualification and doctrinal reserve. There is always the need to seek right emphasis and find correct balance. Ecclesiastical history shows, over and over again, how a one-sided doctrine, an exaggerated doctrine, a doctrine out of its place, has produced short-sighted faith, distorted spiritual vision,-spiritual myopia. But to find the right emphasis, to determine the correct balance, to mark doctrinal reserve and make doctrinal qualification, is, in the case of an individual who is endeavoring to become worthy of the title of New Churchman, a work of a life time.

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In the life of the New Church, in its broadest aspect, it is the culminative work of generations.

     But pause a moment. Whither the trend of thought here? It is traveling on the side of truth. It is following the line of faith, doctrine, understanding. What concerning the things on the side of good Here the need for a further and another kind of balance.

     Truth alone does not make the church. Doctrine alone does not make the church. Yea, the understanding of doctrine alone does not make the church. The New Jerusalem is described not only as a "city"-the church as to doctrine-but also as a "bride,"-a "bride adorned for her husband." This bride represents the church as to the affection of truth, desiring the heavenly marriage of good and truth. Men, like the angels, should ever have in mind this "twofold idea." (A. R. 881.) This twofold idea restores the balance required. If truth, and all the things on the side of truth,-faith, doctrine, and understanding,-need right emphasis and balance, so good needs cultivating and protecting, charity needs preserving and reviving, life needs doctrinal guidance, the will needs discipline. For "love is the life of man." (D. L. W. 1.)

     Again, if all the attributes on the side of truth take a lifetime to develop, and, in the New Church in its broadest sense, many generations, so will the things on the side of good take an equal time. In addition, there is the requirement of the heavenly marriage of good and truth, charity and faith, life and doctrine, will and understanding. In a sentence, it is the endeavor known as reformation and regeneration. Such a work is not possible unless there be freedom and unless there be order.

     II.

     In thus leading to the more immediate subject of this address, it can readily be seen that an approach is made to a realm of unlimited scope. Turning to the Heavenly Doctrine for guidance, it is found that Freedom and Order pertain to the Lord Himself, Who is Freedom Itself and Order Itself.

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Freedom and Order pertain to Him as Creator, Revelator and Redeemer. They relate to His laws of providence and permission, to heaven, hell and the world of spirits, to the Last Judgment of 1757, to the Earth upon which we dwell, as also to the earths in the universe. Freedom and order pertain to the reformation and regeneration of man, to conjugial love, to the church universal and the church specific, to the affairs of men, ecclesiastical and civil. In another series, freedom and order enter into all the degrees of the neighbor,-the individual, society, country, church, the Lord's Kingdom, and the Lord Himself. (N. J. H. D. 91.) Herein can be seen again the circle of life,-from the Lord to the Lord. "Whither shall I go from Thy Spirit? or whither shall I flee from Thy presence? If I ascend up into heaven, Thou are there; if I make my bed in hell, behold, Thou art there." (Psalm 139:7-8.)

     In thus being mindful of the universal nature of freedom and order, any particulars of doctrine pertaining thereto can be seen in due proportion. For if the mind be immersed in the minutiae of this or that doctrine, the grand vision of the New Church and her far-reaching, universal Revelation is lost to view. It must be seen outside of ourselves-as it were in the distance. All thought should follow the order of "generals to particulars."

     At this point, then, reference will be made to a few of the detailed doctrines revealed in the Heavenly Doctrine, so that from the principles therein given, as applied to various aspects, one can the better see how freedom and order affect the experiences of life.

     FREEDOM.
     
     "Few know what freedom is, and what non-freedom is. All that which is of any love and its delight appears to be freedom, and that which is contrary to these as non-freedom. What is of the love of self and the love of the world, and of their cupidities, appears to man as freedom, but it is infernal freedom; while what is of love to the Lord and love to the neighbor, consequently of the love of good and truth, is freedom itself, and is heavenly freedom." (A. C. 2870.)

     "The quality of this (heavenly) freedom may be seen from the fact that everyone who is in it communicates his blessedness and happiness to another from inmost affection, and that it is a blessedness and happiness to him that he is able to communicate it. And because the universal heaven is such, it follows that every one is a center of all forms of blessedness and happiness, and that these belong at the same time to each angel. The communication itself is effected by the Lord, by wonderful inflowings in an incomprehensible form, which is the form of heaven. This shows what heavenly freedom is, and that it is from the Lord alone." (A. C. 2872. The whole section should be read, A. C. 2870-2893.)

     "A spiritual equilibrium in its essence is freedom, because it is an equilibrium between good and evil, and between truth and falsity, and these are spiritual.

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Wherefore, to be able to will either what is good or what is evil, and to think either what is true or what is false, and to choose one in preference to the other, is the freedom which is here treated of. This freedom is given to every man by the Lord, and is never taken away. Indeed, by virtue of its origin, it is not man's, but the Lord's, because it is from the Lord. Nevertheless, it is given to man with his life as if it were his; and this is done that man may have the ability to be reformed and saved; for without freedom there can be no reformation or salvation. With a measure of rational intuition anyone can see that it is a part of man's freedom to be able to think wrongly or rightly, sincerely or insincerely, justly or unjustly; also that he is free to speak and act rightly, honestly, and justly, but not to speak and act wrongly, insincerely, and unjustly, because of the spiritual, moral, and civil laws whereby his external is held in restraint. Evidently, then, it is man's spirit, which thinks and wills, that is in freedom, and not his external which speaks and acts, except this be in agreement with the above mentioned laws." (H. H. 597.)

     "All freedom is of love, insomuch that love and freedom are one. And as love is the life of man, freedom also is of his life. . . . There are many kinds of freedom, but in general there are three,-natural, rational and spiritual." (D. P. 73.)

     "When there is dominion in marriage, neither partner has freedom; the one is a slave, and so too is the one who domineers, because he is led as a slave by the cupidity of domineering." (H. H. 380.)

     ORDER.

     "Order is the quality of the disposition, determination and activity of the parts, substances and entities which constitute a form, from which is its state; and its perfection is produced by wisdom from its love, or its imperfection is the outcome of unsoundness of reason from cupidity." (T. C. R. 52.)

     "There are two things which constitute the order of the universal heaven, and thence in the universe, namely, good and truth. Good is the essential of order, . . . truth is the secondary of order." (A. C. 2258.)

     "When the Lord is present, all things are disposed into order by His presence itself. The Lord is order itself, and therefore when He is present there is order, and when there is order He is present. Order consists of truths rightly disposed under good." (A. C. 5703.)

     "Who does not see that there is no empire, kingdom, dukedom, republic, state and household that is not established by laws which constitute its order, and thus the form of its government?" (T. C. R. 55. See chapter on Ecclesiastical and Civil Government. N. J. H. D. 311-325.)

     These are but a few quotations respecting the subject in hand, sufficient, we trust, for this time and occasion. For the Divinely given basic principles are now revealed to men, and these should ever guide their affection and thought.

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     III.

     Since doctrine is for life, it follows that its application enters into the difficulties and problems of life. At this point, then, it is necessary that, as a first principle, we should note the difference between spiritual freedom and natural freedom. Every individual is free as to his or her own love and thought. This love and this thought can exist irrespective of natural conditions. What is interiorly loved in the will really forms the understanding. Love, or affection, disposes the truths of faith into a particular and individual order and form. If there is a desire to obey what is revealed by the Lord, and in proportion to the as-of-itself endeavor to compel one's self to shun evil as sin against the Lord, that freedom and that order in the individual slowly and gradually become an image of heaven in least form, though never, in this life, to the degree that may be attained in the life after death. Clearly, such a work, and especially the preparatory work on earth, is the work of regeneration. "Let the words of my mouth, and the meditation of my heart, be acceptable in Thy sight, O Lord, my strength and my Redeemer." (Psalm 19:14.) Such things are individual and holy secrets.

     From the truth now revealed, men may speak of the laws and the doctrine of regeneration, but it must be recognized that essentially no one knows the hidden ways of Providence, and how the Lord leads man in freedom and in order. Regeneration is a mystery. No one in this world can write a book and style it, "The Story of My Regeneration." Certain conscious and so-called spiritual experiences may be written about, but the inner and innermost secrets underlying that experience can never be so written. In these matters, therefore, the truths of Revelation suffice. And we are told that "if a man interiorly acknowledges the Lord, and resists the evils that are with him, the way to heaven is not difficult; for then he is led by the Lord, and not by himself, and the Lord resists and removes the evils." "Come unto me all ye that labor, and are heavy laden, and I will give you rest." (H. H. 359, 528, 533-535.)

     All these things pertain to spiritual freedom and regeneration. Moreover, the Last Judgment was performed for no other purpose than that men thereafter might be free in spiritual matters. (L. J. 73.)

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The condition of spiritual freedom, therefore, no matter what the external conditions may be, is to be seen, acknowledged and affirmed. Spiritual freedom is a gift to man, for it is originally and essentially not his, but the Lord's, given to the end that man, and afterwards the angel, may always, as of himself, enter into the freedom and order of heaven, yet recognizing always the Divine Source of freedom and order, and of all the things of his life and being.

     But regeneration is not developed without contact with the hard facts and experiences of life. Though spiritual freedom is different from natural freedom, yet there is a relationship. It is consequently both interesting and useful to trace, even in merest hint and outline, the correlation of freedom and order, and also the struggle between them, in the institutions of men,-institutions which are attended always with trials, difficulties and perplexities,-trials of the natural, that the spiritual may be born. Let us visit for a moment the familiar institutions among men, known as Home, School, Society, Country, and Church.*
     * As limitations of space prevent our publishing the entire Address, we regretfully omit these applications of the general theme.-EDITOR.

     IV.

     After noting the origin and use of the institution known as Assembly, it has been the endeavor to trace in a small measure the intrinsic nature of freedom and order, and to gain a glimpse of their universal application, as well as their application to various institutions among men.

     In our age, this New Church which we all love is still in the day of small things. Unseen to millions of men and women, it is an unknown, unobtrusive pioneer. It is grappling with the same problems with which the world contends; but it is also attempting the solution of problems concerning which the world is ignorant.

     On the side of good, loyalty to this Church implies a spirit of humility, loyalty and obedience to the principles given by Divine Revelation. It implies a spiritual love of truth, love of use, charity to the neighbor, and the discipline of self-compulsion, in order that true freedom and true order may be established in the hearts and minds of men.

     On the side of truth, such loyalty implies interest and diligence in its intellectual welfare, and research into all the branches of learning.

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It means the growth of the understanding, and a perceptive application of its Divinely revealed Doctrine to the uses of life. All these implications, all these uses, call for unity among men, not diversity. They call for unity in variety.

     At times it appears as if faith, understanding, doctrine and reason are the all of the Church. But they are not ends in themselves; they are means to an end. The end is the good of life. The truth of the church is one thing, and the good of religion is another; yet they are related to each other. (A. R. 923.) Good is the essential, and truth is the secondary or formal. (A. C. 2258, 7995.) Matters pertaining to faith often bring anxiety; and although there should ever be in the New Church the endeavor to understand doctrine, as far as the uses of life and time permit, yet there is also the comforting teaching that the' life which leads to heaven is not as difficult as many suppose. Hence the simple admonitions of Scripture: "He hath shown thee, O man, what is good; and what doth the Lord require of thee, but to do justly, and to love mercy, and to walk humbly with thy God?" (Micah 6:8.) "If ye continue in my word, then are ye my disciples indeed; and ye shall know the truth, and the truth shall make you free." (John 8:31, 32.)
NOTES ON THE CALENDAR READINGS 1934

NOTES ON THE CALENDAR READINGS       Rev. HUGO LJ. ODHNER       1934

     The Return of Jacob.

     The 35th chapter of Genesis, which tells of the incidents in Jacob's journey up to Bethel and then homeward to Hebron, is explained in the Arcana as a series treating of an advance towards the interior states of regenerate life-in order that this may illustrate the process of the Lord's glorification as to His Human. Just as the child advances interiorly by education when he approaches the better judgment of natural maturity and lays aside the appearances of childlike conceptions and emotions, so, by regeneration, does the natural man as a whole (Jacob) draw closer to the truly rational affections (Isaac) which inflow from heaven.

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     The crude falsities and idolatries of this spiritual immaturity are represented by the idols and amulets which the Jacobites buried under the oak at Shechem. And the gradual rejection of the hereditary evils, which sustain man secretly in his first regenerate endeavors, is signified by the burial of Deborah, Rebekah's old nurse, under the oak at Bethel. (A. C. 4551f, 4563f.) An oak stands for what is eternal, but in reference to man its tangled and gnarled branches also convey the idea of falsities which govern in the lowest realm of his natural mind. With man, evils and falsities are never actually rooted out, but are rejected into the outermost circumferences of his life. With the Lord alone were they annihilated.

     The birth of Benjamin near Bethlehem, and the death of his mother Rachel at that time, involve interior arcana which terms can scarcely convey, since they picture the states of the Second Heaven. "Benjamin" signifies the new spiritual truth which is derived, on the one hand, from the rational good which exists with men as remains of childhood (Isaac), and the consequent operation of these remains during the struggles whereby the natural man (Jacob) is regenerated through truth, and its quality changed by acquired spiritual good (Israel); and, on the other hand, from a cooperating affection of interior truth (Rachel), which is willing to sacrifice its mortal life of self-glory, in order to give birth only to what is genuinely true.

     "Benjamin" is said to signify "the spiritual of the celestial," or truth from spiritual good. In the mind, this mediates between the regenerate affection produced by the confession of the Lord (Judah) and the external spiritual goods of life (Israel). For in itself that confession, which is the very celestial in man, is powerless to express itself, except through the continually new truths which the man comes to perceive from the pages of Revelation. The tribe of Judah, as is seen from the sacred history, would never have entered into its royal heritage, except for the unusual events whereby Joseph and Benjamin became the instruments of Providence for saving their tribe.

     Joseph, Rachel's first son, is given a significance even more interior than that of Benjamin. He is named for a function of man's "internal man," and is called "the celestial of the spiritual from the rational." These terms-however difficult it may be to interpret them into the states which they represent-are used, later on in the

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     DIAGRAM ILLUSTRATING ARCANA COELESTIA, NO. 4592
     ABRAHAM                                                            (Third
     Remains of                                                             )Heaven
     celestial good.

          2.     ISAAC                    7.     JUDAH-Celestial good; the celestial of love           (Second
          Remains of                          (3882, 4592).                         )Heaven
          spiritual good.                                                       Internal
          Rational good.          (An     8.     JOSEPH-The celestial-spiritual man. The                partakes of
Inter-          External of the rational. A medium of celestial          the rational
                         Mediate     good.
     REBEKAH                                                  External
               Rational               9.     ISRAEL-The spiritual man, or external spiritual     partakes of the
               Truth.                         Man (4286). Acquired spiritual good. The           natural
                                        Internal natural, or the spiritual-celestial of the
               4.      ESAU - Influx               natural (4570).
                    Of good from
                    Within. At          6.     RACHEL-The affection of interior truth.          |First
                    First, natural                                             )Heaven
                    Delight; later,
                    The good of the
                    Natural from
                    The rational.

          JACOB - Natural truth, becoming the good of truth, or natural good (acquired). The external natural man (4568)

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Arcana, to shed light upon the processes whereby man is lifted up into the light of the Second Heaven. The accompanying diagram may perhaps serve to contrast the various elements of this abstract story of spiritual development.

     By the process of regeneration, the natural man is at length, after its conscious labors, conjoined with the rational. This is what is meant by Jacob's return to his father Isaac. And therein we see depicted a law of human life. Our reason grasps at much which only later ages can fulfill. Our ideals can be formed and recognized early in life, but much toil is required for their realization. So, also, the rational-in regenerate life-"receives truths and goods sooner and more easily than the natural" (4612). But when the natural is regenerated, the rational is no longer distinct from it, but lives in the natural; and the natural man then acts from rational conviction and conscience with delight, as from himself. (This state is described in the Divine Love and Wisdom, nos. 251, 252.) It is therefore told how that Isaac now died, and Esau and Jacob buried him. Thus closes another chapter of this book of human life and its arcana. We have traced its thread in reference to human regeneration, but the series actually is directed chiefly to the Lord's glorification.

     The Edomite Genealogies.

     The next chapter, the 36th, is expounded only in generals. It involves interiorly the order of the natural or inborn Divine Good which the Lord had, and which is signified by the many names in the genealogical lists of Esau (Edom) and his descendants. This good came from His Divine Soul, and was invested exteriorly by what He took on from the mother and later put off. The derivations of that Good, which gradually came forth in His Human when He made it Divine, transcend even angelic understanding. Hence it is expressed only by a list of names.

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WALTER CAMERON CHILDS 1934

WALTER CAMERON CHILDS       Rev. ALFRED ACTON       1934

     FUNERAL ADDRESS.

     THE FAITH OF THE NEW HEAVEN AND THE NEW CHURCH.

     "This faith is premised in a universal and a particular form, that it may be as a face before the work which follows, and as a gate through which entrance is made into a temple, and as a summary containing in their own mode the particulars that follow. It is called the Faith of the New Heaven and the New Church, because heaven, where the angels are, and the church in which men are, act as one, like the internal and the external with man. Hence it is that the man of the church who is in the good of love from the truths of faith, and in the truths of faith from the good of love, is, as to the interiors of his mind, an angel of heaven, and therefore also comes into heaven after death, and there enjoys felicity according to the state of conjunction of his love and faith. Let it be known that, in the New Heaven which the Lord is establishing at this day, this Faith is its face, gate, and summary." (T. C. R. 1.)

     These opening words of the True Christian Religion are the words by which our friend, Walter C. Childs, was first introduced to the Writings of the New Church, some sixty-five years ago. They were, as it were, the gate by which he entered upon the reading of the Writings,-a reading which from that time on has been his daily habit and his delight. Soon afterwards, on February 20, 1870, he entered by the gate of baptism into the New Church. This day of his baptism he afterwards never failed to celebrate as his true birthday. To him it signified the entrance into life; and to his friends he ever spoke of it as the greatest day of his life, the memory of which aroused in his heart feelings of deep gratitude to the Lord.

     And now he has passed through another gate,-the gate of death, which is the gate of life, the entrance to life eternal. To this passing he looked forward with joy. As a young man he noted that, while men professed belief in heaven, this belief did not deter them from preferring to remain in the world. What a contrast to this was his own thought during his last days!

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More than once has he told me that the day of his death would be the happiest day of his life-so real to him was the spiritual world, so firm the faith that death is the gate of life.

     He has departed from our earthly sight, and we are now assembled to commemorate his entrance into the spiritual world. On this occasion it is both natural and fitting that we look back upon his life and recall to our minds the uses that he has performed in promoting the growth of the New Church in our midst.

     Preeminently he appears to my mind's eye as a lover of the Writings. From the day when the True Christian Religion came to his hand, and even to the day of his death, the reading of the Writings was to him, not merely a duty, but a delight; and rarely did a day pass without his reading at least some lines. Even towards the end, despite growing weakness, it was still his practice to have a book of the Writings laid before him and to read something therein.

     The Divine Authority of those Writings was firmly impressed upon his mind soon after his entrance into the New Church. Nor was this a matter of argument or debate with him. The mere hearing that they were the Lord's own teaching was sufficient to bring to him the realization of what this involved. It was some little time after his baptism. He was talking with his beloved pastor and friend, Mr. Benade, and was dwelling with delight upon the thought that in the New Church nothing was to be believed save what one saw with his reason. Mr. Benade turned to him, and asked, "Mr. Childs, do you not believe that the Lord has made His Second Coming through the Writings?" "Why certainly," he answered. "Then," continued Mr. Benade, "is it not the Lord who is speaking in those Writings?" Receiving an affirmative answer, he went on: "Well, then, if the Lord there tells you something you can't understand, which is the more rational course, to accept it or to deny?" These simple words brought to Mr. Childs' mind, as in a flash, the full realization of the Divinity of the Writings. It seemed to him as though a cloud had rolled away from his mind, and he answered: "If it is the Lord who speaks, one must accept."

     From that day to the day of his death the acknowledgment of the Writings as the Lord's own teaching became more confirmed, and his constant reading of those Writings brought to him a clearer realization that they were indeed the Word of the Lord.

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Several times during my visits to him during his last illness, this subject of the Word now revealed to the New Church was spoken of between us, and I could perceive his delight as he affirmed his faith, and expressed his wonder that New Churchmen so often failed to see the Word that was revealed.

     Five or six years after his entrance into the New Church, Mr. Childs was one of that small group that established the Academy of the New Church; and well was he prepared to give his whole-hearted devotion to the prosecution of the work for which that body was founded,-the proclamation that it is the Lord in His Second Coming who speaks in the Writings of Swedenborg.

     Each member of that small group of men who founded the Academy in 1876 contributed his own special share to the promotion of the spiritual uses of that institution, some in one way, some in another. To my mind, Walter Childs' contribution is embodied in the words, "All religion has relation to life, and the life of religion is to do good"; or, to rearrange the words, in order to bring out what I have in mind, "All life has relation to religion."

     Before coming into the New Church, he had conceived of religion, not only as involving a Subjection of the reason to faith, but also as being accompanied by a joyless life. And to him, who was naturally of a joyous disposition, this aspect of religion had no appeal. With the reading of the Writings a new vision dawned upon him. "It is not so difficult (he read) to lead the life of heaven as is commonly supposed." And then he learned that the life of heaven did not demand the abnegation of the joys of the senses or the delights of the world; that a man could continue as a man of the world, could engage in its affairs as other men, and as others could cultivate and enjoy its delights, and yet lead the life of heaven; that this life was an internal, a spiritual life, and was not incompatible with life in the world, with its joys and pleasures, enhancing the delights of social life.

     It was this that Walter Childs, more than any other of the early Academy men, brought to the New Church,-the realization that the life of religion, with all its spiritual struggles and temptations, yet has its true manifestation in a life of natural happiness; nay, that the entrance into the spiritual blessings of the church, far from bringing sadness or repression, brought rather a new happiness,-the happiness of a new social life whose center was the church. And his name will ever be remembered in connection with that new social life which came to the church with the recognition of the Divinity of the Writings and the newness of the New Church.

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And, endowed as he was with the gift of poetry and song, he was well fitted to introduce and foster such a social life, as many here present can bear witness whose affections have been stirred by the words of his songs.

     These gifts of his,-his genial character, his worldly accomplishments,-were thus of service in bringing to us a new social life, because within them was the love of the Writings. It is easy to be a man of the world, to be esteemed by others as a genial companion and a contributor to the delights of social life; but to love the Writings, to love to read them, this requires effort and an inner struggle, which is none the less real because it is concealed from the eyes of the world. Many are accomplished men of the world, endowed with gifts which make them delightful companions, but how many have, united with these gifts, the love of spiritual things?

     Walter Childs was a lover of the Writings. He read them daily; they were in his thoughts; and their teachings were frequently on his lips in connection with one topic or another which happened to be the subject of conversation with his friends. Indeed, I have no hesitation in saying that no one was ever better acquainted with the teachings of the Writings than he. In conversation with him I have often been surprised at the wide extent of his knowledge. It was this knowledge that made him tolerant when new views were put forward in the church, supported by passages in the Writings. I have often talked with him concerning such views. He did not always agree with me, but his great knowledge of the Writings made him hesitant at rejecting them and tolerant in hearing them. And I have felt many times that his knowledge of the actual words of the Writings brought to him the desire to wait, and the assurance that further light would show the harmony of statements that appeared at variance.

     In that world into which he has now entered he will truly find the continuation of the life that he has loved on earth,-a life where his thoughts will continue as before to be engaged upon spiritual things, where he will meet with friends long endeared to him, and where he will again be able to engage in the uses of life, from which his bodily weakness had withheld him during his last Years on earth.

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This was to him the brightest of the prospects that would be opened to him on his entrance into the spiritual world. There he will enjoy the supreme blessing of a life of active uses, and in the doing of these he will realize the fullness of the Lord's words, "Well done, good and faithful servant; thou hast been faithful over a few things; enter thou into the joy of thy Lord."

     AUTOBIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH.

     Several years ago, Mr. Childs was asked to write an account of his life for preservation in the Archives. The following letter, addressed to the editor of NEW CHURCH LIFE, was found among his effects:

     April 9, 1930.

Dear friend William:
     This is written in compliance with your request for something in the way of autobiographical information.

     I was born in the city of Pittsburgh on October 28, 1845, being the fifth son of Harvey and Jane Lowrie Childs. In all, the family comprised six sons and two daughters. All, excepting one son who died in infancy, lived to maturity, and all, excepting a brother killed in battle and a sister who died in early womanhood, lived to an advanced age. My eldest brother attained 92 years. I am the sole survivor.

     On my father's side we are of English ancestry, and on my mother's Scotch. My parents were Presbyterians, and, on my mother's side, of pronounced type. An examination of Presbyterian records would show that the Lowries abounded in D.D.'s, reverends and elders, and also were strong in the missionary field. My father was of liberal disposition, and thought well of the New Church, but it was a shock to my mother to know that a son of hers absolutely repudiated the good old Presbyterian Church.

     My education was by local private schools until 1861, when I was sent to Phillip's Academy, Andover, Mass., to prepare for Yale, where two older brothers had preceded. But, like many of the boys at that time, I was wild to get into the army. Being only 16, my father refused consent, but agreed to West Point. With this in view, in 1862, I entered upon a similar course of studies at the Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, N. Y. Failing to get the West Point appointment, I continued at Troy for nearly four years. In the spring of 1866, I left the Polytechnic, and a little later accompanied my elder sister upon a European tour.

     Returning from Europe in the fall of 1866, I was employed in the office of the Hope Cotton Mill, Pittsburgh, formerly managed by my brother who fell at Antietam.

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About two years later a partnership under the name of W. C. Childs & Co. was formed with my boyhood friend, Franklin Ballou. The business started with the manufacture of a patented furnace grate for steam boilers. Afterwards we added the manufacture of a non-conducting asbestos cement for blast furnaces. The partnership continued until 1875, when Mr. Ballou removed to Colorado.

     On Sunday, February 20, 1870, Mr. Ballou and I were baptized into the New Church. As to what led up to this, see "Some Reminiscences" in New Church Life, October, 1917. My older brother, Albert, was the only one of my family who accepted the New Church. By a singular coincidence the date of his baptism was Sunday, February 20, 1881, exactly eleven years after mine, and on the same day of the week. On this date it was our custom to exchange congratulations.

     In 1873, Oaknest was built, and was my Pittsburgh home until the spring of 1879, when I went to California, intending to be gone about two months. However, my plans were wholly changed. I became interested in mining, and also met and fell in love with a young New Church girl, Edith Smith, of San Francisco. We became engaged, and were married on October 7th, 1879. It might be added that my acquaintance with Miss Smith occurred through Frank Ballou. He had himself met her when in California several years earlier, and he wrote me to San Francisco to "look up a little New Church girl named Edith Smith" whom he had met and found very bright and attractive. As usual, Frank was correct-except that "the little girl" had grown somewhat.

     In the early summer of 1880, Edith and I visited Pittsburgh, and we temporarily occupied Oaknest, where our first child, Beatrice, was born on July 31st. We returned to California in the autumn. Here four children were born,-Harold, Randolph, Sydney, and Gertrude who died in infancy. The youngest, Geoffrey, was born in Media, Pa.

     Upon deciding to remain in California, it was with the greatest satisfaction that I received from Mr. Andrew Carnegie an offer to lease Oaknest for his cousin, our very dear friend, Miss Maria C. Hogan, and there she, and also our friend Miss Mary Dover, afterwards Mrs. Arthur Schott, lived for years-perpetuating Oaknest's Academy traditions.

     During the ten years of residence in California I made a number of visits East, averaging about one a year, and thus was able to keep quite closely in touch with Academy affairs. It has since often occurred to me to be glad of the California separation, for otherwise the numerous and valuable letters received from Chancellor Benade, John Pitcairn, Vice Chancellor Pendleton, and various other Academicians, would never have been written. These letters, stored in the Archives, will be of interest to future historians in throwing light upon the early days of the Academy.

     In 1889 we removed to Philadelphia, where, on September 12th, 1894, my wife died after a lingering illness.

     On July 29th, 1897, occurred my marriage with Miss Ida M. Smith. She was a double cousin of Edith's, and they had been warm friends.

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She had been educated in a convent in Switzerland, where she became an ardent Catholic. She was familiar with a phase of the New Church, as her father and sister were members of a Convention Society, but the New Church had never interested her until she encountered the Academy. Our authority stand appealed to her and she began reading. The result was an entire rejection of Catholicism and a full acceptance of the Divinity of the Writings, followed by baptism.

     In 1897, having business in New York City, I removed from Philadelphia to Yonkers, N. Y., and continued to reside there until 1928.

     In 1905, my wife Ida died very suddenly from a heart attack. It was then that our dear friend, Miss Eliza Mitchell-who in former years had often visited us-kindly took up her residence with us at Yonkers, and remained until her death on April 4th, 1928, at the age of 88. A sincere and intelligent New Churchwoman, and a devoted mother to my children, "Aunt Eliza" was deeply loved by us all, and lives in our grateful remembrance.

     Three times during my early life I escaped from dangerous accidents. In childhood, while bathing in the Ohio River, and before having learned to swim, I was swept into a deep pool. When about sixteen, driving down a steep road, I went over the side, but managed to land safely upon a shelf at the edge of a perpendicular quarry wall. And in my junior year at college I was accidentally shot by a classmate. However, the wound healed rapidly, and the bullet, location unknown, has never given trouble. Considering the sure and happy lot of children in the other life has suggested the idea of regret in having escaped the first accident, but such infesting thought perishes with the reflection that the happiness involved, however sure and great, would not be of the kind that one looks forward to sharing with the many dear friends who have loved our Academy, and who have been called home after a life of fidelity to Academy ideals and combat for them.

     The enclosed paper, "Founders' Day," gives information as to my connection with the beginning of the Academy.

     The above will, I trust, furnish you with ample facts from which to select material for a brief biographical notice. Yours ever sincerely, WALTER C. CHILDS.

     It would be well to add that, from the time of his removal to Yonkers in 1897, Mr. Childs was for more than thirty years an active member of our New York Society. During the same period he served as a member of the Executive Committee of the General Church and as Treasurer of the Orphanage Fund. As a Founder and Charter Member of the Academy, he was always actively associated with the affairs of the Corporation. A regular attendant at the councils and assemblies of the General Church, he also inspired countless festive gatherings with his songs, some of which are preserved in the Social Song Book and others in manuscript. He also left thirty notebooks containing extracts from the Writings, arranged under subjects and indexed. His account of Founders' Day will be printed on a suitable occasion.-EDITOR.

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NOTES AND REVIEWS. 1934

NOTES AND REVIEWS.              1934


NEW CHURCH LIFE
Office a Publication, Lancaster, Pa.
Published Monthly By
THE GENERAL CHURCH OF THE NEW JERUSALEM
BRYN ATHYN, PA.
Editor                    Rev. W. B. Caldwell, Bryn Athyn, Pa.
Business Manager          Mr. H. Hyatt, Bryn Athyn, Pa.

     All literary contributions should be sent to the Editor. Subscriptions, change of address and business communications should be sent to the Business Manager.

     TERMS OF SUBSCRIPTION
$3.00 a year to any address, payable in advance. Single Copy, 30 cents.
     PUBLISHING AGENCIES.

CELEBRATING FIFTY YEARS. 1883-1933. The Story of the New-Church Board of Publication. New York, 1934. Paper, 37 pages.

     Swedenborg published the Writings at his own expense, the first volume of the Arcana Celestia (London, 1749) costing him ?200. The second volume was brought out in both Latin and English, the translation being by a Mr. John Merchant "at the express desire of the Author himself, who remunerated him for his trouble." (Documents III, pp. 973, 974.)

     It was not long, however, before Swedenborg's example was followed by receivers of the Doctrines, who were kindled with a zeal for printing the precious volumes of the Writings, that a knowledge of their contents might be extended among men. In 1785, for example, Robert Hindmarsh and four other New Churchmen undertook at their own expense to publish the Apocalypsis Explicata from the original manuscript, which they obtained from Sweden for the purpose. (Rise and Progress, p. 30.)

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     In 1810, "The Society for Printing and Publishing the Writings of the Hon. Emanuel Swedenborg "was instituted in London,-one of the first of the bodies organized in the Church for the purpose of publishing and distributing the Writings and collateral literature. A few of these bodies have become chartered institutions, gradually acquiring the necessary capital by donations and bequests from the members of the Church. Outstanding among these are: The Swedenborg Society, London, 1810; The American Swedenborg Printing and Publishing Society (now The Swedenborg Foundation, Incorporated), 1850; The Academy of the New Church, 1876; and the New-Church Board of Publication, 1883. Nor should we omit a mention of the extensive publishing of the Writings in Boston during the first half of the nineteenth century, Otis Clapp being the printer, these volumes now being known as the "Boston Edition."

     The booklet before us Sketches the origin and development of the "publishing arm of the Convention," from a "Missionary and Tract Board" in 1833, a "Board of Publications" in 1855 (of which J. Young Scammon, of Chicago, was chairman for seventeen years), to its final incorporation in 1883 as "The New-Church Board of Publication." It is now affiliated with The New-Church Press.

     While not specializing in the publication of the Writings, the Board has actively cooperated in this field with the Swedenborg Foundation, the Iungerich Trustees, the Rotch Trustees and other bodies. In 1887, it printed Swedenborg's De Anima, or Rational Psychology, and in 1919 a new edition of the Economy of the Animal Kingdom. But its chief interest has been that of collateral literature and the missionary field. Touching upon this, we read on page 4:

     "In the early days, there arose two schools of thought and much rivalry. One school stood for publishing Swedenborg in many forms; the other, quite tolerant of the importance of the publication of the Writings, maintained that collateral literature was essential to the success of any organized effort in a missionary direction. In England the same division had arisen. In the first Conventions this clash ran as an undercurrent, but fortunately the pressing need for a third form of publication, that of Liturgy and Hymnal, gave common ground and held both views in bonds of friendship.

     Among the activities of the Board, during the fifty years it now commemorates, it has published THE MESSENGER and other Convention periodicals, the Book of Worship, the Magnificat, and the New Hosanna, and many collateral books by New Church writers, among which we note C. T. Odhner's Emanuel Swedenborg, A True Story for the Young, and Louis Pendleton's Invisible Police.

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     The booklet is of historical value and interest, and incidentally clarifies the interrelation of the various publishing agencies allied with the General Convention.
Title Unspecified 1934

Title Unspecified              1934

SWEDENBORG FOUNDATION, INCORPORATED, 18 East 41st Street, New York. Eighty-fifth Annual Report, from April 1, 1933, to April 1, 1934; paper, 24 pages.

     This pamphlet furnishes detailed information as to the activities of the Foundation in the course of a year, especially in distributing many volumes of the Writings by sale or donation. It has disposed of 19,178 copies of the Missionary Edition, as follows: Heaven and Hell, 9,934; Divine Love and Wisdom, 3,167; Divine Providence, 3,483; The Four Doctrines, 2,594. Follow-up letters of inquiry were sent to 1575 purchasers of this Edition, and 178 replies were received, 127 expressing "great interest."

     During the year the Foundation donated 264 copies of the Writings to 25 Libraries in the United States and Canada. In cooperation with the Iungerich Fund, which sent out 25,000 Gift Book circulars to Methodist, Episcopal, Baptist, and Lutheran ministers, orders were filled for 3,432 volumes of the Writings. Libraries for the Blind are being supplied with the Writings in Braille, these being the work of Mrs. C. D. Watson, of Madison, N. J., who has been assisted in the binding by volunteer workers of the American Red Cross.
SWEDENBORG AT PRAGUE. 1934

SWEDENBORG AT PRAGUE.              1934

     Mr. Anton Sellner, of New York, has kindly sent us his translation of an article on Emanuel Swedenborg, by Iaroslav Ianecek, which appeared in NARODNI POLITIKA, daily newspaper of Prague, on September 19, 1933. It gives an account of Swedenborg's visits to Prague two hundred years ago, in July and August, 1733, and a description of the things he saw there, as recorded in his Journal of Travel. (Documents, II, pp. 38-42, 68, 71.)

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THIRD SOUTH AFRICAN ASSEMBLY 1934

THIRD SOUTH AFRICAN ASSEMBLY       ELMO C. ACTON       1934

     HELD IN DURBAN, JUNE 16-19, 1934.

     First Session-Saturday, 8:00 p.m.

     After conducting the opening worship, the Rev. F. W. Elphick took the chair, declared the Assembly in session, and opened the proceedings with the reading of 9 letter he had received from the Bishop of the General Church, as follows:

Dear Mr. Elphick:
     Please convey my greetings to the Assembly. I deeply regret the mischance which has prevented Bishop de Charms from carrying out his anticipated visit to South Africa. He, I know, looked forward to being present at the Assembly, and with keen pleasure at the prospect of meeting the many friends, both in Durban and at Alpha.

     As this letter must be mailed at once, in order that it may reach you in time for the meetings, I can only express my hope and my anticipation that the Assembly will serve to advance those spiritual uses which lie close to the hearts of the members of the General Church,-uses which have in view the salvation of men through the instrumentality of His new Divine Revelation, now given and adapted to meet the spiritual needs of men for all time. In view of this, we must avoid the feeling of restiveness which sometimes arises when we think of the slow growth of the church, and of the dissensions which from the beginning have seemed to retard its growth. Let us realize the truth that the limitations and the constraints which appear to impede the church, even as those which afflict an individual, are of the Lord's allowance, with a view to ends that are beyond our comprehension,-ends of good to the future church, which we may well believe could not be attained apart from conflicts which seem to hold back, while in truth, through the temptations involved, they advance that spiritual development which the Lord would provide for His New Church.

     In sending this brief note, please permit me to join you in spirit.
     (Signed) N. D. PENDLETON.

     The Bishop's letter was acclaimed with great enthusiasm, for from his visits to South Africa he is remembered with esteem and affection. It was he who presided at our First Assembly, and gave to this use an impetus which, we hope, will never die.

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     At the outset of this report it should be remarked that this is only our third Assembly, so that in this use we are merely in the infant stage. At our first Assembly there were only two or three laymen who spoke to the papers, while in the one just concluded nine laymen responded, giving to the Assembly that spirit of fellowship and delight in the doctrines of the Church which is such a marked characteristic of the Assemblies in other parts of the Church.

     After reading the Bishop's letter, the Rev. F. W. Elphick delivered the Presidential Address, the subject being: "Freedom and Order." (See p. 305.) It was a comprehensive and thorough study of the subject, and it was evident from the response that it was greatly enjoyed by those present. A number of the Ministers and Teachers of our Native Mission were present. We all enjoyed having them with us, and it brought a feeling of oneness among the members of the Church. The Rev. Philip Stole, on their behalf, expressed pleasure that this opportunity had been given them, and closed by saying a few words on the subject of the address.

     After the Session, through the kindness of Mrs. J. J. Forfar, tea was served, and thus the doctrinal feast was suitably ultimated in a miniature feast of charity. This is a delightful custom, and brings about a social unity and intercourse that is of great use.

     Divine Worship-Sunday, June 17th, 11:00 a.m.

     The morning service, attended by over one hundred persons, was conducted by the Rev. F. W. Elphick, who also delivered the Sermon. His text was the 23d Psalm, the main theme being that of rest and peace as a result of being delivered from evil. This subject was a most fitting introduction to the celebration of the Holy Supper which followed, the Rev. Elmo C. Acton assisting. A selection sung by the choir enhanced the beauty of the service.

     The Assembly was invited to an afternoon tea at the home of Mr. and Mrs. W. G. Lowe. It was a warm and sunny afternoon, and the most sumptuous tea, served in the lovely garden of our hosts, gave us another opportunity of meeting and conversing with the friends.

     A Service of Praise was held at 7 p.m., the Rev. E. C. Acton preaching the Sermon, which treated of the subject of the "Second Advent of the Lord."

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It was pointed out that, while the Second Advent was an historical event that took place during the 18th century, still it cannot be truly celebrated unless it is also taking place in each individual. The Holy City, New Jerusalem, must descend into the minds and hearts of the individuals of the Church, that the Lord's New Church may be established on the earth. The delight of this service was augmented by two impressive numbers rendered by the choir.

     Second Session-Monday, 8:00 p.m.

     The Rev. F. W. Elphick opened the meeting with prayer and a reading from the Word, after which the Rev. Elmo C. Acton read a paper on "The Holy Spirit-Its Mode of Operation." The discussion that followed was lively and interesting. We regret that we cannot give a verbatim report of the speeches, but can assure you that they were of a high standard, and evidenced a keen and affectionate interest in the Doctrines of the Church. Those who took part in the discussions at both sessions were: Revs. F. W. Elphick, P. H. Johnson (Conference Mission), and E. C. Acton; Messrs. Robert A. Mansfield, Norman A. Ridgway, J. H. Ridgway, E. J. Waters, R. M. Ridgway, H. Scott Forfar, W. N. Ridgway, L. C. Morgan, and the Native Minister, Rev. P. J. Stole.

     Seventy-six persons signed the Roll of the Assembly. The attendance at the Sessions was 64 and 75; at the Sunday Services, 98 and 110.

     Tuesday, June 19, 7:00 p.m.

     The closing feature of the Assembly was the Banquet on New Church Day. Over one hundred people sat down to a delightful repast prepared by the women of the society. So delicious was the chicken pie that during the evening several men declared that the one at their table was the best, as it was impossible for a better one to exist! Mr. E. J. Waters was toastmaster, and he had chosen "The Church" as his subject, dividing the theme into four parts: "The Church," R. M. Ridgway; "Love," J. H. Ridgway; "Wisdom," R. A. Mansfield; and "Use," H. S. Forfar. The papers were of a high order, and afforded a real spiritual feast. All present also enjoyed a pianoforte solo by Mrs. William van E. Schuurman (nee Beatrice Forfar), and songs by Mr. and Mrs. L. G. Pemberton.

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     During the evening there were numerous toasts and songs and the toastmaster read the following telegrams:

     "Happy New Church Day to all! Loving thoughts and good wishes from your lost sheep!"-Rogers Family, Saron, Cape Province.

     "Warmest greetings, Nineteenth June. With you in spirit."-Viva Ridgway, National Park, Natal.

     "Every good wish for a useful and happy Assembly! Rejoice with you on the Nineteenth."-Parkers, Alpha, O. F. S.

     We understand that this was Mr. Waters first experience in the capacity of toastmaster, but no one would have guessed it. The evening was brought to a close by the singing of the National Anthem, in response to a toast to "The King."

     Thus closed our most successful Assembly to date. We deeply regretted the unfortunate circumstances which prevented Bishop de Charms from presiding, and hope that we may have the honor and pleasure of the presence of a Bishop at our next Assembly. We feel that the use of Assembly has now been thoroughly established in South Africa, and we hope that in future years the members of the Church here may continue to uphold this use, and may derive from it all those blessings which have been experienced from Assembly in our body of the New Church.
     ELMO C. ACTON,
          Secretary.
FIFTEENTH GENERAL ASSEMBLY 1934

FIFTEENTH GENERAL ASSEMBLY       HUGO LJ. ODHNER       1934

     The Fifteenth General Assembly of the General Church of the New Jerusalem will meet at Bryn Athyn, Pa., June 13-19, 1935. According to the preliminary plans, the program will open with a combined Commencement and Assembly Reception on the evening of Thursday, June 13th, and close on Wednesday, June 19th.
     HUGO LJ. ODHNER,
          Secretary.

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Church News 1934

Church News       Various       1934

     SYDNEY, AUSTRALIA.

     Since our report of April 26, there have been five meetings of the doctrinal class and two tea socials. At the last meeting of the former, the reading of Angelic Wisdom concerning the Divine Providence was finished.

     At the first of the socials, Miss Nellie Clara Taylor read a paper on "The Planet Jupiter"; and, at the second, Miss Thelma Scheers read a short one on "Mars." The remainder of the usual time occupied was filled by my reading the story of "The Jovians," by Mrs. M. C. Fitzpatrick, published in New Church Life, October, 1912.

     Then came Sunday, June the 17th! It seemed as if the weather made a special effort to be gloriously bright, with temperature mild. Instead of my own sermon, I read that by the Rev. Theodore Pitcairn on "Preserving the New Church as Distinctive," published in the February, 1926, issue of New Church Sermons. In the afternoon, the children of the Sunday School were told about the great event by Mr. Ossian Heldon, in a short address he gave them prior to their lessons. Soon the shades of evening gathered, with the atmosphere clear and mild, and a temperature of about fifty degrees. The canopy of the heavens was strikingly beautiful, the stars and constellations being exceptionally distinct. In such an atmosphere did we celebrate the Lord's commission to His Twelve Apostles, one hundred and sixty-four years ago. There were thirty-seven present, including five small children, the youngest being eight weeks old-born on
Anzac Day.

     The supper commenced with all singing "Joy to This Meeting Fair." At its conclusion "The Church Militant" was sung. I then read a Greeting from the Rev. C. Douglas Brock, pastor of the Society in Adelaide, South Australia, which was received with spontaneous applause. (See below.) My paper, entitled "The Lord God Jesus Christ Reigns," was followed by the united singing of "Our Glorious Church." Mr. T. R. Taylor then read a paper on "The Intermediate State"; and, after the singing of "There's a Beautiful Land," a paper on "Heaven and Hell," by Mr. Ossian Heldon, caused much interest by its placing of good and evil in quick juxtaposition and contrast.

     Prior to our closing song, "The Brotherhood," Miss Tazewell added to the evening's pleasure by giving us "Ave Maria" and other music from-shall I say?-that chief of instruments, the violin.

     Our celebration then closed with the pronouncing of the benediction with which the Lord, by Moses, told Aaron and his sons to bless the children of Israel. (Numbers 6:24-27.)

     On the 19th, the children of the Day School had their banquet, and as they desired my company on the occasion, it was for me a very pleasant experience. The sphere was delightful. The place-cards in red and white, having the sketch of a church upon them, and the little baskets for sweets, were the handiwork of the children. Then the banquet itself! After grace had been said, it was a pleasure to see them consume the wonderful things provided. It came to an end at last. Then four of the older children, three boys and a girl, read their papers on the life of Emanuel Swedenborg, making a complete short description of that great man's life, from birth to his final passing from our earth.

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Following the singing of suitable songs, all gathered round a table on which was a representation of Swedenborg's summer house, also of the twelve disciples whom the Lord sent throughout the whole spiritual world to preach the gospel that He alone reigns. All this their teacher explained to them in simple clearness. While the children were standing round the table, and at a suitable period of her description, I held up before them a copy of the True Christian Religion, in which were completed the Divine things that constitute the Lord's Second Advent.

     I may not conclude without recording my admiration for the thorough manner in which Miss White has conducted the school; and I hope that she may have happiness in the new sphere of life which she is soon to enter.
     RICHARD MORSE.

     New Church Day Greeting.

     To the Minister and Members of the Hurstville Society of the General Church of the New Jerusalem: Greetings, fraternal remembrances, and prayerful wishes for a united, progressive, spiritually prosperous and useful year of New Church worship and life!

     "This is the day which the Lord hath made; we will rejoice and be glad in it."

     On Tuesday, the 19th instant, we reach that point in time which marks the completion of 164 years since our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ issued the stirring Evangel, "The Lord God Jesus Christ reigns, whose kingdom shall be for ever and ever," an evangel carried throughout the whole spiritual world by His twelve disciples who followed Him in the world. Since the formation of the New Heaven, it has been steadily strengthened by the advent of those from this world in whom the New Church-as complement of the New Heaven-has been established to varying degree. These folk are those who have acknowledged, and have been faithful in life to, the "two witnesses," the unity of God in our glorified Lord and Savior, and the principles of the Decalogue.

     Every individual who is added as a member of the New Heaven strengthens it and the power for ultimation-in the New Church upon earth-by influx into the hearts, minds and lives of the re-forming, re-formed, and re-generating members of the Church.

     But this power is only potential until we freely decide that our minds shall be receptacles or vessels made fit to receive the inflowing spirit from the Lord, through His New Heaven into those who are actively willing to be members of the spiritual New Church, and who are actively willing and determined to ultimate this "newness" in their moral, mental and physical development and activities.     

     In our lives there never has been a time when the world was in greater need of folk who are prepared to live their religion; and the only religion which can be lived with permanent effectiveness is the true Christian Religion, the truths of which are embodied in the Old and New Testaments, and made "new" and shown forth in all their glory in the Writings, which constitute the Second Advent of the Lord.

     The world conditions today are a direct challenge to us to note the death of the Old Church and corresponding old order of life, to realize the significance for the world of the birth and growth of the New Church, and to live the new and true Christian life as a glorious adventure, demanding courage and sacrifice, but with ample reward;-our Lord and the neighbor loved and served, the expanding true Christian life lived, the world within others, and the world-conditions around us, a better place of abode, the Kingdom more fully come, and the personal approbation of our Lord, "Well done, good and faithful servant!"

     May the year 165 be one of determined and successful New Church life for every member of your Society, is the wish of
     Yours fraternally,
          C. DOUGLAS BROCK.

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     COLCHESTER, ENGLAND.

     July 24th.-Our New Church Day celebration was held on Saturday, June 16th, in the evening. We commenced with a feast of charity, the tables looking lovely, being decorated with blue Nemesia and large blue Spanish Irises.

     Several visitors from London and other places, including Miss Ellen Wallenberg, of Chicago, Ill., and Miss Roena Acton, of Bryn Athyn, helped to make the evening a great success. We had hoped that Bishop Tilson would be with us, but owing to illness he was unable to come. Our Pastor was toastmaster, and with a few preliminary remarks introduced the subject of the evening,-"The Four Churches." Then followed a toast to the Church and the singing of "Our Glorious Church." Mr. Boozer had the first paper, on "The Most Ancient Church," Mr. Fred Waters, "The Ancient Church," Mr. Colley Pryke, "The Christian Church," and finally the Rev. Wynne Acton, "The New Church." All regretted that, owing to indisposition, Mr. Fred Waters was unable to be with us, his paper being read by his brother, Mr. E. J. Waters. The papers were very interesting, and not too long. They were interspersed with toasts and songs, and after the set programme of the evening was concluded, several speeches of appreciation and toasts and songs were given. It was a very enjoyable and instructive time, and we closed with the singing of "The Lord God Jesus Christ doth reign."

     Our visitors remained over Sunday. The Rev. Wynne Acton preached in the morning, and the Holy Supper was administered. In the evening an open meeting of the Sons of the Academy was held. It had been hoped that Bishop Tilson would address us at this meeting, but as he could not be present, the Rev. Wynne Acton gave a paper on "Perception" which was much appreciated.

     On June 19th, a social tea was given for the children of the society. Our Pastor had arranged for each child to read a short paper or an extract from the Writings on the Last Judgment and the establishment of the New Church. It was somewhat of an experiment, but the children acquitted themselves very well, the papers being well written and well read. Mr. and Mrs. Appleton, Senior, were invited as guests of honor, because the 19th of June is Mrs. Appleton's birthday, and she is our oldest member, being eighty-three this year. During the tea she was presented with a large bouquet of roses from the children.

     We have been very fortunate in having several visitors with us this Summer: Miss Wallenberg who remains until after the Assembly; Miss Dorothy Burnham and Miss Roena Acton; and we are looking forward to the visit of Bishop de Charms. The Rev. W. Cairns Henderson spent several days here, and conducted the service and preached for us on Sunday morning, July 15th, when our Pastor was away from home. We are now looking forward to a good British Assembly in London.
     M. W.

     GLENVIEW, ILL.

     Mr. and Mrs. Alvin E. Nelson celebrated their thirty-third wedding anniversary on August 1st, and, as a special mark of our affection for them, most of our people met by prearrangement at 7 p.m. on the lawn in front of their home and joined in singing to them. The 19th and 24th Psalms were sung from the Psalmody. Mr. Nelson, who has been confined to the house by illness, appeared on the porch with Mrs. Nelson and the members of the family and exchanged greetings with us. Our Pastor made a few remarks expressing our love and good wishes, and we then sang, "For they are jolly good fellows" and "Our Glorious Church."

     There is always considerable activity in this society during the Summer, and the attendance at the Sunday services continues almost up to the average of the year.

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Our Pastor has been able to take some short periods of vacation, and we have had the pleasure of hearing sermons by the Rev. Norman H. Reuter, who is spending the Summer at the home of his parents here.

     Among recent visitors we note: Mrs. Gladys H. Edmonds and family, and Messrs. John Howard and Nathan Pitcairn, of Bryn Athyn; Mr. Walter Cranch, of Somerton, Pa.; the Misses Helena, Clara and Johanna Boericke, of Philadelphia; Miss Zoe Iungerich, and Mr. John Schoenberger, of Pittsburgh.

     The greatest period of drought ever experienced in this region has left the grass brown and the local gardens a wreck. The trees, however, are still green, and fortunately no one among our people is dependent completely upon the fruits of the soil for a livelihood, in contrast with the many unfortunates in the great Middle West who are so sorely afflicted.

     Did you notice that the August number of the Life was filled with interesting matter, and incidentally contained more Church News than we can remember having seen in any previous issue.
     J. B. S.

     PITTSBURGH, PA.

     After an instructive and pleasant visit of several weeks in June and July, the Rev. Erik Sandstrom has gone to Sweden. His doctrinal classes and sermons were enjoyed and appreciated by us all.

     On August 3d, the pastor, accompanied by his daughter Zoe, motored into Ohio, where he visited Mr. and Mrs. Tirzah Renkenberger, Mr. Rymer, Mrs. Leland Johnson, and the Sponseller family, in Columbiana. In the evening there was a gathering at the home of the Misses Renkenberger, sixteen persons being present, including Miss Norris of Glenview and eight who came from Youngstown. The annual day of expiations (Leviticus 16) was the subject of the doctrinal class, which was followed by an enjoyable social time.

     On Saturday, August 4th, Miss Barbara Rhodes, of Greenford, and the Williamsons at Niles, were visited. At the latter home, in the evening, a doctrinal class on the subject of Philoprogenitiveness was held, twelve persons being present, including seven from Youngstown.

     A service of worship was held on Sunday, August 5th, at the home of Mrs. McElroy in Youngstown, with an attendance of thirty-seven. The sermon treated of the Ninth and Tenth Commandments.

     Then came the annual picnic at Mill Creek Park, fifty persons being present, from the following places: Wellsville 1, Greenford 1, Niles 2, Columbiana 6, Youngstown 12, Pittsburgh 27, Glenview 1. Mr. Will Norris was inimitably witty as toastmaster, calling successfully for speech from nearly everyone present, including the ladies.

     At a special meeting of the Pittsburgh Society on July 30th, the resignation of the Rev. E. E. Iungerich as pastor was accepted, and a resolution of gratitude and appreciation of his services to us for the past six years was passed.
     E. R. D.

     TORONTO, CANADA.

     Our Day School Closing on the evening of June 29th was held under the shadow of the bereavement occasioned by the passing to the spiritual world, on June 23d, of our beloved teacher, Miss Dora Brown, and every item on the program called to mind the impress of her work upon the pupils. The Rev. K. R. Alden gave the address, his theme being "that there is no more hallowed task than the teaching of the children of the Church, since the purpose of our education is to prepare them for heaven." A hymn was sung in memory of "Miss Dora" by a group of the older pupils of the school. Miss Mary Smith, president of the local chapter of Theta Alpha, then presented to the school a sum of money, originally intended for the purchase of a gift to the teacher on the occasion of her contemplated trip to Europe, but now to be used for a permanent memorial of her.

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In simple and direct terms, Miss Smith voiced the deep affection and high esteem in which we all held Miss Dora, and touchingly said that her journey to Europe had been "changed to a journey to the spiritual world." She also presented to Haydn John the prize he had won in the Theta Alpha Essay Contest. The Pastor bade the pupils good-bye for the Summer, and spoke to them of what they had been taught during the year, likening the teachings to seeds which, if properly tended and cared for, will bring forth good fruits in the garden of the mind.

     Miss Dora Brown was a daughter of the late Mr. and Mrs. Charles Brown, long members of this society. This June she would have concluded her eighth year as teacher of our school, and to this use she brought all her affection and ability and an untiring application which was permeated with an intense devotion to the Church. Her own education had been wholly within the New Church, except for a period of special training in kindergarten work at Chicago. She had planned to go to Switzerland in July, and to pursue further studies at one of the universities there during her year's absence.

     Mrs. Richard Hickman, another of our members, passed to her eternal home on July 8th, at the age of seventy-five years. She was a native of England, and came to Canada about fifty years ago. She and her husband, who preceded her to the other world several years ago, were members of the Elm Street Society, and were among those who joined the Academy group in Parkdale in 1888, and took part in the formation of what is now the Olivet Church. To the last, in spite of partial blindness, Mrs. Hickman attended services and maintained an active interest in our uses. She is survived by a married son residing in California, and by her two daughters, Mrs. A. Strowger and Mrs. Wilfred Schnarr, who, with their husbands, are members of the Olivet Church.

     Our annual picnic was held on Saturday, July 7, at Sunnybrook Park, a beautiful spot on the north-eastern outskirts of the city, reached by automobiles for the adults, and a motor truck for the children, which they hilariously enjoyed. Sports for old and young, a picnic supper, the distribution of reward ribbons for Sunday School attendance, and camp-fire singing as the evening shadows lengthened in a lovely setting of nature's own providing, brought to a close another year's activities, except for the Sunday services, which our Pastor has arranged to continue throughout the Summer.

     We had another pretty wedding at the church on August 4th, when Miss Norma Margaret Wemyss, of Winnipeg, was married to Mr. Cecil Morden Carter, son of Mr. and Mrs. Norman G. Carter, of this city. Our Pastor performed the ceremony, Miss Mary Smith presided at the organ, and Joy Carter made a very sweet little flower girl. A reception followed at the home of the bridegroom's parents, who were congratulated upon the acquisition of such a charming addition to their family group, as we extended heartiest felicitations to the newly married pair.

     Among the many visitors during the Summer, we have had the pleasure of welcoming two former pastors, with their wives. The Rev. and Mrs. Karl R. Alden spent ten days among us, and we hope they enjoyed themselves as much as we enjoyed them. Mr. Alden preached on Sunday, July 8th, and the congregation was much pleased to hear him once more. The Rev. and Mrs. Hugo Lj. Odhner stopped over night, affording an all-too-brief opportunity for swapping reminiscences and exchanging notes on events, past, present, and to be. Dr. Acton, too, was with us for the Sunday service on August 5th, and preached a fine sermon on the text, "Judge not, that ye be not judged," emphasizing the doctrine of true charity. Mrs. Acton has also been here for an extended visit.
     F. W.

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ASSEMBLY NOTICES 1934

ASSEMBLY NOTICES              1934




     Announcements.



     Fall District Assemblies.

     The Pittsburgh District Assembly will be held at the Church of the Pittsburgh Society, 299 Le Roi Road, September 28-30, 1934.

     The Ontario District Assembly will be held at the Carmel Church, Kitchener, October 6-8, 1934.

     The Chicago District Assembly will be held at the Immanuel Church, Glenview, Ill., October 12-14, 1934.
CHARTER DAY 1934

              1934

     All ex-students of the Academy of the New Church are cordially invited to attend the Charter Day Exercises, to be held at Bryn Athyn, Pa., October 26-27, 1934.

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GATHERING THE SAINTS 1934

GATHERING THE SAINTS       Rev. R. J. TILSON       1934


NEW CHURCH LIFE
VOL. LIV          OCTOBER, 1934          No. 10
     "God, God, Jehovah hath spoken, and will call the earth from the rising of the sun unto the going down thereof. . . . Gather unto me my saints, those who have made a covenant with me by sacrifice." (Psalm 50:1, 5.)

     The spiritual sense of this portion of the fiftieth Psalm is as follows: "The Lord will come to those with whom the church is, for judgment." (P. P.)

     It is called "A Psalm of Asaph," which title is part of the Psalm. Twelve of the Psalms have the same title,-a very suggestive one in connection with the instruction now to be given. Asaph was one of the Levite singers who was chosen by the brethren to bear the ark of the covenant from Obed-edom at the command of David. (I Chronicles 15: 17; II Samuel 6.) The term "asaph" in Hebrew means a collector, from a root meaning collected or gathered, and is used in the Word in connection with the harvest, and also with passing into the other world at death. How suitable, then, in connection with the idea of judgment, and with the words of the text, "Gather unto me my saints, those who have made a covenant with me by sacrifice."

     But first let us turn our attention to the opening words of the Psalm, "God, God, Jehovah hath spoken." In the Hebrew it is "El, Elohim, Yehowah," literally "The God of gods, Jehovah,"-an expression which only occurs in this place and in Joshua 22.

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El and Elokim, we are told, always refer to the Lord as to Divine Truth, El to Truth in the will and act, which is the same as the good of truth, and Elohim to Divine Truth is general, used in the plural because it involves all truths which are from the Lord. For the same reason the angels are sometimes called elohim or gods in the Word. But Yehowah is the Lord as to the Divine Good. (A. C. 4402.) Thus the trine of the appellations of the Lord in the text,-El, Elohim, Yehowah,-involves and expresses all the relations of the Lord with man in that supreme work of human existence,-the regeneration of man.

     And so when the men of the church assemble in the Name, the Names, of the Lord, it is a propitious time for the consideration of the words of the text, together with their immediate context.

     The Esse of the Lord is Divine Love. As such, He appears in the Sun of the heavens. Indeed, from His Esse He first makes His approach to His creation as the Sun of the spiritual world; for the end of all creation is for the realization of the infinite desires and intentions of Divine Love. Let this fundamental fact never be lost sight of. The great purpose of the Divine in the creation of man, and of all things lower which have been created for the well-being of man, is the outcome and the outpouring of the Divine Love.

     To make this manifest to man, and for the purpose of expressing itself for the sake of the conjunction of man with his Maker, all the revelations of Divine Love have assumed the forms of Divine Truths, which, in the aggregate, as well as in their separate forms of revealings, are the Word of the Lord,-that Word by which the heavens were made and the earths of the universe created. All are the outcome of Divine Love, that "First," Infinite and Uncreate, into which neither man nor angel can ever attain as to its Divinity, though in the mercy of the Creator they can ever be its privileged recipients, and, by the God-ordained process of regeneration, realize all that the Divine Love intended in their creation.

     This is expressed, when spiritually understood, in the opening words of this Psalm, "God, God, Jehovah,"-the all powerful God (El), the God manifested in all Divine Truths, Elohim,-even Divine Love-Jehovah-'hath spoken, and called the earth,"-the church"-from the rising of the sun unto the going down thereof."

     The Lord's unseen and unseeable end in the creation of man is, therefore, Divine Love; the means and revealings are Divine Truths; and the effects are realized in those things which manifest the Divine Use.

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When this series is intellectually seen, then, in an accommodated way, man can and will see, by perception, by intelligent thought, and by rightly coordinated knowledges, the Divine Love in the Divine Truths, and in the Divine Use, in which he is privileged to cooperate with the Lord, in proportion as he shuns all evils as sins against God.

     In the context it is said, "Out of Zion, the perfection of beauty, God shall shine forth; our God shall come. . . . He shall cry out to heaven from above, and to the earth, to judge His people. Gather my saints together unto me." (Verses 2-5.) The Doctrine informs us that " this plainly treats of the judgment upon all 'out of Zion,' that is, from the Lord by means of Divine Truth. The separation of the good from the evil is meant by 'calling the earth from the rising of the sun even to the going down thereof.' Judgment upon all is signified by 'crying to the heavens from above, and to the earth, to judge the people.' The gathering together of the good and their salvation is meant by the command, 'Gather my saints unto me.' And the Divine Truth, in which the Lord is in His glory, is meant by the words, 'Out of Zion, the perfection of beauty, God shall shine forth.'" (A. E. 850:12.)

     Now "the Divine Truth in which the Lord is in His glory" is that Divine Truth which He has revealed in the Heavenly Doctrines of the New Jerusalem, known familiarly as the "Writings of the Church," and by the revealing of which the Lord has made His Second Coming,-that Revelation in which the Lord has fulfilled His promise to His disciples, "I shall show you plainly of the Father." (John 16:25.) "Plainly," not more obscurely or more heavily veiled; "plainly," because in the "Crown of Revelations," yea, by an "immediate revelation" (H. H. l.),-the revelation of the spiritual sense of the Word, which surpasses all former Revelations, by opening up in glorious effulgence the wondrous truths which were bidden or heavily veiled within the former Words of the Old and New Testaments. In this Revelation,-that of the Writings,-the words of this Psalm have been fulfilled, "Our God shall come, and shall not keep silence; a fire shall devour before Him, and it shall be very tempestuous round about Him." (Verse 3.)

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     The Lord comes to His people, and to the world generally, by means of an inflowing, an influx; and "this influx of the Divine Love with the good appears in the heavens as fire, vivifying, reanimating, and conjoining; while with the evil below it appears as a fire consuming and destroying." (A. E. 504:18) In this time of His Second Coming the "fire" which comes from the Lord to those who receive Him, who may be called relatively "the good," is the affection of truth; not merely the affection for truth, which may easily be the product of the mere lust for knowledges, but the affection of truth,-that thrilling, animating desire to know, because that which is to be learned is the will and way of the Lord, and thus the way to heaven. Not merely by the understanding of truth, not merely by the acquisition of knowledges, be they ever so beautiful,-not in this can and does the Lord come to His people; but He comes in the affection or love of the will which moves to the acquisition of knowledges because they are from the Lord, and because in them "He hath spoken and called the earth (of man's natural mind), from the rising of the sun unto the going down thereof."

     Is it not written in the following verse, "He shall call to the heavens from above, and to the earth, that He may judge His people"? How true, of course, are these words! They are the Lord's words, true at this time by means of the latest revelation from heaven. For is not the spiritual sense of the Word for angels, as well as for men who are angelically minded!

     Misguided minds are those which are ready to admit that communication with heaven can be obtained by reading the Words of the Old and New Testaments, and yet cannot admit into their thought that, as the Writings enable men to think with the angels, the Writings must therefore be part of the Word, because by the Word alone can angelic association be obtained. Ah yes! "Many men, many minds." But it is written, "It shall be very tempestuous around about Him." True! Gloriously true! Nothing like a storm to clear the atmosphere! Temptations,-mental, moral, intellectual, and spiritual,-must needs come, though born of natural mindedness, and oft of mental strabismus or astigmatism; or, far worse, temptations arising from a lust that is born of the love of self or the love of the world. These latter are by far the most serious. But though "it shall be very tempestuous round about Him," the "Lord's arm is not shortened that it cannot save."

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And the strength of that arm is Divine Love.

     And when men are moved by the affection of truth, then intellectual differences in the conception of truth, stormy though they be for a time, and stubbornly strabismic, still, if love to the Lord and charity towards the neighbor be resolutely and honestly cultivated, the devastating fire of lust for disputation and for getting one's own way will be quenched by the affection of truth; and the growing fire of love for the thoughtful and independent examination of any and every presentation and conception of truth, and the determined effort to refer every thought to the everlasting and sure foundation of "Thus saith the Lord," will produce the sunshine after the shower and will eventually lead, if not here, then hereafter, into the true light which is promised to enlighten all minds which have for their base the affection of truth; for in that the Lord dwells, and from that gives the peace which the world cannot give, and cannot take away.

     What a comfort, therefore, arises from the words which indicate that the purpose of God's call to all men is that "He may judge His people." His Truth will be just; His truth will be truly kind and beneficent; for it will be the clothing and expression of Divine Love. And well may the question be asked with full assurance, "Shall not the judge of all the earth do right?" (Genesis 18:25.)

     In the light of what has already been said, we may be prepared to consider what is said in the Divine command of the Psalm before us: "Gather my saints unto me, those who have made a covenant with me by sacrifice." Truly this is an Asaphic Psalm. Yet it is not Asaph's, nor is it David's. It is the Lord's. But Asaph, as a word and name, means to gather. The word and name means an assembling. Of whom! Not by any means those who think and proclaim themselves to be saints. Against this vain imagination the Writings give a distinct warning. They tell us of some who had supposed themselves to be saints. In the other world they were kept in the Lower Earth. They were kept there in the intense desire to enter heaven, and that desire showed itself in intense anxiety; and they were detained in that state until, because they had some grounds of good in them, they could be brought to the conviction that they were not saints. They were eventually raised from the Lower Earth, and brought into heaven.

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But to consolidate their sensible conviction that they were not saints, it was given them to perceive their own sphere, which had arisen from their former insensate conviction that from themselves they were saints. (A. C. 951; S. D. 3651, 2.)

     To the question, Who are the saints? the Heavenly Doctrines give a definite reply. They are saints "who are of the New Church, and, abstractly, the holy truths of the church." By the saints are meant "those who are in the truths of doctrine from the Word, and in life according to them." (A. E. 695.) Again, it is said that the saints are those "who are in spiritual good and truth." (A. R. 278.) To be in truths of doctrine from the Word, and in a life according to them! These are the credentials of true discipleship, and these qualify all who will be in the Lord, and wish to have His ever-abiding presence in themselves.

     "Gather my saints unto me, those who have made a covenant with me by sacrifice." It is written in the Arcana: 1. Every covenant is for the sake of conjunction. 2. A covenant signifies the Lord's presence in charity. 3. The Lord's conjunction with man cannot be effected except in love and charity. (A. C. 1038.) Charity is the internal essential. But there can be no true love, no real charity apart from the truth. (A. C. 4574.) Divine Truth-the Truth of Revelation-is the manifestation of the Lord's Love, the Lord's charity. As the Lord's Love is infinite, so is His Truth. Divine Truth can never be anything but Divine, for it is and must ever be infinite; and of Divine Truth finition can never be predicated.

     The covenant of the Lord with man, and also in another form the conjunction of man with the Lord, is and must be by contiguity, and never by continuity. And this means that the Lord's presence with man, and man's reception of the Divine Truth, can never be effected in consequence of man's becoming part of the Divine nature and possessing infinite Divine attributes. Man's all-glorious relation with his Maker is entirely one of receptivity, as far as man is concerned. Human reception is as that of a vessel. The Lord's presence is the inflowing of Divine Life from its very source, which is meant by the statement of Divine Revelation that "The Lord God alone is."

     In relation to the covenant between the Lord and man, recall and especially note the closing phrase of the text concerning the saints who are to be gathered together.

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That phrase is, "They who have made a covenant with me by sacrifice." By sacrifice. By the renunciation of self, by the shunning of all evils as sins against God. Sacrifice is worship, of which the Lord in His Infinite Love is the center and all. And the most holy thing of worship is centered in the sacrament of the Holy Supper, when correspondentially prepared as to its elements, and received after due and thoughtful self-examination. For again it is written," It is With the Holy Supper as with a covenant, which, after the articles are settled, is agreed to, and finally signed and sealed." (T. C. R. 730.)

     In conclusion, let the following gem from the Everlasting Gospel and Covenant of the Second Advent be carefully heard: "Unless internal things are in the external, that is, unless internal things can be thought of whilst the men of the church are in external things, and unless at the same time they are affected with internal things, or at least with external things for the sake of internal, there is not anything of the church; for internal things make the church, inasmuch as the Lord is in them, because in them are the spiritual and celestial things which are from Him." (A. C. 4433.)

     "These things ought ye to have done, and not to leave the others undone." "Not unto us, O Lord, not unto us, but unto Thy name give glory, because of Thy mercy, and because of Thy truth." Amen.

LESSONS: Psalm 50. John 15. A. E. 7011-30. T. C. R. 416.
MUSIC: Liturgy, pages 509, 548, 613.
PRAYERS: Liturgy, nos. 64, 67.
NEW CHURCH SERMONS 1934

NEW CHURCH SERMONS              1934

     A pamphlet published monthly, from October to June inclusive, by the General Church of the New Jerusalem. Contents: Sermons and other material suitable for individual reading, family worship, and missionary purposes, reprinted from New Church Life. Sent free of charge on application to Mr. H. Hyatt, Treasurer, Bryn Athyn, Pa.

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BUILDING A HOUSE 1934

BUILDING A HOUSE       Rev. F. E. WAELCHLI       1934

     A TALK TO CHILDREN.

     Once, when the Lord was on earth, He spoke what is called The Sermon on the Mount, which is given in three chapters of Matthew (5 to 7). In it He tells what are the good things people are to do, and what are the evil things they are not to do, in order that He map lead them to heaven. At the close of the sermon He spoke of a person who both hears and does His sayings, and of another person who hears but does not do them. The first, He said, is like a wise man, that is, a careful or prudent man, who builds his house upon a rock, so that when rain and flood and wind come, the house does not fall; but the second is like a foolish man, who builds his house upon the sand, and then, when rain and flood and wind come, the house falls utterly to pieces.

     In the land of Palestine, where the Lord was, there are sometimes great and sudden rainstorms, and the waters rush down the hillsides as destroying floods; and often with these storms there are terrible winds. When such a thing happens, the house of the wise man would be safe, but not the house of the foolish man.

     By the wise man building his house on a rock, the Lord did not mean that he built it on a bare rock; for in another Gospel, in Luke, where these words of the Lord are also given, it is said that the man "digged deep, and laid the foundation upon a rock" (6:48); that is, he digged down deep through the soil until he reached a rock which could be the foundation of the house.

     The Lord's "sayings," which a wise man hears and does, but which a foolish man hears and does not, are especially the things He says in the Sermon on the Mount.

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But as the whole Word was spoken by the Lord, therefore all things in it are the Lord's "sayings." Among the things of the Word that you know very well to be His "sayings " are the Ten Commandments; for He Himself spoke these from the top of Mount Sinai. So these we must both hear and do. It is by doing what He tells us that we come to love His sayings, and thus to love His Word. And to love the Lord's Word is also to love the Lord. But if we only hear, and do not, we love neither the Word nor the Lord. So we can see why the one person is wise and the other foolish.

     The wise man and the foolish man each built a house. The kind of house the Lord meant is the kind that every person is building all the time. This house is the mind, and everyone builds it by what he loves and thinks and does.

     By the rock upon which the wise man builds his house is meant the Lord, who is often called a Rock in the Word, as where it is said, "O Lord, my Rock and my Redeemer" (Psalm 19:14); "Unto Thee do I cry, O Lord, my Rock" (Psalm 28:1); "There is no Rock like our God " (II Samuel 2:2). As the Rock means the Lord, it also means His Word. On this the house, or mind, of the person is built, if he both hears and does what the Lord teaches. On the Word as a firm, strong and secure foundation the house can safely rest.

     But how different it is if the house is built upon the sand! Now sand is of the same stuff as a rock, but its parts do not hold firmly together. They are separate little particles which are easily shifted about and scattered. So it is with a person who hears but does not do what the Lord teaches in the Word. The things he hears, or learns, are like little particles that do not hold together and are easily scattered; and also, mixed in with this sand of the mind, are many notions that are different from what the Lord teaches. So, of course, no house can be safe if built upon that sand. The rainstorm and its hood, and the fierce wind, will come and destroy it.

     By the rain and the flood temptations are meant. Temptations are feelings and thoughts of wanting to do what is bad and wrong. The winds are the evil spirits putting these feelings and thoughts into the mind.

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When this happens, the house, or mind, of the man who both hears and does what the Lord teaches does not fall; for this house is on the rock of the Lord's Word, and the man will not do anything that is against this. But the house of the man who hears and does not will fall; for his house is on the sand, and he does the wicked things that the evil spirits put into his mind.

     When the man whose house, or mind, is founded on the rock comes into heaven, the beautiful house in which he will there live will be one that has its foundation on a rock,-not on a bare rock, but on one upon which there is soil, in which there grow lovely gardens, with lawns, and flower beds, and trees, and trees bearing delicious fruit. (A. E. 411; H. H. 188, 488; A. C. 10438, 10608; S. D. 4907.)

     But when the man whose house, or mind, is built upon the sand comes into hell, he will there live in a tumble-down house in a sandy desert. In such a desert there are also rocks round about, but they are bare rocks in jumbled heaps, and the homes of some of the devils are in caves among these rocks. (H. H. 488; A. R. 90; A. E. 771; A. C. 2850, 6762.)

     Everyone, surely, should want one of those lovely homes in heaven, and not one of those miserable places in hell. And this happiness all can have who are wise instead of foolish, and, being wise, both hear and do what the Lord teaches in His Word.

LESSON: Matthew 7:24 to 27.